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2017年10月21日 10:52:07 | 作者:排名专家 | 来源:新华社
I try to be myself honest about my strengths and weaknesses 我努力做真实的自己 直面我的优点和缺点and I encourage others to do the same 我会鼓励别人也这么做It is all professional and it is all personal 一切都与职业相关 也都与个人相关all at the very same time 两者无时无刻不交融在一起As part of bringing my whole self to work 作为带着完整的自己去上班的一部分努力I recently started speaking up about 最近我开始公开谈论the challenges women face in the workforce女性在工作环境中面临的挑战something I only had the courage to do in the last few years 这也是我最近几年才有勇气做的事情Before this 在此之前I did my career like everyone else does it 我和大家一样小心翼翼地在职场上打拼I never told anyone I was a girl 我从没和别人强调 我是女儿身Dont tell 不说 原则I left the lights on 当我暂时回家照顾下孩子时when I went home to do something for my kids 我会把办公室的灯留着I locked my office door and pumped milk for my babies 当我锁上门在办公室边参加电话会议while I was on conference calls 边为我的宝宝们挤奶时People would ask,whats that sound? 有人会问 那是什么声音I would say,What sound? I hear a beep 我会说 什么声音?我听到哔的一声Oh, theres a fire truck really right outside my office 噢 我窗外正好有一辆消防车But the lack of progress weve made in the past decade 然而 由于我们在上个10年取得的进展很小has convinced me we need to start talking about this 我决定要开始公开讨论这点I graduated from HBS in 1995 我是1995年从HBS毕业的and I thought it was completely clear that by the time 当时我想 等到我们这届someone from my year was invited to speak at this podium 有人被邀请到这个讲台演讲的时候we would have achieved equality in the workforce 我们一定已经实现了工作上的男女平等But women at the top C-level jobs 但是在C级别的工作上are stuck at 15-16 percent 女性的比例始终停留在15%到16%and have not moved in a decade 10年来一点都没有变化Not even close to 50% 离50%还差很远and worse no longer growing 而且更糟的是 已经停止增长We need to acknowledge openly that 我们需要公开承认在执行级别的领导层gender remains an issue at the highest levels of leadership 性别仍然是个大问题The promise of equality is not equality 对平等的承诺不等于真正的平等We need to start talking about this 我们需要就此进行谈论201511/410529You all know about multitasking.你们都知道;多任务处理;(multitasking)。You all have been faulty of multitasking when youre driving and you pick up your cellphone.一边开车一边拿起手机的多任务处理不是明智之举。Bad idea. Very bad idea.非常糟糕。Why? Because as your attention shifts to your cell phone,为什么?因为你的注意力实际上转移到了你的手机上,you are actually losing the capacity to react swiftly to the car braking in front of you于是不能对前面的车况做出敏捷的反应。and so youre much more likely to get engaged into a car accident.所以你出车祸的可能性大大增加了。Now, we can measure that kind of skills in the lab.现在我们可以在实验室中测量这种能力。We obviously dont ask people to drive around and see how many car accidents they have.我们当然不会让人开着车到处跑That would be a little costly proposition.然后看看会出几场车祸。这个方案代价有点高。But we design tasks on the computer where we can measure,但是我们可以通过特殊设计的电脑程序to millisecond accuracy, how good they are at switching from one task to another.精确到以毫秒为单位测量,考察人们能多快地在不同任务间切换。When we do that, we actually find that people当我们做这样的实验的时候,我们发现that play a lot of action games are really, really good.玩很多动作的人完成得真的非常非常好。They switch really fast, very swiftly. They pay a very small cost.他们在任务间的切换非常快速敏捷。他们所付出的代价很小。Now Id like you to remember that result,现在,我希望大家记住这个结论,and put it in the context of another group of technology users,把它带入到另外一群科技使用者的背景下。a group which is actually much revered by society, which are people that engage in multimedia-tasking.这些可以“多媒体任务处理”的人相当受社会推崇。What is multimedia-tasking?什么叫“多媒体任务处理”?Its the fact that most of us, most of our children,我们中的很多人,还有很多孩子are engaged with listening to music at the same time as theyre doing search on the web都会一边听着音乐一边上网搜索信息at the same time as theyre chatting on Facebook with their friends.一边和朋友在脸谱网上聊天。Thats a multimedia-tasker.这就是可以“多媒体任务处理”的人。There was a first study done by colleagues at Stanford有一个试验由斯坦福的研究人员们先做,and that we replicated that showed that我们又进行了重复试验过的研究表明those people that identify as being high multimedia-taskers are absolutely abysmal at multitasking.被认为是高效的“多媒体任务处理者”多任务处理的能力非常糟糕。When we measure them in the lab, theyre really bad.他们在实验室里被测量的表现真的很差。Right? So these kinds of results really makes two main points.这样的结果主要说明了两个问题。The first one is that not all media are created equal.第一,不是所有的媒体都生来平等。