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来源:88优惠    发布时间:2019年07月22日 13:26:45    编辑:admin         

Over the years, scientists have come up with a lot of ideas about why we sleep.关于我们为什么要睡觉,多年来,科学家提出了很多想法。Some have argued that it’s a way to save energy. Others have suggested that slumber provides an opportunity to clear away the brain’s cellular waste. Still others have proposed that sleep simply forces animals to lie still, letting them hide from predators.有些人认为这是一种节约能量的方法。其他人提出,睡眠为大脑提供了清除细胞废物的机会。还有一些人认为,睡眠只是迫使动物静静地躺下来,让它们可以躲过捕食者。A pair of papers published on Thursday in the journal Science offer evidence for another notion: We sleep to forget some of the things we learn each day.周四在《科学》(Science)期刊上发表的两篇论文为另一个观念提供了据:我们睡觉是为了忘记每天所学到的一些东西。In order to learn, we have to grow connections, or synapses, between the neurons in our brains. These connections enable neurons to send signals to one another quickly and efficiently. We store new memories in these networks.为了学习,我们必须增加大脑神经元之间的连接,或者叫突触。这些连接使神经元能够快速有效地在彼此之间发送信号。我们就是在这些网络之中存储新的记忆。In 2003, Giulio Tononi and Chiara Cirelli, biologists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, proposed that synapses grew so exuberantly during the day that our brain circuits got “noisy.” When we sleep, the scientists argued, our brains pare back the connections to lift the signal over the noise.2003年,威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校的生物学家朱利奥·托诺尼(Giulio Tononi)和基娅拉·奇雷利(Chiara Cirelli)提出,突触在白天生长得非常激烈,令大脑电路变得“嘈杂”。当我们睡觉时,大脑得以减少连接,这样真正的信号才可以超过噪声。In the years since, Dr. Tononi and Dr. Cirelli, along with other researchers, have found a great deal of indirect evidence to support the so-called synaptic homeostasis hypothesis.在此之后的几年里,托诺尼士和奇雷利士与其他研究者发现了大量间接据,持这一所谓的突触自稳态假说。It turns out, for example, that neurons can prune their synapses — at least in a dish. In laboratory experiments on clumps of neurons, scientists can give them a drug that spurs them to grow extra synapses. Afterward, the neurons pare back some of the growth.比如,事实明,神经元可以修剪它们的突触——至少是在实验室里。在对神经元丛进行实验室实验时,科学家给它们一种药物,刺激它们生长额外的突触。之后,神经元削减了一些生长。Other evidence comes from the electric waves released by the brain. During deep sleep, the waves slow down. Dr. Tononi and Dr. Cirelli have argued that shrinking synapses produce this change.其他据来自大脑释放的电波。在深度睡眠期间,电波减慢。 托诺尼士和奇雷利士认为,这种变化是由突触缩小带来的。Four years ago, Dr. Tononi and Dr. Cirelli got a chance to test their theory by looking at the synapses themselves. They acquired a kind of deli slicer for brain tissue, which they used to shave ultrathin sheets from a mouse’s brain.四年前,托诺尼士和奇雷利士得以通过观察突触本身来检验他们的理论。他们获得了一种用于脑组织的切片机,用它从小鼠的大脑上得到超薄切片。Luisa de Vivo, an assistant scientist working in their lab, led a painstaking survey of tissue taken from mice, some awake and others asleep. She and her colleagues determined the size and shape of 6,920 synapses in total.该实验室的助理科学家路易莎·德·维沃(Luisa de Vivo)对这些从小鼠大脑取出的组织进行了精心研究,一些小鼠是醒着的,其他一些处于睡眠状态。她和同事们确定了6920个突触的大小和形状。The synapses in the brains of sleeping mice, they found, were 18 percent smaller than in awake ones. “That there’s such a big change over all is surprising,” Dr. Tononi said.他们发现,睡眠小鼠脑中的突触比清醒小鼠的突触小18%。“整体而言,那个巨大的变化颇为惊人,”托诺尼士说。