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来源:健康新闻    发布时间:2019年09月15日 18:09:52    编辑:admin         

Jack Livings spent time in China as a student and an English teacher in the #39;90s. The American author recently published #39;The Dog,#39; his first collection of short stories, set in the contradictory landscape that is modern China.美国人利文斯(Jack Livings) 20世纪90年代曾在中国留学并担任英语教师,他最近出版了一本名为《那只》(The Dog)的书,这是他的第一本短篇故事集,其中的故事以错综复杂的现代中国为背景。The stories touch on everything from a factory owner forced to donate vast sums of money to charity in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake to a retired racing dog rescued from becoming dinner to a fictionalized account based on the true story of a group of glassworkers charged after Mao Zedong#39;s death with creating a crystal sarcophagus in just 10 months--a task that normally takes three years.利文斯的新书《那只》这本故事集内容丰富,既有2008年四川地震后被迫向慈善机构大量捐款的工厂主的故事,也讲述了一只退役的赛如何获救避免成为盘中餐的故事,还有根据真实故事创作的关于玻璃厂工人的小说,这些工人在毛泽东死后仅用10个月的时间就制造出了一口水晶棺,而这项任务通常需要耗费三年时间。The author, who works in the licensing division at Time Inc. in New York, talks about the challenges of writing about China from afar, precision of language and finding the human element in a story. Edited excerpts:利文斯目前在Time Inc.纽约办公室的专利许可部门工作。他谈到了写这本书时所面临的挑战,例如从遥远的地方描写中国,语言的精准度以及在故事中发掘人的元素。以下为采访节录:Where did you draw your inspiration for the characters in your stories?你从哪里获得灵感来写故事中的这些人物?#39;The Dog#39; [the story from which the book takes its name] is based on a story one of my English students told about this horrible experience she had where they were going to take a racing dog out to the country and barbecue it and she stepped in and said no. I didn#39;t start writing that till I had been back for at least five years, but that story just stuck with me.《那只》(也是这本书的书名)来自于我的一名英语学生给我讲的可怕经历。有些人想把一只退役的赛带到乡下做成烤肉,这名学生挺身而出制止了这件事。我回国至少五年之后才开始写这个故事,但这件事一直在我脑海中挥之不去。Several came from ideas based on news stories I . A couple came from a weird mix of my own sick brain and things I was ing at the time. Very few actually contained any characters based on people I met.还有一些角色的灵感来源于我读到的新闻报道。另外一些是我自己脑海里的想法和当时阅读的东西结合的产物。很少有故事是根据我在现实中遇见的人而创作的。Why did you want to write fiction about China?为什么会想写关于中国的小说?I#39;m a fiction writer. That#39;s how I look at the world. I admire what writers like Evan Osnos and Peter Hessler [who have written nonfiction books about China] do. But if I were going to write nonfiction about China, I would have had to be there for at least 10 years.我本来就是写小说的,这是我看待世界的方式。我很钦佩像欧逸文(Evan Osnos)和彼得#12539;海斯勒(Peter Hessler)这样的(撰写过有关中国的非小说类作品的)作家。但如果我自己也要写一部非小说类的作品,那我至少得在中国住上10年才写得出来。For a fiction writer, distance is a good thing, although it can lead to horrible mistakes if you#39;re not careful.对于小说家来说,距离是个好东西,但如果在创作中不小心,距离也会导致作品漏洞百出。How much research did you do to ensure you didn#39;t make mistakes? Particularly with the story about the crystal sarcophagus?为了不出错你做了多少研究?尤其是对水晶棺那篇故事?The more I worked on it, the more it became like a Hollywood film #39;based on a true story.#39; I started with some oral histories from three glassworkers who were involved in the project that were in places contradictory. They were all speaking in that super-red hero-of-the-revolution language and were very proud of the work they had done.Jennie Yabroff利文斯在写这个故事时,我越写越觉得它成了一部“根据真实事件改编”的好莱坞电影。一开始,我从当时参与制作水晶棺的工人那里了解了一些口头历史,但他们的讲述存在前后矛盾的地方。这些工人说话的语气都是“又红又专”,对自己所做的工作特别自豪。I about the embalming process Mao went through. I old patents and applications from the #39;30s. I worked on it for about a year and half, and about eight months in, when I thought I had it down, the Shanghai government released some top-secret information about Shanghai factories#39; work on the coffin, which no one had ever referenced before. When that turned up, I just tried to make it all work together while keeping the essential center of the story factual. All the research contradicted itself at every turn.我阅读了一些对毛泽东遗体做防腐处理的资料,还阅读了上世纪三十年代的专利及申请材料。研究进行了大约一年半的时间,大约到了第八个月的时候,我想可以开始动手写了,这时上海市政府公布了制作水晶棺的上海工厂的一些绝密信息,以前从来没有人提到过这些信息。在相关信息公布后,我要做的就是把这些材料组织起来,同时确保故事的中心内容符合真实情况。在每个阶段的研究工作都会出现前后矛盾的问题。Did writing a fictional account of a real event like this give you a sort of creative license?像这样通过小说的方式来描述一个真实的事件,你能否获得创作自由?I was concerned with the first few stories I wrote that I would get facts wrong and all the China hands would come after me. The story about the sarcophagus was researched very heavily--to a point. I couldn#39;t figure out how they built this coffin in 10 months. I was studying chemistry and physics, and I came within an inch of calling up the Corning glass company to ask them to get a curator or someone who probably could#39;ve told me in five minutes how they did it. But ultimately I didn#39;t. You can do too much research when you#39;re writing fiction. You need to retain the ability to go off in a wild direction.当我开始写前几个故事的时候我担心会弄错事实,害怕到时候会遭到全中国的指责。从某种角度来说,我对水晶棺的故事进行了大量的研究。我理解不了他们如何能在10个月之内完工。我研究了化学和物理,甚至差点给康宁(Corning)玻璃公司打电话,让他们找个人,用5分钟的时间告诉我他们是怎么做的。但最后我没有打。在写小说的时候你可能会做太多的研究。你需要留出自由想象的空间。Most of the stories are written from a Chinese perspective. Was that difficult?大部分的故事都是从中国人的角度写的,这是否有一定难度?The essential humanity of human beings translates pretty well. But I was sitting there writing with an idiom dictionary and two Chinese dictionaries. I would write a sentence and then spend two hours researching whether that character really would#39;ve said that. For example, I couldn#39;t have them say #39;ohmigod#39; because a Chinese person just wouldn#39;t say that.人类最根本的人性是互通的。但我写作的时候旁边一定会摆着一部成语字典和两部中文字典。有时候写出一个句子后我会花上两个小时来研究那个人物会不会真的说出那样的话。例如,我不能让故事中的人物说“哦我的上帝啊”,因为中国人不会这么说。