时间:2018年02月20日 11:26:48

We’ve all heard the saying, “there’s a sucker born every minute.”我们都听说过“每分钟都有笨蛋呱呱落地”这句话。Well, what if I were to tell you that this is a gross underestimate? According to the Department of Human Health and Services, there are about 7.6 Americans born every minute, and there’s good evidence that about five of them will grow up to be “suckers” when it comes to financial literacy.那么,如果我说这句话显然低估了实际情况,大家会怎么想呢?美国卫生和公众务部(Department of Human Health and Services)的数据显示,每分钟有7.6个美国人出生,而确凿据表明其中有5个会成为理财方面的“笨蛋”。The University of Michigan’s Health and Retirement Study found that only about one third of Americans ages 50 and older were able to correctly answer three simple questions about how compound interest works, what inflation means for one’s savings and investment gains, and the basic differences between a single stock and a mutual fund.密歇根大学(University of Michigan)健康和退休研究项目发现,在50岁及以上的美国人中,只有约三分之一的人能正确回答三个简单的问题:复利是怎么回事?通胀对个人储蓄和投资收益意味着什么?一只股票和一只共同基金有哪些基本差异?In the latest addition to a body of economic research that shows Americans’ striking financial illiteracy, a study by economists Benjamin Keys, Devin Pope, and Jaren Pope examined Americans’ refinancing habits during the worst of the financial crisis, when the Treasury Department and Federal Reserve were doing their utmost to get people to refinance their mortgages and take advantage of low interest rates. According to the paper:一系列经济领域研究已经表明,美国人的理财知识欠缺程度令人震惊。其中最新一项研究来自经济学家本杰明o基斯、德温o波普和贾伦o波普,他们的课题是美国人在金融危机达到高峰时的再融资习惯。当时,美国财政部和美联储正在竭尽全力帮助按揭者进行再融资并利用低利率环境。这篇研究报告称:“We estimate that approximately 20% of households for whom refinancing would be optimal and who appeared unconstrained to do so, had not taken advantage of the lower rates. We estimate the present-discounted cost to the household who fails to refinance to be approximately ,500, making this a particularly large consumer financial mistake.”“对有些家庭来说,再融资是最佳方案,而且这方面也不存在障碍。但据我们估算,在这些家庭中,约有20%并未对低利率加以利用。据我们计算,对未能再融资的家庭来说,其当前贴现损失约为1.15万美元,这在消费金融领域算是个特别大的失算。”Altogether, this failure to refinance cost these consumers, and presumably the economy at large, .4 billion. And this estimate is actually on the conservative side of the spectrum.由于没有进行再融资,这些消费者的整体损失为54亿美元,想必整个美国经济也蒙受了同等金额的损失。而且这个数字实际上偏向保守。A 2008 study by Dartmouth finance professor Kenneth French estimated that investors in the U.S. pay roughly 0 billion per year in fees and other expenses in an attempt to “beat the market” rather than investing in low-fee index funds that track the broader performance of the stock market. And a 2006 study from Harvard economist John Campbell estimated that poor decisions concerning mortgage financing costs homeowners more than billion annually. The list goes on, from payday loans to credit cards to retirement products: Americans spend billions more because of their lack of financial knowledge.2008年,达特茅斯学院(Dartmouth College)金融学教授肯尼思o弗兰奇在他的研究中估算,为了“跑赢大市”,美国投资者每年都要付约1000亿美元的手续费和其他费用,却不愿用这笔钱投资手续费较低,专门跟踪大盘的指数基金。2006年,哈佛大学(Harvard University)经济学家约翰o坎贝尔估算,由于在按揭融资方面决策欠妥,住房业主每年都要损失500亿美元以上。类似的研究层出不穷,从发薪日贷款到信用卡再到退休金融产品,它们的结论都是:财务知识匮乏让美国人多花了数十亿美元。Cass Sunstein, former Obama Administration official and promoter of government policies that “nudge” people into avoiding making such predictable and costly mistakes, suggests that we should institute rules that force banks to make it very easy to refinance loans when interest rates fall. While this approach won’t be very popular with banks or mortgage investors, there’s plenty of research that shows that creating systems where it’s easier to make the right choice about your finances will lead to more people making those choices.曾在奥巴马政府中任职的凯斯o桑斯坦认为,政府政策应提醒人们避免这种可预知的高成本错误。在桑斯坦看来,美国应该制定法规,迫使在利率下降时让贷款再融资变得简单易行。