You cant compare the effect of multimedia-tasking and the effect of playing action games.不能比较多媒体处理对人的影响和玩动作对人的影响进行比较。They have totally different effects on different aspects of cognition, perception and attention.他们对于认知,知觉和注意力的影响都是完全不同的。Even within games,就算是在之中,Im telling you right now about these action-packed games.我指的是动作中,Different games have a different effect on your brains.不同的游戏对你的大脑的影响也是不同的。So we actually need to step into the lab and really measure what is the effect of each game.所以我们需要在实验室中测量每个游戏的影响分别是什么。The other lesson is that general wisdom carries no weight.第二,所谓的常识很多时候是不靠谱的。I showed that to you aly, like we looked at the fact that像我刚才讲到的despite a lot of screen time, those action gamers have a lot of very good vision, etc.虽然动作的玩家长时间看屏幕,但他们的视力依然很好就是例子之一。Here, what was really striking is that these undergraduates现在最让人担忧的是那些that actually report engaging in a lot of high multimedia-tasking are convinced they aced the test.常常多媒体任务处理的大学生们深信他们表现得很好。So you show them their data, you show them they are bad你把他们的数据给他们看,告诉他们其实他们表现得不怎么样,and theyre like, ;Not possible.;但是他们觉得那根本不可能。You know, they have this sort of gut feeling that, really,他们却觉得实际上they are doing really, really good.自己做得非常非常好。Thats another argument for why we need to step into the lab这也是为什么我们需要在实验室里and really measure the impact of technology on the brain.真正地去测量科技对于大脑的影响。201512/416490All the hospitals but one in the capital city were destroyed首都只剩下一所医院未被毁掉I, working with my friend Dr. Paul Farmer, helped rebuild them in every part of the country我跟我的朋友保罗·法默士一起帮助重建这个国家各地的医院But they dont want to take any foreign assistance from anybody to do anything after 2020但是他们不想在2020年之后继续接受任何类型的外国援助And so they have to not only have hospitals and people trying to work there, but rural clinics and community health workers所以他们不仅需要医院和其中的医疗工作者还需要乡村诊所和社区医疗工作者And so they asked us to put together a plan to do it于是他们请求我们制定一个实施计划Dr. Eric Goosby, President Obama has appointed him as head of PEPFAR,奥巴马总统已经任命埃里克?古斯比士为PEPFAR负责人the presidents plan to deal with AIDS and other life threatening diseases agreed to finance this for a year and a half这是总统应对艾滋病和其他威胁生命的疾病的计划他已经同意资助这项计划一年半But listen to this, you should be really proud of Howard for this但是听着 你们真的应该为霍华德感到自豪Everyone of these schools including Howard is commited to doing this work for three or four years for only 7% overhead,包括霍华德大学在内的每一所学校都承诺只花经费的7% 做三到四年的工作the lowest in the history of any foreign assistance program这是外国援助项目史上的最低开And I think you should be really really proud我觉得你们真的应该感到自豪Youre going to save countless of lives for decades and decades你们将在今后几十年中救下无数人的生命I am well aware that the commencement speech is the least important part of this day我深知毕业致辞是这一天当中最不重要的部分I congratulate all of you who are here我祝贺到场的所有人Your parents, your friends, your loved ones你们的父母 你们的朋友 你们所爱的人I thank those who taught you and work to keep this university going and the supporters of Howard who are here我感谢那些教导你们和为学校正常运转付出劳动的人们以及到场的霍华德大学的持者们But unlike almost every other person here whos older,但与其他到场的几乎所有年纪大的人不同I actually remember who gave my commencement speech 45 years ago next month我还记得四十五年前的下个月为我做毕业致辞的人And I remember exactly what the speech was我还清楚地记得那篇致辞的内容201507/383767

The television program by that name would inspire;比尔教科学;这一电视节目激发了an entire generation to become interested in science and my guess is many of you are here this morning一整代人对科学的兴趣我猜 其中很多人今天早上都来到了这里How many of you remember who are fans of the show?有多少节目的粉丝 还记得这个节目He won 7 Emmy Awards for writing, performing and producing the show他由于节目剧作 表演和制片赢得过7次艾米奖The show won 18 Emmies in 5 years including 7 for sound design节目在五年间获得过18次艾米奖 包括7次音效设计奖which were shared by UMass Lowells sound recording technology alum该奖项的分享者包括马萨诸塞大学洛厄尔分校校友Tom McGurk whos here with us today今天也在现场的汤姆·麦格克He has since hosted 4 other television series比尔之后还主持过四部电视节目and continued to educate and entertain and fight他一直都在持续着教育 和奋斗for sciences place in education and in our national conversation让科学在我们的教育及国家对话中占有应有的位置His recent television appearances on the reality of danger of climate change他最近亮相的电视节目谈到了气候变化的现实威胁and the importance of science education have included以及科学教育的重要意义 包括Ns Meet the PressN节目;与媒体见面;CNNs CrossfireCNN节目;穿越火线;Late Night with Seth Meyers and last week, in a very, very funny piece;塞斯晚间脱口秀;上周 他又参与制作了很有趣的一期节目Tonight with John Oliver on HBO这是一期HBO节目;奥利弗秀;It was a great piece这一期非常棒201509/400875