Were you worried about making mistakes?你是否担心犯错误?I could always completely get it wrong. I gave a ing in D.C. last week and had a person in the front row, a mainland Chinese person, who gave me 10 minutes of criticism. But the risk is part of what kept it interesting.很多时候我可能会完全弄错。上周我在华盛顿举行了一次阅读会,有一位来自中国大陆的人坐在前排,之后这个人批评了我10分钟。但风险也是让这件事情有意思的一个方面。Some of your stories deal with sensitive issues, like Uighur-Han relations. Why did you choose to focus on such subjects?你写的一些故事里带有敏感性话题,比如维吾尔族和汉族的关系。你为什么要着重描写此类主题?I wrote that story at least six years ago and it#39;s the only story I wrote out of a kind of politically motivated anger. The difference between writing a position paper, or an editorial or piece of fiction is that I hope this story makes to some degree clear that institutionalized violence destroys everything, not just the people who are victims. It also destroys the people who are committing the acts of violence. The denigration goes all the way around. As opposed to saying, look at what the [police are] doing, aren#39;t they horrible, I hope there was at least a subtle nod that this situation is bad for everyone.我写那个故事的时候至少是六年前了,这是我唯一一篇取材于因政治引发的愤怒的作品。无论是写一份意见书、一篇社论还是小说,区别就在于我希望这个故事能在一定程度上表明,制度化的暴力将引发全方位大面积的破坏,摧毁的不仅仅是受害者。它还摧毁了那些干出暴力事件的人。各方互相诋毁。我不想说,看那些警察都做了些什么,他们就不残暴吗,我更希望人们能够稍微认同我的观点,那就是这种情况对谁都不是好事。Will your book be translated into Chinese?你的书会翻译成中文吗?I would love to see it translated, but I#39;m not sure. I hope there#39;s something that would be moving to a Chinese er but am curious whether it#39;s a little too simple on the surface. It wouldn#39;t be surprising for someone living in Beijing to about forced donations, but I hope the human element would translate.如果能翻译成中文当然最好,但我不确定。我希望书中的一些内容能够被中国读者所接收,但我也很好奇对于这些读者来说,这本书表面看来是不是太肤浅。那些居住在北京的读者读到强制捐款事件时一定觉得这没什么好奇怪的,但我希望文字之下的人性因素能得到共鸣。What#39;s up next?你的下一部作品是什么?I#39;m currently working on a novel set in New York in the late #39;70s. I thought it would be nice to not have to fact check everything since I#39;m writing about the U.S., but it turns out that#39;s just the way I write. I use research as a way to build the world.我在写一部小说,发生在70年代末的纽约。我曾经认为,因为是在写美国,就不用去核查所有的事实了,那该多好啊,但事实明,这就是我写作的方式。我把研究调查作为构建世界的一种方式。 /201408/322668。

Ice bucket challenge s raising money for the ALS Association charity have saturated Facebook news feeds in the last month. It’s easy to participate in the very viral campaign: film yourself pouring a bucket of ice water over your head, then challenge a friend or frenemy to do the same within 24 hours. At first, the dousing would substitute for sending a check to the ALSA, but many participants now do both. This week former President George W. Bush, actor Ben Affleck, Vogue editor Anna Wintour, and General Electric chief executive Jeff Immelt became the most recent famous faces to get soaked.从上个月开始,Facebook的新闻推送放目望去几乎全是各类为美国肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症(ALS——国内又称“渐冻人”)协会募捐的“冰桶挑战”(Ice bucket challenge)视频。要参与这项疯狂传播的病毒视频活动非常简单:你只需往头上浇一桶冰水,录下视频,然后挑战一位朋友或“敌友”在24小时内做同样的事情。起初,参与者可选择向ALS协会寄一张票,来代替往头上浇冰水,但现在许多参与者会选择合二为一。本周接受了“湿身”挑战的名人包括美国前总统小布什、演员本#8226;阿弗莱克、《Vogue》杂志主编安娜#8226;温图尔,以及通用电气(General Electric)首席执行官杰夫#8226;伊梅尔特。At some point the ice bucket campaign will dry up, and photos of your friends’ kids and cats will again dominate your news feed. But the challenges for the ALS Association will just be beginning.“冰桶挑战”终会有结束的一天,晒孩子和猫咪的照片将在新闻推送中卷土重来。但对ALS协会来说,种种挑战才刚刚开始。Since July 29, the ice bucket challenge has raised .8 million for ALSA, which helps fight amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s Disease. That eight-figure sum far surpasses the .1 million ALSA raised in the same period last year, and more than doubles the total revenue the organization generated all of last fiscal year ending January 2014— million, according to its most recent 990 tax form. ALSA told Fortune it recorded donations worth .1 million on Wednesday alone.自7月29日以来,“冰桶挑战”已经为ALS协会募集了4,180万美元(约合2.57亿元人民币),这笔捐款将被用于治疗肌肉萎缩性侧索硬化症,该疾病会影响脑部和脊柱的神经细胞,又被称为卢#8226;格里克病。高达八位数的捐款远远超过了ALS协会去年同期募集的210万美元,甚至比该组织在上一财年(至2014年1月结束)的总收入还多。据ALS协会最近提交的税务报表显示,其上一财年的收入为2,400万美元。这家协会告诉《财富》杂志(Fortune),仅上周三一天ALS便收到了1,010万美元的捐款,创下了其单日最高记录。So the question now is this: what is ALSA going to do with all that money?一个问题随之而来:ALS协会要怎么处理这些钱?Though the term implies otherwise, as a non-profit, ALSA is under no legal obligation to spend its ice bucket windfall, says Thad Calabrese, a professor of public and non-profit management at New York University. While that may be true, industry standards and the donating public expect otherwise; they want the organization to dole out the funds.纽约大学(New York University)公共机构与非盈利机构管理教授萨德#8226;卡拉布里亚表示,虽然“非盈利”这个词包含有其他意思,但ALS协会在冰桶挑战善款出上无需承担任何法律义务。尽管如此,行业准则和捐款的公众都期待ALS协会能善用这笔钱:分次少量发放。With an eye toward transparency and donor education, watchdog groups like Charity Navigator, the Better Business Bureau’s Wise Giving Alliance, and Charity Watch have long laid out guidelines for how non-profits should spend their donations and rate or accredit charities based on how well they keep to those rules.出于对透明度和捐赠教育的考虑,慈善导航(Charity Navigator)、商业促进局(Better Business Bureau)下署的明智捐赠联盟(Wise Giving Alliance)和慈善观察(Charity Watch)等监督组织早已出台了关于非盈利组织如何使用捐款的指导方针,并且会根据慈善机构遵守规定的情况对其进行评级或认。