虽然和按揭投资者不会非常喜欢这种做法,但有足够的研究明,如果我们建立的机制能让人们更容易地在财务方面做出正确选择,就会有更多的人进行这样的选择。This is also good way to approach the problem of the American retirement system, in which average citizens waste billions of dollars every year without making their futures more secure. Private companies have basically abandoned defined-benefit retirement programs, but that doesn’t mean they should abandon the idea that they are partly responsible for making their employees’ retirements as comfortable as possible. That means setting up automatic enrollment, automatic escalation of their contributions, and, most importantly, not giving the option to invest in high-fee funds. It also means that employers need to make sure that their employees have the knowledge to make the right choices.对美国的退休制度来说,这也是解决问题的好办法。普通美国民众每年在退休方面要浪费数十亿美元资金,却不能让自己未来的生活更有保障。私营公司基本上都已经放弃了养老金固定收益计划,但这并不是说这些公司不再承担责任了,企业还是应该设法让员工的退休生活变得尽可能舒适。这就意味着要建立自动注册和自动提高缴纳金额的机制,而且最重要的是,不要涉及高手续费基金投资。这也意味着企业需要确保员工可以凭借自己掌握的知识做出正确的选择。At the end of the day, there also must be a greater emphasis placed on financial education in public school systems so that, at the very least, the vast majority of consumers can understand a concept like compound interest. There may very well be five suckers born every minute in this country, but there’s no reason they have to remain suckers for the rest of their lives.总之,还要更重视公共教育体系中的金融课程,以便让绝大多数消费者最起码能够理解复利这样的概念。也许,美国每分钟确实有5个笨蛋出生,但绝对没有理由让他们在接下来的人生中一直当笨蛋。 /201409/329598

A Chinese pharmaceutical company has received the green light from China’s State Food and Drug Administration to become the country’s first official producer of a homegrown version of Viagra, Pfizer’s famous erectile dysfunction drug.一家中国制药公司已得到国家食品药品监督批准,成为国内首家正式生产国产版本万艾可(Viagra)的厂家,万艾可是辉瑞公司(Pfizer)治疗勃起功能障碍的著名药物。Pfizer’s patent on Viagra expired in China in May, following patent expirations in several European countries and elsewhere that are expected to undercut profits for the American pharmaceutical giant as cheaper alternatives are rolled out.辉瑞公司的万艾可专利已于五月在中国到期,公司在几个欧洲国家和其他地区的专利此前也已陆续到期,预计随着便宜替代品的推出,这个美国制药业巨头的利润将受到侵蚀。Since May, Chinese companies have been vying with one another to emerge as the dominant player in the new market for generic versions of the pill. In the early stages of the competition, Guangzhou Baiyunshan Pharmaceutical appears to have emerged triumphant.五月份以来,几家中国企业一直在这个非专利药的新市场上相互争夺主导地位。在竞争的早期阶段,广州白云山制药总厂似乎胜出。After years of behind-the-scenes preparation, the company last week received the state production license that will allow it to start churning out sildenafil citrate, the active ingredient in Viagra. Guangzhou Baiyunshan, a subsidiary of the larger Guangzhou Pharmaceutical Holdings Limited, began developing its product in the 1990s, but had to hold off in 2003 when it was unable to get a production license because of the Pfizer patent, Nanfang Daily reported.经过多年的幕后准备工作,该公司上周获得了国家许可,将允许其开始批量生产枸橼酸西地那非,即万艾可的活性成分。据《南方日报》报道,广州白云山是更大的广州医药集团有限公司的下属公司,自20世纪90年代起就在研发自己的产品,但不得不在2003年推迟生产,因为辉瑞的专利,白云山没有得到生产许可。Chinese companies have spent the better part of two decades lying in wait for Pfizer’s patent to expire because profits in China’s erectile dysfunction drug sector are enormous and only expected to grow.在辉瑞公司的专利到期前的20年里,中国公司一直在虎视眈眈地等待着,因为中国的勃起功能障碍药物市场的利润巨大,而且预计只会增长。The “Investigation Report on China Sildenafil Market, 2009-2018” put out by China Market Research Reports estimates that more than 50 million men in China suffer from sexual dysfunction. The demand for a remedy is expected to rise along with the aging of China’s population. The ed Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs projects that by 2050 China will be home to 437 million people over the age of 60.