Easter is the most important date in theChristian calendar, and an incredibly special time for people across Britainand around the world. Last month I was in Jerusalem and Bethlehem and I got tosee for myself the places where Jesus was born and died. It was anextraordinary experience to be in those places where so much history began.Today, 2000 years on, Easter is not just atime for Christians across our country to reflect, but a time for our wholecountry to reflect on what Christianity brings to Britain. All over the UK,every day, there are countless acts of kindness carried out by those whobelieve in and follow Christ. The heart of Christianity is to “love thyneighbor” and millions do really live that out. I think of the Alpha coursesrun in our prisons, which work with offenders to give them a new life insideand outside prison, or the soup kitchens and homeless shelters run by churches.And we saw that same spirit during the terrible storms that struck Britainearlier this year. From Somerset to Surrey, from Oxford to Devon, churchesbecame refuges, offering shelter and food, congregations raised funds andrallied together, parish priests even canoed through their villages to rescueresidents. They proved, yet again, that people’s faith motivates them to dogood deeds.That is something this Government supportsand celebrates, and it’s why we have announced more funding for the NearNeighbours programme bringing together even more faiths in even more cities todo social action. And as we celebrate Easter, let’s also think of those who areunable to do so, the Christians around the world who are ostracised, abused –even murdered – simply for the faith they follow. Religious freedom is anabsolute, fundamental human right.Britain is committed to protecting andpromoting that right, by standing up for Christians and other minorities, athome and abroad. Our hearts go out to them, especially at this special time ofyear. So as we approach this festival I’d like to wish everyone, Christians andnon-Christians a very happy Easter.201502/359928

After the collapse of the Soviet entire the ed States emerged as the sole superpower. No other power, or the combination of powers, could challenge its supremacy. But the unipolar world did not take root. When President Bush sought to assert Americas supremacy by invading Iraq on false pretences he achieved the exact opposite of what he intended. The ed States suffered a precipitous decline in its power and influence. So the disarray in the international financial system is matched by instability in international relations. The new order that will eventually emerge will not be dominated by the ed States to the same extent as the old one.前苏联解体后,美国成为了唯一的超级大国,没有其他大国或者国家联盟可以挑战其至高无上的国力,但是这种“单极”的世界秩序未能持久。当布什总统为彰显美国的威力以不实之词为借口入侵伊拉克时,其效果与他的意图适得其反。美国的力量和影响力一落千丈,结果混乱的国际金融体系加之不稳定的国际关系形成了。此后,终将形成新的世界秩序,将不会再像以往那样受美国的控制和左右。To understand what is happening we need a different conceptual framework from the one to which we have been accustomed. The efficient market hypothesis looks at financial markets in isolation and totally disregards politics. But that gives a distorted picture. As I have pointed out several times, behind the invisible hand of markets there is the visible hand of politics which establishes the rules and conditions in which the market mechanism operates. My conceptual framework relates to the political economy, not the market economy as an abstract construct that is governed by timelessly valid laws. I look at financial markets as a branch of history.为了便于理解什么正在发生,我们需要一个有别于惯性思维的概念性框架。有效的市场假说孤立地看待金融市场,完全无视政治因素,但这扭曲了现实。正如我多次提到的那样,在市场无形的手背后有一只有形的政治之手,它制定有关市场运作的各种法律法规。我所说的概念性框架与政治经济学有关,而与抽象概念的市场经济学无关。我把金融市场视作历史的一个分。201409/326672

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