The breakdown of what percentage of donations a charity spends on administration, fundraising and “programming,” such as research and education, is a main component in how non-profits stack up. (Just how much weight should be placed on this spending measurement and the ratings in general is a flashpoint in the non-profit world, says Suzanne Perry, a senior editor at the Chronicle of Philanthropy. “It’s a love-hate relationship. If [charities] get rated highly, they broadcast it everywhere. If they get a lower grade, the methodology is ‘flawed,’” she says.) In calculating their different scoring systems, the watchdog organizations agree that the majority of a non-profits’ revenue should be spent on programming: Charity Navigator pegs that percentage at 75; Better Business Bureau at 65%; and Charity Watch at 60%.将慈善机构花在行政管理、资金募集和“项目”(如研究和教育等)的捐款按百分比进行分解,是对非盈利机构进行评级的主要形式。[《慈善纪事报》(Chronicle of Philanthropy)高级编辑苏珊娜#8226;佩里表示,对于开计量与评级的重视程度,在非盈利机构间一直存在争议。“慈善机构对此褒贬不一。如果得到较高评级,他们会四处宣扬。但如果得到的评级较低,他们就会宣称评级方法‘存在缺陷’。”] 监督组织均认为,非盈利机构应该将大多数收入用于“项目”,在评分方法的不同计算上,:慈善导航认为这一百分比为75%;商业促进局认为是65%;慈善观察认为在60%。ALSA has measured up fairly well in trying to meet those expectations. According to Charity Navigator’s latest report, for instance, ALSA earned the highest four-star rating, in part, for spending 72% of its fiscal year 2013 revenue on programs and services; 11% went to administration costs while fundraising expenses ate up 16%.以这些标准来看,ALS协会得分很高。例如,慈善导航最近的报告称,ALS协会得到了最高的四星评级,部分原因是其将2013财年收入的72%用于项目和务;11%作为行政管理成本,资金募集开占16%。While the ice bucket challenge has prompted an onslaught of donations, it’s chilled any prospect of ALSA duplicating those rosy watchdog figures in its current fiscal year. Charity Navigator’s annual spending metrics measure how charities distribute money they’ve generated that same year. “The reality is that fundraising for most charities is up and down, so we’re moving toward a multi-year review,” Charity Navigator CEO Ken Berger told Fortune. “Right now, though, it’s an annual snapshot.”“冰桶挑战”促使捐款金额猛增,却让ALS协会很难复制其在当前财年取得的乐观的监管数据。慈善导航的年度开指标会对慈善机构一年的资金进行评估。慈善导航CEO肯#8226;伯格告诉《财富》杂志:“事实上,大多数慈善机构募集的捐款金额都会有波动,因此我们计划采用多年期评估。但目前依旧用的是年度评估的方法。”That means—as Charity Navigator’s requirements stand now—in order to replicate its most recent 72% programming expenditure, ALSA would need to spend just over million of its .8 million in ice bucket money on research and education by the end of its fiscal year in January.这意味着,按照慈善导航目前的要求,为了达到最近一年实现的72%的项目开标准,ALS协会需要在截至明年一月的财年结束之前,从4,180万美元的“冰桶挑战”善款中拿出3,000万美元用于研究和教育。That’s a challenge ALSA doesn’t plan on meeting.这是个令ALS协会措手不及的挑战。“When you’re doubling a budget, it can’t be spent all in same year,” says Lance Slaughter, chief chapter relations and development officer at ALSA. “If a [hypothetical] million organization gets a million bequest one year, there’s no way the members of its board can thoughtfully spend three times as much [in one year#39;s time],” he says. “We’re going to work with these watchdog groups. They understand that anomalies take place.” Without the constraints of the year-end deadline, Slaughter says, the ALSA board will be able to thoughtfully plan how to use the money to further fund the organization’s current priorities: researching the disease and possible cures, providing compassionate care for ALS patients, and advocating for public policies that benefit people living with the disease.协会首席分会关系与发展官兰斯#8226;斯劳特表示:“如果你的预算增加了一倍,你不可能在一年内全部花完。如果一家年收入300万美元的组织某一年得到1,000万美元的善款,这家组织不可能在这一年花完三倍的钱。我们将与慈善监督机构合作。他们能够理解这种特殊情况。”斯劳特表示,如果没有年底最终期限的限制,ALS协会的董事会可以仔细规划如何利用这笔捐款,为协会目前的重要工作提供资金:疾病与可能的治疗方法研究,为ALS患者提供周到的护理,以及倡导有利于ALS患者的公共政策。In early August, before fully realizing just how much money the ice bucket campaign would generate, ALSA awarded 21 new grants worth .5 million to scientists in the ed States, the ed Kingdom, France, Canada, Switzerland, Israel and Australia. The grants are all focused on “developing effective therapies for ALS,” Lucie Bruijn, ALSA’s chief scientist, said in a statement.在八月初的时候,ALS协会尚未意识到“冰桶挑战”能带来多少捐款。当时,它拨给美国、英国、法国、加拿大、瑞士、以色列和澳大利亚的科学家们21笔资金,总计350万美元。ALS协会首席科学家露西#8226;布鲁英在一份声明中表示,拨款全部用于“探索ALS的有效疗法。”The influx of donations that ALSA has received since making that announcement “gives us confidence that we’ll have funding for these grants in their second and third years,” Slaughter says. The same holds true for the 11 new ALS clinics the organization had planned to open this year prior to the ice bucket campaign going viral. The organization aly operates 34 clinics that provide multidisciplinary therapies to ALS patients; opening the new ones “was a leap of faith,” Slaughter says. The wave of donations recently is “an opportunity to provide greater funding [to the clinics],” he says.斯劳特说,在发表声明之后ALS协会收到的大笔捐款,“让我们确信,我们在第二年和第三年仍然有足够资金来资助研究。”这种情况也适用于该协会计划新开的ALS诊所。协会在“冰桶挑战”疯狂传播之前曾计划在今年新开11家ALS诊所。目前,ALS协会已经开设了34家诊所,专为ALS患者提供多学科治疗;斯劳特表示,开设新诊所“是一次信心的飞跃”。他说道,最近的大笔捐款“让我们有机会[为诊所]提供更多资金。”There’s one element of the ice bucket campaign that will make the challenge of deciding how to spend the money a bit easier: the .8 million that ALSA has raised has come from individual donations that are unrestricted. That means that unlike some more traditional donations that are sometimes designated to a specific aspect of a charity’s mission, this money has arrived at ALSA with no strings attached.“冰桶挑战”活动中的特定因素让如何使用善款的问题变得更简单:迄今募集的4,180万美元捐款均来自不受限制的个人捐赠。这意味着,该笔资金没有任何附加条件,这与传统的捐款有所不同。传统捐款有时会被指定用于慈善机构的特定使命。“From a non-profit’s perspective, all donations are great but some are better than others,” Calabrese says. And it’s good that ALSA has that flexibility because it has lots of options to consider.卡拉布里亚表示:“从非盈利机构的角度来说,所有捐款都是好的,但某些更好。”拥有灵活性对ALS协会来说是好消息,它可以考虑许多选择。