中国市场研究报告(China Market Research Reports)发布的“中国西地那非市场2009-2018年调查报告”估计,中国有5千多万男性患性功能障碍。对治疗药物的需求预计将随着中国老龄人口的增长而上升。联合国经济及社会理事会预测,到2050年,中国60岁以上的人口将达到4.37亿。According to a Citigroup study cited by CN, the current Chinese erectile dysfunction drug market is worth 1.7 billion renminbi a year. This could reach as much as 5 billion renminbi, or 0 million, by 2018, it said, and generic versions of Viagra could take more than half the market. Whereas Viagra is sold in China at more than 90 renminbi, or almost , a pill, Baiyunshan plans to market its own version for between 30 to 50 renminbi, giving it a serious competitive advantage.据CN援引的花旗集团(Citigroup)的一项研究,目前中国勃起功能障碍药物市场的价值是每年17亿元人民币。报告称,到2018年,这个市场价值可高达50亿元人民币,或8.1亿美元,万艾可的仿制药可能获得这个市场的一半还多。万艾可在中国的售价是每片90多元人民币,约合将近15美元,白云山计划向市场推出的仿制药的售价是每片30至50元人民币,具有极大的竞争优势。Viagra was introduced to China in 1998, but Pfizer faced a range of challenges to its patent and other litigation until 2007. One of the greatest obstacles the company faced in marketing the drug to Chinese consumers was that it did not own the trademark on its most commonly used Chinese name, “Wei Ge (伟哥),” which sounds somewhat like the English while literally translating to “Great Older Brother,” or “Big Guy.” When Pfizer tried to trademark the colloquial Chinese term for its product, it discovered that that name was aly owned by a local pharmaceutical company in Guangzhou and so was left with the lackluster transliteration “Wan Ai Ke (万艾可),” which has no particular Chinese meaning.万艾可在1998年进入中国市场,辉瑞曾面临过从专利到其他诉讼等一系列挑战,直至2007年。公司向中国消费者推销该药所面临的最大挑战是,它不拥有自己药品最常用的中国名“伟哥”的商标,这个名称听起来与英文名接近,字面的意思是“大哥哥”或“大家伙”。当辉瑞试图把这个中国口语名称注册为其产品商标时,它发现那个商标已被广州一家当地制药公司拥有,所以只能给药品注册了枯燥的音译名“万艾可”,这个名称没有中文的特别意义。Baiyunshan clearly seeks to mimic the mainland success of “Wei Ge” by naming its product “Jin Ge (金戈),” which means “Golden Dagger-Axe.” This serves up a witty reference to Pfizer’s “Big Guy” in terms of pronunciation while conjuring the image of the phallic, L-shaped blade favored by warriors in the Shang through Han dynasties.白云山显然想通过将其产品命名为“金戈”来模仿“伟哥”在中国大陆的成功,新名字在发音上与辉瑞的“大家伙”诙谐地相似,而且“戈”这种受到从商代到汉朝的武士喜爱的勾形刀,让人联想起阴茎的形象。This clear mimicry in both product and marketing is an indication, however, of the Chinese pharmaceutical industry’s weakness, according to an article in China Youth Daily. It ed Long Yongtu, who was the lead negotiator on China’s entry into the World Trade Organization, as saying in 2006 that 90 percent of the 5,000 or so large and small pharmaceutical companies in China produced only generics, and their combined annual sales revenue totaled less than billion, less than that of a single company of Pfizer’s size. In 2013, Pfizer took in .3 billion globally.然而,从《中国青年报》的一篇文章来看,在产品和营销上的这种明显模仿行为,是中国医药行业薄弱的表现。文章引用中国加入世界贸易组织谈判的首席代表龙永图2006年的话说,中国有大大小小5000多家制药企业,其中90%以上生产仿制药,所有药企的总产值加在一起不到400亿美元,比不上辉瑞一家的。2013年,辉瑞公司在全球的营业收入是513亿美元。Nearly a decade later, Chinese pharmaceutical companies are still more eager to imitate than innovate, shying away from the huge investments and risks of developing new drugs in favor of the certain returns from imitating tried-and-true blockbuster drugs or repackaging existing formulas. According to China Youth Daily, Chinese pharmaceuticals on average still invest less than 1 percent of their budget in research and development, despite recent government incentives.将近十年过去了,中国的制药企业仍热衷于模仿,而不愿创新,企业避开巨大的资金投入及开发新药的风险,选择靠模仿经过检验的成功畅销药、或重新包装现有成分来获得确定的回报。据《中国青年报》文章,尽管政府最近推出了奖励措施,中国医药企业平均投资在研发上的钱不到预算的1%。Generics are nonetheless better alternatives for penny-pinching consumers than the knock-offs that abound in China, as they are subject to governmental regulation and contain the same active ingredients and dosage as the original drug. Time will tell if those who prefer traditional Chinese medicine virility treatments such as pangolin scales or tiger penis will be swayed by the new “Golden Dagger-Ax” on the market.虽然如此,对想省钱的消费者来说,仿制药仍比中国无所不在的假货好得多,因为仿制药受到政府监管,含有相同的活性成分,剂量也与原药相同。那些更喜欢传统的中国壮阳药,比如穿山甲鳞片或虎鞭的人,是否会被市场上新的“金戈”征,有待时间明。 /201409/328360