The second study was led by Graham H. Diering, a postdoctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Diering and his colleagues set out to explore the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis by studying the proteins in mouse brains. “I’m really coming at it from this nuts-and-bolts place,” Dr. Diering said.第二项研究由约翰霍普金斯大学士后研究员格雷厄姆·H·迪林(Graham H. Diering)领导。迪林士和同事们通过研究小鼠脑中的蛋白质来探索突触自稳态假说。“我真的是从这种细节出发来研究这个问题的,”迪林士说。In one experiment, Dr. Diering and his colleagues created a tiny window through which they could peer into mouse brains. Then he and his colleagues added a chemical that lit up a surface protein on brain synapses.在一个实验中,迪林士和同事们创建了一个小窗口,通过它可以窥看小鼠的大脑。然后,他和同事们在小鼠大脑内添加了一种化学物质,能够点亮脑突触上的表面蛋白。Looking through the window, they found that the number of surface proteins dropped during sleep. That decline is what you would expect if the synapses were shrinking.透过窗口,他们发现,在睡眠期间突触表面蛋白的数量下降。如果突触缩小,这种下降就应该会出现。Dr. Diering and his colleagues then searched for the molecular trigger for this change. They found that hundreds of proteins increase or decrease inside of synapses during the night. But one protein in particular, called Homer1A, stood out.迪林士和同事们随后开始寻找这种变化的分子触发因素。他们发现,在突触内,有数百种蛋白质在夜间增加或减少。但有一种名为Homer1A的蛋白质格外突出。In earlier experiments on neurons in a dish, Homer1A proved to be important for paring back synapses. Dr. Diering wondered if it was important in sleep, too.在对神经元进行的早期实验室实验中,Homer1A被明在突触减少过程中发挥了重要作用。迪林士想知道它是否在睡眠中也很重要。To find out, he and his colleagues studied mice genetically engineered so that they couldn’t make Homer1A proteins. These mice slept like ordinary mice, but their synapses didn’t change their proteins like the ones in ordinary mice.为了发现这一点,他和同事研究了经基因工程改造、不能制造Homer1A蛋白的小鼠。这些小鼠可以像普通小鼠一样睡觉,但是它们的突触不像在普通小鼠中那样改变其蛋白质。Dr. Diering’s research suggests that sleepiness triggers neurons to make Homer1A and ship it into their synapses. When sleep arrives, Homer1A turns on the pruning machinery.迪林士的研究表明,困倦引发神经元制造Homer1A,并将其运送到突触。当睡眠开始时,Homer1A也打开了它的修剪机制。To see how this pruning machinery affects learning, the scientists gave regular mice a memory test. They put the animals in a room where they got a mild electric shock if they walked over one section of the floor.为了观察这种修剪机制如何影响学习,科学家对普通小鼠进行了记忆测试。他们把这些动物放在一个房间里,如果它们走到地板的某一部分,就会受到轻微的电击。That night, the scientists injected a chemical into the brains of some of the mice. The chemical had been shown to block neurons in dishes from pruning their synapses.当天晚上,科学家将一种化学物质注入若干小鼠的脑中。在实验室中,这种化学物质已被明可以阻止神经元减少其突触。The next day, the scientists put all the mice back in the chamber they had been in before. Both groups of mice spent much of the time frozen, fearfully recalling the shock.第二天,科学家把所有小鼠都放回之前所在的房间。两组小鼠大部分时间都是一动不动,恐惧地回忆起电击的记忆。But when the researchers put the mice in a different chamber, they saw a big difference. The ordinary mice sniffed around curiously. The mice that had been prevented from pruning their brain synapses during sleep, on the other hand, froze once again.但当研究人员把老鼠放入不同的房间,他们看到了很大的区别。普通组的老鼠好奇地到处嗅着。另一边,在睡眠期间被阻止减少大脑突触的小鼠再次一动不动。Dr. Diering thinks that the injected mice couldn’t narrow their memories down to the particular chamber where they had gotten the shock. Without nighttime pruning, their memories ended up fuzzy.