Aside from spending the money on promising, worthwhile research, both Calabrese from NYU and Patrick Rooney, associate dean for academic affairs and research at the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, floated the idea of ALSA starting an endowment-like fund with the ice bucket money since it would turn what’s likely to be a one-time donation phenomenon into a reliable source of future revenue, and it could be tapped if some major medical advancement needs significant funding in the future.除了将捐款用于一些有价值的前途无量的研究以外,纽约大学教授卡拉布里亚,和印第安纳大学(Indiana University)礼来家族慈善学院(Lilly Family School of Philanthropy)学术事务与研究副院长帕特里克#8226;鲁尼均提出,ALS协会可以用“冰桶挑战”募集的捐款成立一类似于捐赠基金,这样一来,协会不仅可以将一次性的捐款现象转变为可靠的未来收入来源,而且一旦未来有重大的医疗技术进步需要大量资金时,还可以动用该笔基金。ALSA’s Slaughter says the organization has never had an endowment, and while “nothing’s off the table,” saving the ice bucket money for a rainy day doesn’t necessarily fit with the organization’s mission, mainly because “this is a disease that requires urgency,” Slaughter says. When the average life span of an ALS patient is between two and five years and ALSA has seen no improvement in mortality rates, there’s no time to waste.ALS协会的斯劳特表示,协会之前没有任何捐赠基金,然而,虽然“我们不排除任何可能”,但将“冰桶挑战”的捐款存起来以备不时之需并不符合组织的使命,主要是因为“这种疾病刻不容缓”。ALS患者的平均预期寿命为两至五年,而且ALS协会并未看到患者死亡率有任何改善,因此现在没有时间可供浪费。There’s an added challenge to spending the ice bucket money that stems from the fact that the ALS Association did not start the campaign, and as a result, never stated a specific mission behind it. That makes it difficult to pinpoint what individuals want to come from their donations. And disappointing donors isn’t a chance you want to take.如何使用“冰桶挑战”的捐款还有另外一个挑战,因为这项活动并非由ALS协会发起,结果,活动也没有明确的使命。因此,协会很难确定个人捐赠者希望自己的捐款用于怎样的目的。而让捐赠者失望是要不得的。Just ask the Red Cross.不妨汲取一下红十字会(Red Cross)的教训。In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the relief organizations raised a record 4 million. Donors believed that their money would go to help victims of the attacks and their families, but the organization decided to set aside more than half of the funds for operations and future reserves. The Red Cross had a long-standing practice of taking such an approach, but it nonetheless sparked outrage among donors and prompted an apology from the Red Cross as well as the redirection of funds.911恐怖袭击之后,该救济组织募得的资金达到创纪录的5.64亿美元。捐款者认为,这笔资金应该用于帮助袭击受害者及其家人,但红十字会却决定将超过一半的捐款用于机构运营和作为未来资金储备。长期以来,红十字会一直都采取这种做法,但这一次却引发了捐款者的众怒,最终红十字会被迫道歉并重新确定了捐款用途。“When donors tell us that their money should be used for a specific purpose, it’s important for us to honor that intent,” Laura Howe, vice president of public relations for the Red Cross told Fortune. “It’s a lesson that we’ve learned over the years.”红十字会公共关系副总裁劳拉#8226;霍伊对《财富》表示:“当捐款者告诉我们,他们的捐款应该用于特定目的时,我们必须尊重他们的意愿,这非常重要。这也是我们得到的一条重要教训。”Slaughter says that in addition to generating donations, the ice bucket campaign has raised awareness of ALS, a disease that less than half of the country could identify when the association conducted a survey a few years ago. “They’ve learned that it’s degenerative and deadly. I don’t know that people are concerned about how we spend the money; they’re determined now that this is an unacceptable disease. If they took time to go to the website and donate…they feel that ours is a cause worth investing in,” Slaughter says.斯劳特表示,除了带来捐款以外,冰桶挑战也提高了人们对ALS的认识,几年前ALS协会进行的一项调查中,美国知道这种疾病的人还不到半数。斯劳特说:“他们开始了解到这种疾病是一种退化性疾病,并且会致命。我不知道人们是否会关心ALS如何使用这笔捐款;现在他们已明确认识到这是一种难以忍受的疾病。如果他们花时间浏览了网站并捐款——那是因为他们认为这项事业值得投资。”ALSA certainly has a lot of spending decisions to make, but for the organization and the people it’s trying to save, there could not be a better challenge to face.ALS协会必需做出大量的出决策,但对于该组织和它努力拯救的那些人来说,这种挑战真是幸事。“The question that’s showing up out in the universe now is, ‘How much is too much?#39;” Slaughter says. “Until we have effective long-term treatment, we’ll never have enough.”斯劳特表示:“现在的问题是:‘到底多少钱才算太多?’除非我们找到有效的长期治疗方法, 否则我们的捐款永远处于不足状态。” /201409/325562。

This moment may sound familiar: It#39;s 4 p.m. on Wednesday, and you realize the dinner you had been planning to make isn#39;t going to work out.这样的时刻听起来或许很耳熟吧:周三下午的四点,你意识到你之前一直计划烹制的晚餐无法实现了。It#39;s one of the most stressful points of weekday life, according to consumer research. Now in response, packaged-food companies and grocery stores are developing meals that aim to strike a delicate balance. They are quick and simple to prepare, but still feel like cooking a homemade meal.针对消费者的研究表明,这是人们平日生活中压力最大的时刻。作为应对举措,现在加工食品公司与食品杂货店开始研制旨在达成微妙平衡的餐食。它们准备起来快速又简单,但又依然给你一种亲自下厨的感觉。The target market is a lucrative one. Companies say these are homes where women-and increasingly men-like to cook when time allows, and they generally spend more on groceries. They often feel guilty relying on frozen foods or boxed meals, but a busy day can back them into a prepared-food corner.它的目标市场颇有利可图。各食品企业称,它们的目标客户为女主人(以及越来越多的男主人)喜欢有在时间时亲自下厨的家庭,而他们在食品杂货上的花费一般都比较高。依靠冷冻食品或盒饭填饱肚子往往会让他们觉得内疚,但是一天忙下来,他们只好退而求其次地选择预制食品。To pull off this tricky task, companies are working to identify subtle cues that signal cooking, even in convenience foods. In many cases, scientists at major food companies have found ways to make quick meals that involve only one step. But to these consumers, that ease translates as culinary cheating.为了完成这项棘手的任务,食品企业努力寻找起有烹饪象征意义的微妙要素,连方便食品也成了它们的调研对象。有不少大型食品企业的科研人员找到了只需一个步骤的快捷烹饪方法。但是,对这些消费者而言,简单也就意味着烹饪过程中的投机取巧。Kraft Foods Group Inc. spent about 18 months developing its new Recipe Makers product. During tests, researchers showed moms versions with one or two sauces. The women liked the two-sauce option better because more steps felt closer to homemade, says Risa Schwartz, associate director of consumer insights and strategy for Kraft. Other research showed these women wanted to spend at least 15 to 30 minutes peeling, chopping or doing other meal preparation #39;to have it count,#39; Ms. Schwartz says.