Young westerners who ventured to China during the 1980s were surprised to hear a thick Brooklyn accent echoing down the corridors of Beijing’s Friendship Hotel. Sidney Shapiro, the mild-mannered translator who had beaten them to the Middle Kingdom by three decades, took many of the newcomers under his wing, for instance counselling patience and hope to one American who had been forbidden to marry his Chinese fiancée.上世纪80年代,那些敢来中国转转的西方年轻人惊讶地听到,北京友谊宾馆(Friendship Hotel)的走廊里回荡着一个浓重的布鲁克林口音——说话的人是沙理(Sidney Shapiro),一位30多年前就来到“中央王国”的温文尔雅的翻译家。许多新来者都受过他的照顾。比如,曾有个美国人被禁止迎娶自己的中国籍未婚妻,是沙理劝他要有耐心、不要放弃希望。One of the small band of “foreign friends” who elected to stay in China after Communist rule began, he was himself no stranger to patience, hope and love. Shapiro, who has died aged 98, married there and is survived by his daughter, granddaughter and great-grandson.作为共产党开始掌权后一小批决定留在中国的“外国友人”之一,沙理自己就有着大量与耐心、希望和爱有关的经历。他在中国结婚成家,并在女儿、外孙女和曾孙的陪伴下走完人生,享年98岁。For the many foreigners to have settled in the country since market reforms began, the small group who had adopted Maoist China are a controversial curiosity. Many grew disillusioned – some with Maoism, others with the “capitalism with Chinese characteristics” that followed – and ultimately left. Shapiro was one who found a comfortable equilibrium and stayed.自中国启动市场改革以来,许多外国人来华定居。在他们看来,沙理这一小批决定在毛泽东时代中国生活的人是些充满争议的怪人。在这些人当中,有不少人幻想破灭——有些人是对毛泽东思想、也有些人是对后来的“有中国特色的资本主义”大失所望——最终离开了中国。还有些人找到了一种适宜的平衡、留了下来,沙理就是其中之一。Born on December 23 1915, the New Yorker had qualified as a lawyer and was aly disturbed by the inequalities of Depression-era America when the US Army recruited him to study Mandarin during the second world war. Peace arrived before he could use his skills, so he decided to move to Shanghai in 1947 and work there. He found a city rent by war and poverty – and he also found Feng Zi, or Phoenix, a beautiful Chinese actress and Communist sympathiser.1915年12月23日,沙理生于美国纽约。二战期间,美国陆军征他入伍,让他学习现代标准汉语。当时,取得律师资格的他已然对大萧条时期美国的不平等现象深感不安。沙理还没来得及发挥自己所长,战争就结束了,于是在1947年他决定去上海工作。在那里,他看到了一座饱受战争和贫穷摧残的城市,也遇到了凤子——一位美丽的中国女演员、共产党的同情者。The couple settled in Beijing shortly before it fell to Mao’s forces. Shapiro witnessed the jubilant arrival of the People’s Liberation Army in Beijing and the triumphant moment when Mao Zedong declared from Tiananmen Gate: “The Chinese people have stood up!” Living in revolutionary China, he had finally found a sense of purpose, he later wrote.沙理与凤子结婚后定居北平。很快,这座城市就落入毛泽东的部队手中。沙理目睹了中国人民解放军进城的欢腾场面,也见了毛泽东在天安门城楼上宣布“中国人民站起来了”的胜利时刻。他后来写道,生活在革命的中国,他终于找到了一种目标感。As China became increasingly isolated, Shapiro concentrated on translating the classic saga Outlaws of the Marsh and more recent novels into English. He became a Chinese citizen in 1963. Moreover, he was one of the few foreigners to serve on the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, a top advisory council.随着中国变得越来越孤立,沙理开始专心从事将中国古典名著《水浒传》和较近代的小说译为英文的工作。1963年,他加入了中国籍。此外,他还是中国人民政治协商会议为数不多的“洋”委员之一。政协是中国高级别的政治顾问机构。Shapiro is known too for having compiled and translated local scholarship on ancient Jewish communities in China. “Sidney actually had a shelf of books that were worth working on. A lot of the others had only stacks of China Reconstructs [an English-language monthly],” says Ted Plafker, a Beijing-based journalist and longtime friend.沙理还以编译《中国古代的犹太人-中国学者研究文集点评》一书而闻名。他的老朋友、驻京记者泰德#8226;普拉夫克(Ted Plafker)说:“沙理其实有一柜子著作值得我们研读,其他许多人只有几摞《中国建设》(China Reconstructs,一份英文月刊)。”