迪林士认为,受注射的小鼠不能把记忆缩小到它们遭受电击的特定房间范围内。没有夜间的修剪,它们的记忆最后变得模糊。In their own experiment, Dr. Tononi and his colleagues found that the pruning didn’t strike every neuron. A fifth of the synapses were unchanged. It’s possible that these synapses encode well-established memories that shouldn’t be tampered with.在他们自己的实验中,托诺尼士和同事们发现,修剪并不是针对每个神经元。1/5的突触没有改变。有可能这些突触之中编码了已经良好地建立起来、且不应被修改的记忆。“You can forget in a smart way,” Dr. Tononi said.“你可以用一种聪明的方式来忘记,”托诺尼士说。Other researchers cautioned that the new findings weren’t definitive proof of the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis.其他研究者警告说,新的发现并不能为突触自稳态假说提供决定性的据。Marcos G. Frank, a sleep researcher at Washington State University in Spokane, said that it could be hard to tell whether changes to the brain at night were caused by sleep or by the biological clock. “It’s a general problem in the field,” he said.华盛顿州立大学斯波坎分校的睡眠问题研究者马科斯·G·弗兰克(Marcos G. Frank)说,很难判断大脑夜间的变化是由睡眠还是生物钟引起的。“这是该领域的一个普遍问题,”他说。Markus H. Schmidt, of the Ohio Sleep Medicine Institute, said that while the brain might prune synapses during sleep, he questioned whether this was the main explanation for why sleep exists.俄亥俄睡眠医学研究所(Ohio Sleep Medicine Institute)的马库斯·H·施密特(Markus H. Schmidt)说,虽然大脑可能在睡眠期间修剪突触,但他质疑这一点是否是睡眠存在的主要原因。“The work is great,” he said of the new studies, “but the question is, is this a function of sleep or is it the function?”“这项工作很好,”他谈起这项新研究时说,“但问题是,这是睡眠的功能之一,还是它的主要功能?”Many organs, not just the brain, seem to function differently during sleep, Dr. Schmidt pointed out. The gut appears to make many new cells, for example.不仅大脑,许多器官在睡眠时的功能似乎都不一样,施密特士指出。比如肠道似乎就会产生许多新的细胞。Dr. Tononi said that the new findings should prompt a look at what current sleeping drugs do in the brain. While they may be good at making people sleepy, it’s also possible that they may interfere with the pruning required for forming memories.托诺尼士说,新的发现可以促使人们审视目前的睡眠药物在大脑中发挥什么作用。虽然它们可以让人们感到困意,但它们也可能干扰形成记忆所需的突触修剪。“You may actually work against yourself,” Dr. Tononi said.“你可能其实是在损害自己,”托诺尼士说。In the future, sleep medicines might precisely target the molecules involved in sleep, ensuring that synapses get properly pruned.在将来,睡眠药物或许可以精确瞄准参与睡眠的分子,确保突触得到适当的修剪。“Once you know a little bit of what happens at the ground-truth level, you can get a better idea of what to do for therapy,” Dr. Tononi said.“一旦你知道一点基本事实层面发生的情况,就可以得到更好的治疗思路,”托诺尼士说。 /201702/491003。

Baidu, China’s largest search group, has launched an attempt to become the Android of the automotive world by sharing its self-driving technology.中国最大的搜索集团百度(Baidu)发起一项努力,试图通过共享其无人驾驶技术,成为汽车界的安卓(Android)。At the Shanghai Auto Show yesterday, Baidu revealed its Apollo project, which it said was an “open, complete and reliable software platform for its partners in the automotive and autonomous driving industry to develop their own autonomous driving systems”.在昨天的上海车展上,百度透露了“阿波罗计划”。百度称,该计划“将向汽车行业及自动驾驶领域的合作伙伴提供一个开放、完整、安全的软件平台,帮助他们结合车辆和硬件系统,快速搭建一套属于自己的完整的自动驾驶系统。”The move appeared inspired by Google’s efforts to dominate smartphones by launching Android as an open source set of tools that other companies could customise.该举动的灵感似乎来自谷歌(Google)主导智能手机的努力,后者把安卓设计为一套开源工具,让其他公司可以定制。