卡夫食品集团(Kraft Foods Group Inc.)花了约18个月的时间研制其新推出的Recipe Makers产品,研究人员在试验过程中向妈妈们展示了配备一或两种酱汁的产品。该公司负责消费者洞察及策略事务的副总监里莎?施瓦茨(Risa Schwartz)称,妈妈们更喜欢配备两种酱汁的选择,因为步骤更多感觉更像是自己亲自下厨。她还指出,其他研究表明,妈妈们希望至少花上15至30分钟时间做些削皮、切菜或其他烹饪准备工作“以让这顿饭显得有价值”。Recipe Makers, rolling out on grocery shelves now, comes in nine flavors such as Asian Fish Tacos and includes at least two sauces that are mixed with fresh ingredients like meat, pasta and vegetables. The Verde Chicken Enchilada version has one bottle of creamy ranchero #39;filling sauce#39; to mix with shredded chicken before wrapping it in tortillas. A packet of tomatillo #39;finishing sauce#39; is poured over the tortillas before topping with cheese and baking in the oven. Kraft created recipes for the oven, slow cooker and skillet. #39;The microwave doesn#39;t feel good to this consumer,#39; to cook a whole meal, says Ms. Schwartz.Recipe Makers产品现已在各商店上架,它有亚洲风味墨西哥玉米饼包炸鱼等九种口味,包括至少两种与肉、意大利面和蔬菜混拌在一起的酱汁。绿辣椒酱墨西哥鸡肉卷配搭一瓶浓稠的由西红柿和青椒制成的“拌馅酱”,先把它与切碎的鸡肉搅拌在一起,再把鸡肉卷进玉米粉圆饼。另外,一种袋装的粘果酸浆“装饰酱”则用于淋在圆饼上,再在其上点缀些奶酪便可把饼放入烤箱中烘烤。卡夫设计了用于烤箱、电炖锅和煎锅的食谱。施瓦茨说:“对此类消费者来说,使用微波炉(做一整顿饭)让他们感觉不好。”Bumble Bee Foods talked to more than 25,000 consumers before rolling out its Bumble Bee SuperFresh frozen seafood last month, including a parchment paper pouch for steam-cooking the fish in the oven. Consumers said they fear overcooking fish and don#39;t like the odor. #39;At first we wondered, does it need to come aly wrapped in parchment#39; to cut down on work, says Suzanne Stites, senior vice president and general manager of Bumble Bee Frozen. Instead the additional step-taking fish out of a vacuum-sealed bag and putting it in parchment-helped cooks #39;feel involved,#39; she says.食品公司Bumble Bee Foods在8月份推出了Bumble Bee SuperFresh冷冻海鲜产品,它配备一个用于在烤箱中蒸鱼的仿羊皮纸纸袋。在此之前,该公司对25,000多名消费者进行了调查。消费者称他们怕把鱼做老了,而且不喜欢鱼腥味。Bumble Bee Frozen的高级副总裁兼总经理苏珊娜?斯蒂茨(Suzanne Stites)说:“一开始我们在想,是否有必要把鱼包在仿羊皮纸中(以减少麻烦)”。她说,多出的步骤──将鱼从真空密封袋中取出,然后把它放在仿羊皮纸上──有助于让下厨者“有参与感”。For Holly MacMillan of Athens, Ga., the weekday dinner crush often kicks off with a ded phone call at work from her husband at around 4:45 p.m. #39;Have you had a moment of inspiration about dinner?#39; she says he asks.对乔治亚州阿森斯(Athens)的霍莉?麦克米伦(Holly MacMillan)来说,上班时间接到丈夫在下午四点四十四五分左右打来的令人心惊的电话时,工作日晚餐的烦恼往往也就开始了。她说丈夫总是在电话中问:“你对晚饭吃什么有想法了吗?”#39;It#39;s awful,#39; says Ms. MacMillan, 41, vice president of marketing for a money management firm and the mother of three children ages 7, 5 and 1. #39;I#39;m like, #39;I#39;m in the middle of a meeting, no,#39; #39; she says. Planning dinner is the most stressful part of the day, she adds.麦克米伦说:“那太糟糕了,我会说,‘我正在开会,还没想法。’”她今年41岁,是一家资金管理公司的营销副总裁,也是三个年龄分别为七岁、五岁和一岁的孩子的妈妈。她说安排晚饭是一天当中让人压力最大的事情。On weekends, Ms. MacMillan serves dishes such as scallops bed in panko and wrapped in bacon. On Sundays, she sometimes cooks ground beef for pasta sauce and tacos during the week. But by Wednesday, meal planning often #39;goes sideways,#39; she says. Out comes the microwavable Bob Evans Macaroni and Cheese and frozen peas, a meal that takes minutes to prepare and that her kids love.在周末,麦克米伦会用裹以面包粉的扇贝和培根做些培根扇贝卷这样的菜。有时候,她还会在周日做些牛肉末用于配搭平日的意大利面酱和墨西哥卷饼。她说,尽管如此,到了周三晚饭的安排常常会“出偏差”。最后想出的就是可用微波炉烹制的Bob Evans通心粉、奶酪和冷冻豌豆,这顿饭只要花几分钟时间准备,而且孩子们都很喜欢吃。#39;My mom was a stay-at-home mom and cooked everything from scratch, so in my mind I should be doing it,#39; Ms. MacMillan says.麦克米伦说:“我的母亲是一位全职妈妈,她样样亲力亲为烹制每一道菜,所以我就认为我也应当这么做。”Midweek is the cooking-from-scratch low point for most households. Last year ConAgra Foods Inc. bought Bertolli and P.F Chang#39;s brand frozen skillet meals from Unilever PLC. #39;The most popular day of the week to use these brands is Wednesday#39; because you pour the complete meal into a pan and heat, says Jen Wulf, consumer insights manager for the brands at ConAgra. Still, because consumers warm them in a skillet, #39;they feel a little bit more engaged#39; than heating a frozen meal in the microwave, she says.对大多数家庭而言,周三是样样亲力亲为下厨的最糟时刻。食品公司ConAgra Foods去年从联合利华(Unilever PLC)手中收购了Bertolli and P.F Chang的冷冻便餐品牌。ConAgra公司负责这些品牌消费者洞察事务的经理珍?伍尔夫(Jen Wulf)称:“一周当中吃这些食品最多的日子是周三”,因为你可以把一整顿饭倒进平底锅中加热即可。尽管如此,由于消费者使用煎锅加热这些食品,所以与用微波炉加热冷冻食品相比,“它们会让你多一些参与感”。Weeknight dinner is #39;a bit like Groundhog Day. You solve for it and then you think about it again the next day. That amplifies the stress,#39; says Darren Serrao, vice president and general manager of innovation and business development for Campbell Soup Co.Campbell Soup公司的副总裁兼创新与商务拓展事务总经理达伦?塞劳(Darren Serrao)说,平日里每晚的晚饭“有些像‘土拨鼠日’。你解决了问题,第二天你又要接着考虑它,这加剧了压力”。Recently Campbell introduced Slow Cooker Sauces and Skillet Sauces. The products, such as Toasted Sesame with Garlic and Ginger, flavor meat as it cooks in a pan or slow cooker. The sauces aim to please home cooks who avoid 100% prepared meals and want to feel involved in the cooking process, Mr. Serrao says.Campbell于不久前推出了电炖锅酱汁与煎锅酱汁。这些产品,比如加入蒜和姜的烤芝麻,可用于给在煎锅或电炖锅中烹制的肉类调味。塞劳称,推出此类酱汁旨在取悦那些不想完全亲手准备食品,但又希望感觉参与了烹饪过程的家庭下厨者。Campbell#39;s dubs about 25% of consumers #39;constrained wishful eaters,#39; says Charles Vila, vice president of customer and consumer insights for Campbell. #39;These are the folks that have incredible time pressures, but they are trying to get a good, tasty, convenient meal on the table,#39; he says. For many, cooking can mean as little as turning on the oven or pouring a can of soup over rice, he says.Campbell负责客户与消费者洞察事务的副总裁查尔斯?维拉(Charles Vila)称,该公司把大约25%的消费者戏称为“被迫一厢情愿的食客。他们都是些时间极为紧张的人,但又想在餐桌上吃一顿营养、美味又方便的饭”。他说,对他们许多人而言,下厨就只不过是打开烤箱或浇一罐汤汁在米饭上。