When the Cultural Revolution arrived in 1965, no one could avoid politics. Phoenix was sent to a forced labour camp outside Beijing in 1969 and allowed only occasional visits home before her release in 1975. Shapiro managed to avoid imprisonment even as rival factions at the Foreign Languages Press murdered six of his co-workers.1965年文革爆发,无人能避开政治。凤子在1969年被下放到北京以外的一个强制劳改营,偶尔获准回来探家,1975年才被释放。尽管沙理有6位同事命丧外文出版社(Foreign Languages Press)的派系斗争,但他却成功地免受牢狱之灾。In 1971 Shapiro visited his family in the US for the first time in 25 years, in what scholar Anne-Marie Brady sees as part of a wider effort to project a positive impression of China as Mao sought an alliance with his former enemy. He had to dodge the awkward question of why his wife had not come too.1971年,沙理25年来首次回美国探亲。在学者安妮-玛丽#8226;布雷迪(Anne-Marie Brady)看来,他的探亲之旅是旨在突出中国正面形象的更广泛努力的一部分,因为毛泽东当时正寻求与美国这一曾经的敌人结盟。但沙理不得不躲避一个尴尬的问题:为什么他的妻子没有随行?“The old friends of China (people like Sid Shapiro, New Zealand’s Rewi Alley, and the USA’s Edgar Snow) are part of the idealised revolutionary past, the myth that established the legitimacy of the regime and links it with the present day,” writes Ms Brady, who interviewed Shapiro for her book Making the Foreign Serve China .“中国的老朋友(比如沙理、新西兰的路易#8226;艾黎(Rewi Alley)和美国的埃德加#8226;斯诺(Edgar Snow))是理想化革命历史的一部分,这个神话确立了这个政权的合法性,并将之与当今的时代联系在一起,”布雷迪写道。为完成《洋为中用》(Making the Foreign Serve China)一书,她曾采访过沙理。Visiting reporters were disappointed to find Shapiro unwilling to offer much critical insight into the turbulent times he had witnessed; his autobiography, I Chose China , was curiously bland. Friends say, however, that he was privately upset by the 1989 crackdown on demonstrators in Tiananmen Square.前来采访沙理的记者失望地发现,他不愿对他所见的动荡岁月给出多少批判性见解;他的自传《我的中国》(I Chose China)平淡得出奇。但他的朋友们表示,他私底下对1989年天安门广场发生的镇压感到难过。What was clear was that he was no fan of the new, money-driven China under Deng Xiaoping. “When China started going the other way, it bothered him. He was always very opposed to US capitalism, hypocrisy and inequality and he got disillusioned as China got more that way,” says Mr Plafker.可以肯定的是,他并不喜欢邓小平领导下的一切向钱看的新中国。普拉夫克说:“当中国开始走上另一条道路时,他很困惑。他一贯非常反对美国资本主义、虚伪和不平等,当中国在这条路上越走越远时,他感到无比失望。”Phoenix died in 1996. Shapiro griped as his quiet alley by the capital’s Qianhai Lake was steadily over-run with rickshaw tours and night clubs opened around the corner. But he embraced modern technologies with enthusiasm. About two years ago, Shapiro sent an email to friends in Beijing and beyond to say that failing eyesight meant his days at the computer were over.凤子于1996年逝世。沙理住在北京前海附近一条安静的胡同里,可惜胡同里日益挤满了坐人力车观光的游客,夜店也开得到处都是,让他抱怨不已。但他对现代科技却颇感兴趣。大约两年前,沙理给北京以及其他地方的朋友发了封电子邮件,说自己视力越来越差,看来要告别电脑了。But, he added, they could always come to visit.但他补充道,他们随时都可以来看他。 /201410/339260

What you can remember from age 3 may help improve aspects of your life far into adulthood. 从三岁开始的记忆,也许有助于改善你成年后相当长时期内生活的方方面面。Children who have the ability to recall and make sense of memories from daily life -- the first day of preschool, the time the cat died -- can use them to better develop a sense of identity, form relationships and make sound choices in adolescence and adulthood, new research shows. 最新研究发现,那些能够回想起日常生活片段并且理解其意义的儿童——比如记得幼儿园第一天入学,那只熟悉的猫死去的情形——可以利用这些记忆在青少年及成年时期更好地发展身份认同感、建立人际关系以及做出正确的选择。While the lives of many youngsters today are heavily documented in photos and on social media and stored in families#39; digital archives, studies suggest photos and s have little impact. Parents play a bigger role in helping determine not just how many early memories children can recall, but how children interpret and learn from the events of their earliest experiences. 虽然现在很多年轻人的生活大部分都记录在社交媒体上的照片和视频里,或者储存在家庭的数字档案中,但研究表明,照片和视频的影响很小。家长发挥的作用更大,他们不仅能决定孩子能回想起多少早期的儿时记忆,还会影响到孩子如何对最早期经历的事件进行解读和学习。