Baidu said it would open its technology in stages. In July it would share intellectual property for “restricted environment” driving, with technology for simple urban road conditions to follow this year. By 2020 software for “fully autonomous driving capabilities on highways and open city roads” would be available.百度称,将分阶段开放其技术。7月,它将分享“受限环境”驾驶的知识产权,随后在今年晚些时候分享简单城市道路环境下的技术。到2020年,百度将提供具备“公路和开放性城市道路全自动驾驶能力”的软件。Open-sourcing of automotive technology is not unprecedented: in 2014 electric carmaker Tesla offered tech secrets to rivals in an attempt to boost interest in low-emission vehicles.对汽车技术进行开源并非史无前例:2014年电动汽车制造商特斯拉(Tesla)向竞争对手提供了技术秘密,试图提升行业对低排放汽车的兴趣。Baidu had sought to develop autonomous driving technology through partnerships with Chinese carmakers such as BAIC and Chery, with which it has road-tested Lincoln cars in California.百度试图通过与北汽控股(BAIC)和奇瑞(Chery)等中国汽车制造商建立合作关系,来研发自动驾驶技术。百度已在加州用林肯汽车进行了道路测试。In artificial intelligence Baidu is widely considered to have an edge over domestic competitors and is regularly rated on a par with IBM and Google.在人工智能方面,百度被普遍认为拥有超出国内竞争者的优势,经常被认为是与IBM和谷歌水平相仿的领先者。“AI has great potential to drive social development, and one of AI’s biggest opportunities is intelligent vehicles,” said Qi Lu, Baidu’s chief operating officer, yesterday.“人工智能拥有推动社会发展的巨大潜力,而人工智能最大的机遇之一是智能汽车,”百度首席运营官陆奇昨日表示。However, a setback came last month when some of the group’s most senior talent quit.然而,上月百度遭遇了一个挫折,其集团内一些最资深的人才出走。Mark Natkin of Marbridge Consulting in Beijing said the open-source move was ambiguous. “One could look at this as an ambitious effort to jump out into the forefront of autonomous driving technology,” he said.北京迈瑞咨询(Marbridge Consulting)的马克?纳特金(Mark Natkins)称,百度的开源举动让人看不懂。“人们可以把这视为跳到自动驾驶技术前沿的雄心之举,”他称。But it could also be “a step back from a wholly self-contained effort”.但它也可能是“从完全自成一体的努力倒退一步”。How Baidu intends to generate revenue from the open-source model is unclear. Shu Chang, a consultant at Roland Berger in Shanghai, said the data generated by the project would be immensely valuable.尚不清楚百度打算如何从开源模式中获得营收。罗兰贝格(Roland Berger)驻上海顾问舒畅表示,该项目生成的数据将极具价值。“The biggest driver for Baidu in this project is that through an open platform like this it is able to collect user information through the whole autonomous driving and car networking system,” he said.他称,“百度在该项目上最大的动力是,通过像这样的开放平台,它可以通过整个自动驾驶和汽车网络系统收集用户信息。”For car companies open-sourcing will lower the costs of developing their own technology, according to the IDC consultancy. “For the driverless car industry, this will lower the tech threshold for the overall automobile industry and help to form an industry standard,” its analysts wrote.据咨询公司IDC表示,对于汽车企业而言,开源将降低研发自己技术的成本。IDC的分析师们写道,“对无人驾驶汽车行业来说,这将为整个汽车行业降低技术门槛,并且帮助形成行业标准。”Baidu conducted successful road tests of fully autonomous cars in Beijing in December 2015.2015年12月,百度在北京成功完成了全自动驾驶汽车的道路测试。 /201704/505430。