Papa Murphy#39;s is a 1,360-location pizza chain where customers add ingredients to an uncooked pizza on site and then cook it in their own oven. It shuns pizza boxes, instead wrapping the pizzas in cellophane in a subtle bid to make it more like a meal. #39;If you pull something from the refrigerator it wouldn#39;t be in a box,#39; says Ken Calwell, chief executive of Papa Murphy#39;s International. When consumers #39;actually turn on and preheat the oven, there is something that reminds them of their grandma or mom,#39; he says.Papa Murphy#39;s是一家拥有1,360家分店的匹萨连锁企业,顾客可在未烘烤的匹萨上现加食材,然后把它放在他们自己的烤箱中烤制。该公司没有使用匹萨盒,而是采用玻璃纸包装匹萨,这一巧妙的小举动是为了使它更像一顿像模像样的饭。Papa Murphy#39;s International的首席执行长肯?卡尔维尔(Ken Calwell)说:“当你从冰箱中拿出食品,它不会是装在盒子中的。”他说,当消费者“打开烤箱预热时,有些东西会让他们想起他们的祖母或母亲”。Katherine Wintsch, founder of The Mom Complex, a consulting firm that studies moms, has found mothers like meals that are about 75% aly prepared. The firm asks moms to download a cellphone app, then input #39;high passion or pain points#39; throughout the day. Dinner planning is #39;the highest intensity pain point#39; during the week, says Ms. Wintsch. #39;Usually around 4 p.m.#39;研究妈妈们的咨询公司The Mom Complex的创始人凯瑟琳?温彻(Katherine Wintsch)发现,妈妈们喜欢准备工作已经完成了大约75%的食品。该公司让妈妈们下载了一个手机程序,输入在一天当中“高度热情或极其痛苦的时段”。温彻说,安排晚饭是一周当中“最为痛苦的时段,通常为下午四点左右”。Because weekend cooking behavior is so unlike weekdays, General Mills Inc., makers of brands from Hamburger Helper to Green Giant, doesn#39;t tend to study it, says Judy Bowman, global consumer insights director for General Mills. #39;We focus on Monday through Thursday dinners.#39;食品公司通用磨坊(General Mills Inc.)负责全球消费者洞察事务的总监朱迪?鲍曼(Judy Bowman)称,由于周末的烹饪行为与平日大为不同,该公司一般不会去研究它。她说:“我们主要关注周一至周四的晚餐。”通用磨坊是Hamburger Helper与绿巨人(Green Giant)等品牌的生产商。For most consumers, a convenient weekday meal means cooking with about three ingredients for around 20 minutes, Ms. Bowman says. Later this summer General Mills plans to introduce Old El Paso Mexican Cooking Sauce in three flavors intended to be combined with fresh ingredients to please #39;semi-experienced#39; cooks who need an easy weeknight dinner, she says. #39;The sauce is the tough part for people. They don#39;t know what to put in, they don#39;t know what to make and it#39;s really hard to get the flavoring just right.#39;鲍曼指出,对大多数消费者来说,平日里的一顿方便餐意味着三种左右的食材和大约20分钟的烹饪时间。她说,通用磨坊今年推出三种风味的老埃尔帕索墨西哥风味烹饪酱汁,并把它们和新鲜食材搭在一起,以取悦需要简便平日晚餐的“半生不熟的”烹饪者。她说:“调制酱汁对大家来说很有难度,他们不知道要放入什么,不知道要做什么,而且要调配出恰到好处的味道非常难。”Still, some #39;people want to put their own touch on things,#39; and control flavor, especially experienced cooks, says Jason Lepes, kitchen category merchant for FreshDirect, a New York City-based grocery-delivery business. He says their meal kits, including chopped meat, vegetables, and a cooking sauce, are #39;for someone who is OK with us taking the creativity out of it,#39; like a busy parent.贾森?莱佩什(Jason Lepes)在纽约市食品杂货配送商FreshDirect负责餐厨类产品批发业务。他说:“(有些)人想在事物上留下他们自己的烙印。”他说,他们的配餐包包括切好的肉、蔬菜和烹饪酱汁,“适合对我们去除创造过程的做法没意见的人”,比如说忙碌的家长。 /201311/264434。

Chaonei No. 81, arguably Beijing’s most celebrated “haunted house,” has seen a steady stream of visitors over the years. Until recently, they were a niche assortment — mostly thrill-seekers, urban explorers and history buffs — looking to experience firsthand the lurid tales of the once-grand French Baroque-style mansion, which has long sat dilapidated and abandoned. Foremost among the many legends associated with Chaonei No. 81 is that the mansion is haunted by the ghost of the mistress of a Kuomintang official who hanged herself there after her lover abandoned her following the Communist victory in 1949.朝内81号堪称北京最有名的“鬼屋”,多年来访客不断。不过直到不久前,来参观的还是一个小众类型——主要是追求刺激者、都市探险者和历史爱好者——他们想在这座一度辉煌却早已年久失修的法国巴洛克式大宅中亲身体验那些可怕的故事。在朝内81号的诸多传奇中最有名的故事是:1949年共产党赢得战争之后,一个国民党军官去了台湾,他的姨太太被遗弃在这里,于是上吊自尽,她的鬼魂仍在宅子里徘徊。But the release in Chinese film theaters last week of a big-budget 3-D thriller inspired by Chaonei No. 81 has prompted an unprecedented deluge of visitors. Since its premiere on Thursday, the film, called “Jingcheng No. 81” or, in English, “The House That Never Dies,” has aly earned about 160 million renminbi, or around .7 million, putting it third on the domestic box-office charts, behind “Tiny Times 3” and “Transformers: Age of Extinction,” according to the Chinese movie website Mtime.com.上个星期,根据它的故事拍成的一部大制作3D恐怖片在中国院线上映了,这为朝内81号带来了数量空前的游客。这部影片名叫《京城81号》,英文名字翻译过来是《永远不死的房子》(The House That Never Dies)。根据中国电影网站Mtime.com统计,该片自上周四首映以来,已经获得了大约1.6亿人民币的票房收入,约合2570万美元,在国内票房排行榜上排名第三,仅次于《小时代3》和《变形金刚:绝迹重生》(Transformers: Age of Extinction)。“I never thought my job would be like this,” said Xu Wen, the groundskeeper of Chaonei No. 81. Mr. Xu, who has worked at the property since 2011, estimated that the number of visitors since last week had been upward of 500 per day, far more than in the past.“我从来没想到自己的工作会变成这样,”朝内81号的管理员徐文(音译)说。徐文从2011年开始在这里工作,他估计自从上星期以来,游客已经达到每天500多人,比过去多多了。The gate to the compound where the mansion and an outbuilding, also said to be haunted, are situated had previously been left open for much of the day. But to deal with the sudden surge in interest following the film’s premiere, the owners, the Beijing Catholic Diocese, have decided to keep it closed to help control the flow of visitors.院中有一栋大宅和一个外屋,据说外屋也闹鬼,院子大门本来一天大部分时间都开着,但是为了对付电影上映后突如其来的游客潮,这里的主人——天主教北京教区决定关闭大门,以控制客流量。“The buildings are too old,” Mr. Xu said. “If there are too many people inside at once, it’s more likely that someone will get hurt.”“这栋建筑太老了,”徐先生说,“如果一下让太多人进来,很可能会伤到人。”On Tuesday morning, about 50 people, mostly young, wandered around the property, exploring and taking photos. Among them was Gong Xiangyu, a 20-year-old student who, after seeing the film that morning, decided to walk the 20 minutes or so from the theater to see the real Chaonei No. 81, which is located on a bustling thoroughfare in the heart of Beijing.