#39;Our personal memories define who we are. They bond us together,#39; says Robyn Fivush, a psychology professor at Emory University in Atlanta and an author of dozens of studies on the topic. Children whose parents encourage reminiscing and storytelling about daily events show better coping and problem-solving skills by their preteens, and fewer symptoms of depression, research shows. 图表:更有助孩子思考的对话方式在该问题上发表过数十项研究的亚特兰大埃默里大学(Emory University)心理学教授罗宾·菲伍什(Robyn Fivush)说:“我们的记忆决定了我们是什么样的人。记忆是联结我们的纽带。”研究表明,受到家长鼓励回忆并讲述日常事件的儿童,在青春期前表现出更好的应对和解决问题的能力,抑郁的症状也更少。The findings come from research on the mysteries of #39;childhood amnesia#39; -- the fact that most people#39;s earliest memories fade by ages 6 to 8 as the brain hasn#39;t yet developed the capacity to retain them. 这些研究结果来自对“儿时记忆缺失”(childhood amnesia)谜团的研究。大多数人最早期的记忆会在6岁到8岁时逐渐消失,因为大脑尚未发育出保留这些记忆的能力。In the past two years, new research techniques -- including improved data-modeling methods and growth in studies that track children#39;s memories over several years -- have identified specific behaviors that help kids as old as 9 retain more vivid, detailed early memories. 过去两年,新的研究技术——包括更先进的数据建模方法,以及对儿童多年记忆进行跟踪研究的更成熟的手段——找到了那些有助于儿童到9岁还能保留鲜活详细的早期记忆的特定行为。Few childhood memory studies have included fathers. Ones with fathers show mothers are more likely to use a conversation style that helps children retain early memories. 在儿时记忆的研究中,大部分都没有考虑到父亲的因素。那些纳入了父亲影响的研究表明,母亲更常用的谈话式风格有助于孩子保留早期记忆。Some memories help build a sense of self-continuity, or personal identity, says a 2011 study. People recall these memories when they #39;want to feel that I am the same person that I was before,#39; or #39;when I want to understand how I have changed from who I was before.#39; A hurricane survivor, for example, might recall the memory as proof that she can survive tough experiences and grow stronger as a result. 2011年的一项研究称,有些记忆有助于建立自我延续感或者自我身份认同。人们在“希望觉得自己还是以前那个自己”,或者“我想知道跟以前相比有了什么变化”的时候,就会浮现出这些记忆。比如一个飓风幸存者可能会把飓风的记忆当作她可以在艰难环境中生存下来并变得更强大的据。Other memories serve a directive function, and guide behavior. People recall these when making decisions or to avoid repeating past mistakes. A person whose dog was killed by a car is likely to call on that memory when deciding to keep pets on a leash. 有些记忆则会起到指导的作用,可以指引人的行为。人们在做决定或者想避免重复过去错误的时候会想起这些经历。如果自己的曾被车撞死,在决定用绳子拴住宠物的时候就有可能想起这段经历。A third type, social-bonding memories, involve relationships with others. People recall these when they want to strengthen relationships or form new ties, the study says. A college student who participated in a different study cited bedtime-ing sessions with his father, who him the entire #39;Lord of the Rings#39; trilogy, as a motivator to build and maintain strong family ties in his adult life. 第三种叫做社交纽带记忆,涉及到人际关系。这项研究称,人们在希望加强关系或形成新的关系时会想起这种记忆。一名大学生在另外一项研究中提到,父亲曾在睡前给他讲故事,给他念了整个《指环王》(Lord of the Rings)三部曲,他说这是促使他成年后建立和保持亲密家庭关系的一个因素。The ability to draw on all three types of memories predicts higher psychological well-being, a greater sense of purpose and more positive relationships, according to a study of 103 college students published last year in the journal Memory. The students were asked to recall four life events and cite reasons they regarded them as significant. Then they filled out assessments gauging their life satisfaction, self-esteem and psychological well-being. 一项去年发表于《记忆》(Memory)期刊的研究表明,如果这三种类型的记忆都能够存留,就可以预测出一个人的心理状况将更健康,目标感更强,人际关系也更积极。这项研究的对象是103名大学生,他们被要求回忆人生中的四件大事,并讲出他们认为这四个事件重要的原因。接着他们填写了衡量生活满意度、自尊心和心理健康状况的评估表。Also, kids who can recall more specific memories are able to come up with more potential solutions to social problems, according to a 2011 University of New Hampshire study of 83 children ages 10 to 15. 