你浪费了多少上班时间?Americans who feel bored and underpaid do work hard -- at surfing the Internet and catching up on gossip, according to a survey that found U.S. workers waste about 20 percent of their working day.An online survey of 2,057 employees by online compensation company Salary.com found about six in every 10 workers admit to wasting time at work with the average employee wasting 1.7 hours of a typical 8.5 hour working day.Personal Internet use topped the list as the leading time-wasting activity according to 34 percent of respondents, with 20.3 percent then listing socializing with co-workers and 17 percent conducting personal business as taking up time.The reasons why people wasted time were varied with nearly 18 percent of respondents questioned by e-mail in June and July said boredom and not having enough to do was the main reason.The second most popular reason for wasting time was having too long hours (13.9 percent), being underpaid (11.8 percent), and a lack of challenging work (11.1 percent).While the amount of time wasted at work seems high, Bill Coleman, chief compensation officer at Salary.com. said the numbers have improved, with the amount of time wasted dropping 19 percent since Salary.com conducted its first annual survey on slacking at work in 2005. Then workers reported wasting 2.09 hours of their working day."I think (the decline) is really a result of the economy and that there's more business, more work available and less time tosit around wondering what you are going to do with your day," Coleman told reporters. 厌倦工作、又觉得薪金太低的美国人把时间都浪费到了上网和闲聊上。一项调查发现,美国人浪费了约20%的上班时间。该项由在线薪酬公司Salary.com网站开展的在线调查共有2057名雇员参与。调查发现,每10名员工中约有6人承认自己在上班时浪费了时间。在一个典型的8.5小时工作日中,一般员工会浪费1.7个小时。上网是第一大浪费上班时间的活动,有34%的受访者利用上班时间上网;20.3%的受访者在上班时与同事闲聊;17%的人处理私人事务。人们在上班时做其它事情的原因各不相同。在6月和7月的电子邮件受访者中,近18%的人称这样做的主要原因是无聊和没事可做。第二大原因是工作时间太长(13.9%);其次是薪资太低(11.8%)和工作缺乏挑战(11.1%)。尽管看起来被浪费的上班时间很多,但Salary.com网站的薪资主管比尔·柯尔曼说,从具体数字 上看,情况还是有所改观。自从2005年Salary.com网站首次开展此项一年一度的调查以来,被浪费的上班时间数下降了19%。当时员工一个工作日 浪费的时间为2.09小时。科尔曼在接受记者采访时说:“我认为这是经济发展的结果。公司业务更多、需要处理的事情更多,员工们已没有多余的时间去考虑如何打发时间了。” /200803/29231。

Audi, the luxury German carmaker owned by Volkswagen, plans to work with China’s three biggest technology companies to enhance its reputation for building connected cars.大众(Volkswagen)旗下的德国豪车制造商奥迪(Audi)计划与中国三大科技公司开展合作,以增强其打造联网汽车的声誉。At its annual summit in Shanghai on Sunday, Audi signed agreements with Tencent, Alibaba and Baidu, saying it will work closely with each in data analysis, internet-vehicle platform building and urban intelligent transport.在上周日于上海举行的年度峰会上,奥迪与腾讯(Tencent)、阿里巴巴(Alibaba)和百度(Baidu)签署协议,称将与这些公司在数据分析、互联网-车辆平台建设和城市智能交通等领域密切合作。Audi’s move is the latest example of a traditional carmaker linking up with software specialists to avoid being left behind, as new entrants compete on self-driving vehicles and so-called internet of things connectivity. 在市场新参与者在自动驾驶汽车和物联网上展开竞争之际,奥迪此举是一家传统汽车制造商与软件专家联手以免落后的最新例。In July, German rival BMW teamed up with Israeli sensor maker Mobileye to produce autonomous cars over the next decade.今年七月,德国竞争对手宝马(BMW)联手以色列传感器厂商Mobileye,拟在未来10年生产自动驾驶汽车。China is the world’s largest car market for new cars, and while Audi lags behind BMW and Mercedes in the global luxury market, it has been China’s number one luxury car brand by sales since 1988 — when it established a joint-venture with partner Chinese First Automobile Works.中国是世界上最大的新车市场,而尽管奥迪在全球豪车市场落后于宝马和奔驰(BMW),但它自1988年(那年豪迪与中国第一汽车制造厂(Chinese First Automobile Works)组建了一家合资企业)以来一直是中国销量最高的豪车。