星期二上午,大约有50人围着这栋建筑徘徊,其中大部分是年轻人,他们仔细查看,拍着照片。其中包括20岁的学生龚翔宇(音译)当天上午刚看完电影,就决定从影院步行20分钟过来看看真正的朝内81号——它坐落在北京市中心的喧嚣闹市之中。“I think what’s cool about this film is that the house is actually in Beijing, unlike the haunted houses we see in American movies,” said Mr. Gong, currently on summer vacation from Beijing People’s Police College. “The house itself isn’t really scary like the one in the movie — there are too many people here — but I guess I am scared of falling through the floorboards.”“我觉得这个电影很酷的一点就是这栋房子真的在北京,不像我们在美国电影里看的那种鬼屋,”龚是北京人民警察学院的学生,现在在放暑假,“这栋房子其实不像电影里那么可怕——这儿人太多了——但我好像有点害怕走在地板上陷下去。”Some historians and officials from the Beijing diocese disagree about the history of the mansion. Church officials have said that the house was built in 1910 as a Chinese-language school for foreign missionaries and later also took in diplomats, businessmen and scholars. Historians, however, say that the buildings at Chaonei No. 81 were constructed as a private residence for the French manager of a railroad company. After the Communists took control in 1949, it is generally agreed that the buildings swung between various states of use and disuse.有些历史学家和北京教区的负责人对这栋建筑的历史有不同意见。教会负责人说,这栋房子于1910年建立,是为外国传教士开的中文学校,后来外交人员、商人和学者们也加入进来。历史学家们却说,朝内81号是一个法国铁路公司经理建造的私宅。各方一致认为,1949年共产党获得政权后,这栋房子有过各种用途,也一度荒废。“This history is very difficult to get straight,” said Mr. Xu, who has taken an active interest in unearthing the mansion’s history.“它的历史已经很难弄清,”对发掘这栋房子的历史很感兴趣的徐先生说。Part of the allure to visitors no doubt also stems from the house itself, which in its decaying state is seemingly an ideal setting for paranormal activity (or, at the very least, rumors about it).毫无疑问,对于参观者们来说,部分吸引力也来自这栋房子本身,它衰败的状态似乎为各种异常行为提供了极好的背景(至少也可以用来传传奇怪事件的谣言)。Inside the barren house, piles of brushwood, litter and building materials lie strewn about. Graffiti, much of it apparently recent, is scrawled across the walls. In the dark basement of the gray-brick outbuilding in back, a tunnel where several construction workers are said to have vanished has been blocked off.在这栋荒凉的房子内部,枯树枝、垃圾和建筑材料堆得到处都是。墙上布满涂鸦,很多都显然是最近才画上去的。主楼后面的外房由灰色的砖石砌成,有个黑洞洞的地下室,里面有个被封闭的地下通道,据说有几个建筑工人在里面消失了。Plans to renovate the buildings, which are on a historic preservation list, are awaiting approval, church officials said last month.这栋建筑名列文物保护名单,上个月,教会负责人说翻修计划正在等待审批通过。Hua Shanghuang, 15, said the buildings made an “ideal backdrop” for a haunted-themed cosplay, or costume play, a performance activity that originated in Japan. On Tuesday morning, Ms. Hua, who wore a long black wig, black dress, black tights and black heels, and a friend — “the ghost” — who was clad in a red tartan skirt and a white blouse speckled with fake blood, roamed the property, striking menacing poses for a photographer.15岁的华尚煌(音译)说,这栋建筑可以作为闹鬼主题的cosplay(起源于日本的一种化妆角色扮演活动)的“理想背景”。星期二上午,华戴着长长的黑色假发,穿着黑色连衣裙、黑色长筒袜和黑色高跟鞋,她的朋友“鬼魂”穿着红色格子衬衫和染着假血的白色外套,两人在这栋建筑内徘徊,摆出恐吓的姿势,让一个摄影师为她们拍照。However, Ms. Hua seemed somewhat skeptical about the presence of actual ghosts at Chaonei No. 81.不过,华似乎不相信朝内81号真的有鬼魂存在。“How could there be ghosts here?” she exclaimed. “It’s so bright!”“这儿这么亮,怎么可能有鬼呢?”她大声说。 /201407/315813。

Stephanie Falk and her husband like smoothies from Jamba Juice. But the San Diego-based couple boycotted the chain for several months last year because it served its drinks in plastic foam cups.斯蒂芬妮#12539;福尔克(Stephanie Falk)和她的丈夫都喜欢Jamba Juice的奶昔。但是这对来自 地亚哥的夫妇去年连续数月拒绝购买这家连锁店的饮料,因为店里用泡沫塑料杯盛装饮料。#39;It#39;s the biodegradable factor. There#39;s no excuse. Everybody knows better,#39; said Ms. Falk, who like her husband is a wedding photographer.“我们考虑的是生物降解。店家不该找借口。所有人都明白这一点,”福尔克说,她和丈夫都是婚礼摄影师。Now, though, Jamba Juice Co. and several other food chains are starting to serve the same drinks in paper cups. Ms. Falk is a fan; her drink stays just as cold in Jamba Juice#39;s new doubled-walled paper cup, she said.而现在Jamba Juice和其他几家连锁餐厅都开始改用纸杯装饮料。福尔克表示持,她说她的饮料在Jamba Juice的新双层纸杯里同样清凉。The paper industry likes it a lot too. Production of white copy paper and other forms of #39;uncoated#39; paper has fallen about 38% since 1999, while demand for paper cups is growing as much as 5% a year, according to industry analysts. Environmental concerns from consumers and new bans on plastic foam in more U.S. cities are prompting food chains to make a switch.造纸行业对此也非常持。行业分析师表示,1999年以来,白色复印纸以及其他“裸”纸的产量下降了约38%,而纸杯的需求量则以每年5%的幅度递增。消费者对于环保的考量以及美国越来越多城市对于泡沫塑料的禁令促使连锁餐厅做出改变。Jamba Juice said last year it would adopt paper cups for its smoothies and other cold drinks #39;to improve our environmental footprint.#39; McDonald#39;s Corp. is replacing plastic foam cups with McCafe paper cups at all 14,000 McCafes across the country. The company says it is trying to be more environmentally conscious and cut costs on trash. Dunkin#39; Brands Group Inc. has said it is testing paper cups.Jamba Juice去年表示,他们将采用纸杯来装奶昔和其他冷饮,“以改善我们的环境记录”。麦当劳公司(McDonald#39;s Corp.)正在将全美14,000家麦咖啡 (McCafe)的泡沫塑料杯替换成纸杯。该公司表示,他们现在更加注重环保并缩减垃圾处理开。Dunkin#39; Brands Group Inc.说他们正在试用纸杯。These companies join Starbucks Corp. and some other chains that have been using paper cups for years. Production of paper used to make cups has risen about 16% over the past five years in the U.S., according to industry group American Forest and Paper Association.这些公司加入了星巴克等多年来都在使用纸杯的连锁店的行列。行业组织美国林业与纸业协会(American Forest and Paper Association)的数据显示,过去五年美国用于制造纸杯的纸类产量上升了约16%。