此外,新罕布什尔大学(University of New Hampshire)2011年对83名10至15岁儿童所做的研究表明,记忆越具体的儿童越能够对社会问题提出更多可能的解决办法。Widaad Zaman, a co-author of studies on memory, says early memories help her 4-year-old daughter Haneefah build a sense of identity. She used to love petting dogs being walked by their neighbors, Dr. Zaman says. When a stray dog ran up to her in the family#39;s garage in Orlando, Fla., barking and sniffing at her, however, #39;she was screaming, and very scared,#39; Dr. Zaman says. The memory has made Haneefah cautious around dogs that aren#39;t on a leash. She sometimes tells her mother, #39;I used to be a person who liked dogs, but now I#39;m a person that doesn#39;t like dogs.#39; Ammar Ally制造记忆:维达德#8226;扎曼和当时三岁的女儿哈妮法。来自佛罗里达州奥兰多、合作写过记忆研究报告的维达德·扎曼(Widaad Zaman)说,早期记忆对她四岁的女儿哈妮法(Haneefah)建立身份认同感有帮助。她说,女儿以前喜欢在邻居遛的时候抚摸小。不过,后来一只流浪跑到她家的车库里,向她大叫并且在她身上闻来闻去时,“她尖叫起来,而且非常害怕”。这段记忆让哈妮法对没有被拴住的有了警惕。有时她会告诉妈妈:“我以前是个喜欢的人,但现在我是个不喜欢的人。”The incident helped Haneefah learn to talk about her emotions -- an ability linked in research to coping skills. Dr. Zaman encouraged her to describe her feelings and gave them a name -- fear. #39;Were there other times when you were scared or you felt very frightened?#39; she asked. Haneefah has since learned to start conversations about her emotions, telling her mother, #39;I had a bad dream and I was scared,#39; Dr. Zaman says. 这件事让哈妮法学会了谈论自己的情感——研究表明这是一种和应对技能相关的能力。扎曼鼓励女儿描述自己的感觉并且给这种感觉起名字——恐惧。她问女儿:“其他时候你有没有害怕或者感觉非常恐惧过?”从此哈妮法开始学会讨论自己的情感,她告诉妈妈:“我做了个噩梦,我很害怕。”Few adults remember much before they were 3.5 years old, on average. Some people have credible memories from as early as 18 months of age, however, while others can#39;t recall much before the age of 8, says Patricia Bauer, a psychologist and a senior associate dean for research at Emory. 一般来说,能够记得三岁半以前事情的成年人寥寥无几 。埃默里大学心理学家、负责研究的高级副院长帕特里夏·鲍尔(Patricia Bauer)说,有人对18个月时的事就有可靠的记忆,但有人连八岁以前的事都记不起来。Early memories have a higher likelihood of surviving when children are encouraged to talk about them soon after the event. Adults can guide them to tell #39;a good story, that has a beginning, middle and an end,#39; and help them talk about what it means, says Dr. Bauer, a leading researcher on the topic. The key behavior by mothers is #39;deflecting#39; conversation back to the child -- that is, tossing the ball back to the child repeatedly by asking, say, #39;We really had fun, didn#39;t we?#39; or, #39;Tell me more,#39; she says, based on findings published last year. 如果在事件发生后不久,孩子受到鼓励把事情讲出来,早期记忆保留下来的可能性就更大。该领域研究的领军人物鲍尔说,成年人可以引导他们讲“一个好听的故事,有开端、发展和结局的完整故事”,帮助他们讲出故事的意义。她说,去年发表的研究结果表明,妈妈们最关键的行为就是把谈话“引回”给孩子——也就是不断把话头扔给孩子,比如,她们可以说“我们玩得很开心,不是吗?”或者“再多说些”。Children with mothers who have a #39;highly elaborative style#39; of reminiscing with their kids, asking open-ended who, what, where and when questions, are able at ages 4 and 5 to recall earlier, more detailed memories than other children, research shows. Parents with a more #39;repetitive#39; style of reminiscing, who ask questions with one-word answers and simply repeat them if the child can#39;t respond, have children with fewer and less vivid recollections. 研究表明,如果母亲引导孩子回忆事件时采用“高度详述的谈话风格”,向孩子提出“谁”、“什么”、“哪里”或者“什么时候”这类开放式问题,孩子在四五岁时就能够比其他孩子重拾更早、更详细的记忆。如果父母在回忆时更多地采用“重复”的风格,问的问题一个词就能回答,而且孩子回答不出时只是简单地重复问题,那么孩子的记忆会更少,也不会那么生动。The elaborative method proved to be easy to learn says Catherine Haden, a psychology professor at Loyola University Chicago, a co-author of a 2003 study of parents of 39 preschoolers. Researchers gave parents a pamphlet to , then showed them a describing the elaborative style of conversing with children. Mothers who had the training ily adopted the elaborative style during a staged camping activity, and their kids recalled more details when questioned about the trip later. 