From January to July this year, Audi sold 336,580 cars in China, accounting for almost one in- three of the brand’s global sales. 今年1至7月,奥迪在中国的汽车销量达到33.658万辆,占该品牌全球销量近三分之一。However, its rivals are catching up. 然而,它的竞争对手正在迎头赶上。Audi sales were only up 6.5 per cent, while BMW deliveries were up 8.5 per cent and Mercedes sales climbed 32 per cent, to 287,753 and 257,276 respectively.奥迪销量增幅只有6.5%,而宝马和奔驰的销量分别增长8.5%和32%,至28.7753万辆和25.7276万辆。Maintaining the lead requires investing in internet-connected technology, analysts argued. 分析师们提出,保持领先要求投资于联入互联网的技术。Arndt Ellinghorst, at Evercore ISI, said Chinese car buyers appear to be even more connected than people in the western world, in part because the average buyer is 36 years old — 10 years younger than in the US and 20 years younger than in Germany.Evercore ISI分析师阿恩特#8226;埃林霍斯特(Arndt Ellinghorst)表示,中国购车者似乎比西方买家的联网程度还要高,部分原因是中国买家的平均年龄为36岁,比美国年轻10岁,比德国年轻20岁。In 2013, Audi opened a research and development centre in Beijing to develop technology that it will aim to monetise in China first, and then export globally.2013年,奥迪在北京设立了一个研发中心,力求开发首先在中国投入商用、然后输出至全球的技术。The Chinese are early adopters. 中国人乐于尝试新技术。If you’re not here with the latest stuff, then you can’t win, said Martin Kühl, an Audi spokesman in Shanghai.如果你在这里拿不出最新的东西,那你是赢不了的,奥迪在上海的发言人马丁#8226;屈尔(Martin Kühl)表示。Mr Kühl said Audi has aly been successful developing technology in China and then deploying it elsewhere. 屈尔表示,奥迪已成功地在中国开发技术,然后将其推广至其他地方。Touchscreen technology developed in Beijing is now being used by engineers in Germany.在北京开发的触摸屏技术,如今被德国的工程技术人员采用。Audi’s relationship with Alibaba aly goes back a decade. 奥迪与阿里巴巴的关系可以追溯到10年前。This year, the two companies have been working on 3D maps and traffic data technology that Mr Kühl said is high-resolution, providing almost real-life pictures of buildings.今年以来,两家公司合作研发3D地图和交通数据技术;屈尔表示,这种高分辨率技术提供近乎真实的建筑物图像。This kind of map material is not even available outside of China, he said. Alibaba has done a really great job and we’ve been the first to use this data, to use these maps.这种地图资料在中国以外根本无人提供,他说,阿里巴巴做了真正了不起的工作,而我们能够率先利用这些数据,利用这些地图。It is not yet clear when the technology will made available in Europe but Mr Kühl said the interface can be linked with a different data feed, enabling Audi to link it with services from Google or HERE, the navigation software Audi joint-purchased with BMW and Daimler last year for Euro2.8bn.尚不清楚该技术何时将在欧洲推出,但屈尔表示,相关接口可链接不同的数据馈送,使奥迪能够将其与谷歌(Google)或HERE的务链接;HERE是奥迪去年联手宝马和戴姆勒(Daimler)斥资28亿欧元收购的导航软件。Audi’s relationship with Baidu began two years ago and, next year, it plans to introduce Baidu CarLife, a local competitor to Apple’s CarPlay, into its cars. 奥迪与百度的合作始于两年前,明年它计划在自己的汽车中推出百度CarLife,后者是苹果(Apple) CarPlay的本地竞争产品。This app includes free navigation software from the Chinese search giant as well as support for third-party apps.这款应用包含来自百度这家中国搜索巨擘的免费导航软件,并持第三方应用。Of course we also offer Apple CarPlay in China but there are more Chinese using the local services, Mr Kühl said.当然,我们在中国也提供苹果CarPlay,但是更多的中国人使用本地务,屈尔表示。With Tencent, Audi is working to integrate WeChat MyCar services for location sharing and music sharing. 至于腾讯,奥迪正致力于集成微信(WeChat) MyCar务,用于地点共享和音乐共享。The two companies started co-operating earlier this year.这两家公司是在今年早些时候开始合作的。 /201609/465990。