Hoping to take advantage of the growth in demand, International Paper Inc. plans to double the size of a paper-cup manufacturing facility it runs in Kenton, Ohio. The company is coming up with new cup designs--like one aly in production that is fully biodegradable with a plant-based lining--and aggressively marketing the benefits of paper to potential customers.为了迎合这种增长的需求,International Paper Inc.计划将位于俄亥俄州肯顿(Kenton)的纸杯生产设备规模扩大一倍。该公司将推出新的纸杯设计,例如已投产的一款可完全降解的纸杯,内层采用植物原料;他们还努力向潜在客户营销,强调纸杯的优势。Paper cup and plate production volume is equivalent to about a quarter of the volume of the U.S. copy-paper market, according to consulting firm Fisher International Inc., which specializes in data on the pulp and paper industry.咨询公司Fisher International Inc.专长于纸类和纸浆行业的数据分析,其数据显示,美国纸杯和纸碟的产量相当于复印纸产量的四分之一。Still, #39;It seems like a moment in time where the big brands are choosing to take a public position for sustainability,#39; said Michael Lenihan, director of sales and customer relations at International Paper. Food businesses #39;are now recognizing it as a brand opportunity on a much broader scope.#39;不过,“似乎现在大品牌都选择站在公众立场来关注可持续发展”,International Paper 销售与客户关系总监迈克尔#12539;勒尼汉(Michael Lenihan)说。食品行业“如今在更广的层面上将其视为品牌的发展机遇”。Environmental advocates say paper is easier on the environment than plastic foam because the latter tends to break up in landfills and then is mistaken by animals for food. Plastic foam is difficult to recycle unless it is kept clean and separated from other types of plastics--so many plants in the U.S. don#39;t take it. It isn#39;t biodegradable.环保者表示纸杯比泡沫塑料杯更有利于环境,因为后者会在填埋时碎裂而被动物误以为食物。泡沫塑料很难回收,除非它仍然干 并且和其他类型的塑料分离,所以美国的许多回收站并不接受它。它也无法进行生物降解。Such worries led San Francisco in 2007 and Seattle in 2009 to ban plastic foam, instead requiring food vendors to provide compostable or recyclable to-go containers. Other West Coast cities have followed suit, and New York#39;s City Council voted to ban plastic-foam containers in December unless the industry can prove it is recyclable.出于这样的担忧,旧金山在2007年、西雅图在2009年禁止使用泡沫塑料,而要求食品销售者提供可分解或者可循环使用的外带容器。其他西海岸的城市紧随其后,纽约市议会2013年12月投票禁止使用泡沫塑料容器,除非业者能够明泡沫塑料可以回收。#39;Customers are still trying to figure out how prevalent this is going to become,#39; says Alec Frisch, vice president and general manager of Georgia-Pacific LLC#39;s beverage category, which produces a range of paper cups, including double-walled and plastic-coated paper cups.“消费者仍在关注此类措施的普及情况”,乔治亚#12539;太平洋公司(Georgia-Pacific LLC)负责饮品类的副总裁兼总经理亚力克#12539;弗里施(Alec Frisch)说。该公司生产各种纸杯,包括双层纸杯以及外层覆有塑料的纸杯。The plastic-foam industry disputes the notion that foam is less environmentally friendly, chalking it up to misinformation. #39;I think there are a lot of misconceptions around polystyrene foam versus paper,#39; said Keith Christman, managing director for plastics markets at American Chemistry Council, which represents the industry. Foam is #39;composed 95% out of air, so you use less material in the first place making it.#39; That also results in less energy use and less bulk waste, he added.泡沫塑料行业对于产品不环保的观点并不认同,认为这是误传。“我认为人们在将泡沫塑料和纸比较时存在许多误解,”行业协会美国化学理事会(American Chemistry Council)塑料市场运营总监基思#12539;克里斯特曼(Keith Christman)说。泡沫塑料“95%由空气组成,所以在最初的生产环节可节省用料”。这也减少了能耗以及废料体积,他补充道。A survey commissioned by the ACC shows that in the 50 biggest U.S. cities, about 16% of the population is able to recycle food-service items made out of foam, compared with about 10% for paper.美国化学理事会开展的一项调查显示,在美国前50大城市中,16%的人会回收泡沫塑料制成的食品容器,相比之下纸制的回收率为10%。Indeed, paper cups aren#39;t as environmentally friendly as they seem. Only about 11% of recycling plants in the U.S. currently can recycle them, according to the American Forest and Paper Association, because they are typically coated in plastic or have beverage residue. The lack of an #39;easily recyclable cup designed for hot beverages#39; is one reason Dunkin#39; Brands is still weighing whether to switch to paper, Karen Raskopf, chief communications officer, said.事实上,纸杯并不像看起来那样环保。美国林业及纸业协会的数据显示,目前美国只有约11%的回收站能够回收纸杯,因为它们通常有塑料覆膜或者有饮料残留。缺少“适合热饮的易回收的纸杯”是Dunkin#39; Brands仍旧在权衡是否换为纸杯的原因之一,首席公关卡伦#12539;拉斯科普夫(Karen Raskopf)说。#39;At this point, we don#39;t know if our end solution will be paper or another material,#39; she added.“现在我们还不知道最终解决方案会是纸还是其他材料,”她补充道。Paper cups are slightly more expensive than foam, usually by a couple cents. Extras like double walls for insulation or plant-based lining to make it compostable add to the price.纸杯比泡沫塑料一般贵几分钱。像双层隔热的或者内层为可分解植物材料的纸杯价格更高。McDonald#39;s has been using double-walled paper cups--which have a small pocket of air between them to increase insulation--at about 2,000 restaurants along the West Coast since 2012. Now it is expanding into the Midwest and parts of the East Coast, says Ian Olson, director of sustainability.麦当劳从2012年起在美国西海岸的约2,000家餐厅使用双层纸杯,两层之间有空隙可容纳空气从而增强隔热效果。如今使用范围扩展到了中西部以及东海岸部分地区,可持续发展总监伊恩#12539;奥尔森(Ian Olson)说。While the paper cup is more expensive, McDonald#39;s says it will make up the difference in the trash. Most of the chain#39;s waste is paper-based--think wraps, fry cartons and Big Mac boxes--so paper cups can go into the same trash bin, and eventually into recycling bins.麦当劳表示,尽管纸杯更贵,但它在垃圾处理方面的优势可以补偿其高价格。这家连锁餐厅的大部分垃圾都是纸制的――比如包装纸、薯条盒和汉堡盒――所以纸杯可以放入相同的垃圾桶,最终进入回收桶。The main challenge for food companies is to find a cup that functions as well as plastic foam and doesn#39;t cost the consumer more, said Bonnie Riggs, a restaurant industry analyst with consumer market research firm NPD Group. #39;I think it really doesn#39;t matter if it keeps everything hot and keeps everything cold and consumers don#39;t have to pay extra for it,#39; she said.食品公司面临的最大挑战是找到一款和泡沫塑料功能相同又不增加成本的杯子,消费者市场研究公司NPD集团的餐饮业分析师邦尼#12539;里格斯(Bonnie Riggs)说。“我认为只要能保冷保热,而且消费者不用额外付钱,什么样的杯子都没关系,”她说。 /201405/295041。