芝加哥洛约拉大学(Loyola University Chicago)心理学教授凯瑟琳·黑登(Catherine Haden)说,研究表明,详述式方法很容易学。黑登还是2003年一项针对39名学龄前儿童家长所做研究的合着者。研究人员让家长们看一个小册子,然后给他们放了一段介绍以详述式方法和孩子交谈的视频。看过册子和视频的妈妈们在一次有组织的宿营活动中很快采用了详述式方法,她们的孩子后来在回答有关宿营的问题时也回忆起更多的细节。Dr. Zaman says she sometimes has to make a conscious effort when she#39;s tired or busy to keep tossing the conversational ball back in Haneefah#39;s court. After a boat ride last weekend, Dr. Zaman encouraged Haneefah to describe the splashing of the waves and her favorite part, watching the driver bring the boat to shore. She wants to show Haneefah #39;her version of the story matters,#39; she says. 扎曼说,有时自己太累或太忙,她就得促使自己打起精神努力引导哈妮法交谈。上周末坐船回来后,扎曼鼓励哈妮法描述汹涌的波涛还有她最喜欢的部分——看着船长开船靠岸。她说,她希望让哈妮法知道“她的视角是很重要的”。Sue ShellenbargerSue Shellenbarger /201404/289879

Are sunny skies overhead the key to a sunny disposition? New research from the ed Arab Emirates shows a strong link between positive moods and time spent outdoors in sunlight.我们头顶的晴空是否能助我们获得一个阳光的心情?阿联酋最近的一项研究给出了肯定的回答,正能量与多晒太阳有着很大的关系呢。;This is just a pilot study and we need larger sample size but we found that behavioral change is associated with mood change and vitamin D status,; study co-author Dr. Fatme Al Anouti, an assistant professor in Zayed University#39;s college of sustainability sciences and humanities, told The Huffington Post in an email. ;So participants who adopted a more outdoor lifestyle got better in terms of mood and vitamin D status.;“这只是初次研究,我们需要更大的样本。不过我们的确发现心情变化与体内维生素D的含量有关。”本项研究的作者之一 Dr. Fatme Al Anouti 说,他是萨义德大学可持续性自然与人文学院的教授。Dr. Fatme Al Anouti 在一封 email 中告知赫芬顿邮报,“研究参与者中,热衷户外运动的人心情比较好,维生素D的含量也更高。”For the study, researchers identified 20 individuals with depressive symptoms and low blood levels of vitamin D from a group of more than 100 people. Some of these individuals were encouraged to spend more time in the sun for seven weeks while others were encouraged simply to see a doctor, Abu Dhabi-based newspaper The National reported.根据总部在阿布扎比的 The National 报报道,在这项调查中,调查者从100名参与者中选出了20名有抑郁症状和维生素D含量较低的人。这20人中,一部分鼓励他们在未来的七个星期里多晒太阳,另一部分则只让他们去看医生。What did the researchers find? The individuals who were encouraged to get more sun ;showed less symptoms of depression,; Dr. Al Anouti told The National. ;In this study we showed that if you improve your vitamin D level, you will improve your mood.;研究者们发现了什么呢?那些被鼓励多晒太阳的人“表现出更少的抑郁症状,” Dr. Al Anouti told 告诉 The National 报纸,“这项研究表明如果你提高体内维生素D的含量,你的心情就会变好。”Psychologist Dr. Michael Terman, professor at Columbia University and author of the book ;Reset Your Inner Clock,; told The Huffington Post in an email that this new research implies the antidepressant benefit comes from exposure to ultraviolte rays that act on the skin to stimulate vitamin D production.哥伦比亚大学教授、《重置你的生物钟》一书的作者、心理学家 Dr. Michael Terman 通过 email 告诉赫芬顿邮报,这项新研究说明:阳光能有抗抑郁的效果,是因为紫外线照射皮肤刺激了维生素D的产出。But another factor may be at play.不过另一个因素也可能影响着实验结果。;The primary antidepressant effect of light must lie in the visible range,; he noted. ;So the Zayed subjects likely showed improved mood because of increased retinal light exposure rather than increased skin exposure to UV in sunlight.;“阳光的抗抑郁效果必须是在有可见光的情况下才有用。”他注意到,“萨义德研究中的参与者的情绪好转,可能是因为视网膜接收到了阳光,而不是因为皮肤接收了阳光中的紫外线。”This new study is not the first to suggest a link between mood and vitamin D levels. A 2006 study linked vitamin D deficiency in older adults with lower moods. More recently, research at the Loyola University Chicago Niehoff School of Nursing showed that vitamin D supplements improved the moods of women with type 2 diabetes and signs of depression.这项研究并不是第一项指出情绪与维生素D有联系的研究。一项2006年的研究显示,心情不好的老年人通常缺少维生素D。洛约拉大学护理学院最近的一项研究表明,补充维生素D可以使有抑郁症状和Ⅱ型糖尿病的女性情绪好转。 /201310/259371

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