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2019年08月26日 12:29:06来源:赶集大夫

Following un Ancient Footsteps 长相"丝"守:丝绸之路话从头One of the world's most ancient and historically important trade routes, the Silk Road conjures up exotic images of camel caravans, windswept deserts, and such legendary figures as Genghis Khan and Marco Polo. Extending as far as the Indian kingdoms in the west, to present-day Xian in China in the east, the Silk Road was aly a crossroads of Asia by the third century B.C. Skirting the edges of the harsh and inhospitable Taklimakan desert, the Silk Road actually had several different branches, each passing through different oases. All roads began in Changan (Xian). The northern route wound its way through places such as Turfan and Kuqa before finally ending at Kashgar. The southern route followed the lower fringes of the Taklimakan to eventually end up at the same destination. Numerous other routes were also plied throughout the ages, reaching all the way to Samarkand, Tashkent, India, and the .htmian Sea. Silk was not the only commodity traveling the Silk Road. Other goods such as exotic animals, ivory, and gold were also transported along the route. It was silk, though, which fascinated the Romans. Agents were sent from Rome to explore the route and to obtain the material at a lower price. The Romans, however, did not give the Silk Road its name. The term was actually coined by the 19th-century German scholar Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen. In spite of its name, silk was not the most important commodity traversing the Silk Road. That honor fell to religion. Along the northern branch of the route, Buddhism made its way from India to China in the fourth and fifth centuries. Christianity also made an appearance in the seventh century, when merchants carried the faith from northern Iran to Changan. Not long after the Tang era (618-907), when trade along the Silk Road had reached its height, the fearsome Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies conquered a vast area spanning much of Central Asia. Accordingly, the Silk Road became an important communication route between different parts of the Mongol Empire. During the rule of Kublai Khan, more Europeans began venturing towards China along the Silk Road. The most famous of these travelers was Marco Polo, whose thoughts and adventures were later recorded and embellished by an Italian romance writer. During the 14th century, with the disintegration of the Mongol Empire, the isolationist policies of the Ming Dynasty, and the development of the silk route by sea, the Silk Road was forced into decline. Renewed interest in it emerged only among Western scholars near the end of the 19th century. The existence of ancient cities excited them, and an archaeological free-for-all began. These days, those seeking out treasures of the Silk Road can find what they are looking for in such far-flung places as London, Delhi, and Berlin. 世界上最古老,历史上最重要的贸易路线之一──丝绸之路,总给人一种富有异国情调的印象:骆驼商队、狂风肆虐的沙漠,还有诸如成吉思汗和马可波罗等传奇人物。丝绸之路绵亘远长,西至印度王国,东到中国现在的西安,早在公元前三世纪,丝绸之路就已经成为了亚洲交通的十字路口。丝绸之路其实有数条线,它们分别沿着环境恶劣、不适合人类居住的塔克拉玛干沙漠外缘,穿越不同的绿洲。所有的路线都是始于长安(西安):北线蜿蜒经过了吐鲁番、库车,最后到达喀什格尔南线沿着塔克拉玛干下缘前行,到达同一终点。其它的许多线也是历代都通行的,通往撒玛尔罕、塔什干、印度, 及里海等地。 丝绸并不是丝绸之路上运送的唯一商品。其它货物如奇珍异兽、象牙,及黄金等也通过丝绸之路运输。 不过格外令罗马人着迷的还是丝绸。罗马派遣代理商探测这条路线,并以较低的价格购得丝绸。然而,“丝 绸之路”的名称并不是罗马人起的。这个名称是19世纪时一名叫Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen的德国学者首创的。 虽然名为“丝绸之路”,丝绸却并不是穿过该路线运送的最重要的“商品”。这项荣誉应归于宗教。 公元第四、五世纪时,佛教沿着路线的北从印度传入中国。基督教也在公元七世纪时,由商人从伊朗北 部传到长安,首次在中土出现。唐代是丝绸之路沿途贸易活动的鼎盛时期,在唐代王朝灭亡后不久,令人闻风丧胆的成吉思汗及其蒙古大军征了横跨中亚大部分地区的广阔领土。丝绸之路于是成为蒙古帝国各部落间重要的交通线路。忽必烈统治期间,更多的欧洲人冒险沿着丝绸之路来到中国。这些旅行者中最出名的就是马可波罗,他的所见所闻后来被一位意大利传奇小说家记载下来,并加以润色。 14世纪时,蒙古帝国瓦解、明朝实行闭关政策,加上“海上丝路”的发展,丝绸之路被迫走向没落。 直到近19世纪末,才有西方学者重新燃起了对丝绸之路的兴趣。古城的存在让他们兴奋不已,于是掀起了一阵考古热潮。现在,想在丝绸之路寻宝的人们,在伦敦、德里、柏林等许多地方,都可以找到他们想要的东西。 Article/200803/30105。

  • CHAPTER TEN HALLOWEEN第十章 万圣节前夜Malfoy couldn#39;t believe his eyes when he saw that Harry and Ron were still at Hogwarts the next day, looking tired but perfectly cheerful.第二天,马尔福简直不敢相信自己的眼睛,他看见哈利和罗恩居然还在霍格沃茨,虽然显得有些疲倦,但非常开心。Indeed, by the next morning Harry and Ron thought that meeting the three-headed dog had been an excellent adventure,确实,哈利和罗恩第二天一早醒来,都觉得看见那条三个脑袋的大是一次很精的奇遇and they were quite keen to have another one.巴不得再经历一次。In the meantime, Harry filled Ron in about the package that seemed to have been moved from Gringotts to Hogwarts,而且,哈利原原本本地对罗恩讲了那个似乎已从古灵阁转移到了霍格沃茨的小包裹and they spent a lot of time wondering what could possibly need such heavy protection.于是他们花了许多时间猜测,是什么东西需要这样严加看守。It#39;s either really valuable or really dangerous,said Ron.它要么特别宝贵,要么特别危险。罗恩说。Or both,said Harry.或者两项全占了。哈利说。But as all they knew for sure about the mysterious object was that it was about two inches long,但是,关于那个神秘物件,他们惟一能够确定的只是它的长度有两英寸。they didn#39;t have much chance of guessing what it was without further clues.如果没有更多的线索,是不可能猜到它是什么东西的。Neither Neville nor Hermione showed the slightest interest in what lay underneath the dog and the trapdoor.纳威和赫敏对于大和活板下面藏着什么,似乎一点也不感兴趣。All Neville cared about was never going near the dog again.纳威只想着千万别再走近那只大。Hermione was now refusing to speak to Harry and Ron, but she was such a bossy know-it-all that they saw this as an added bonus.赫敏现在不答理哈利和罗恩了。她一向自以为是,喜欢发号施令,所以他们倒觉得这是一件意外的好事。All they really wanted now was a way of getting back at Malfoy, and to their great delight,他们现在最希望的就是对马尔福进行报复just such a thing arrived in the mail about a week later.令他们高兴的是,大约一个星期后,这样的机会就随着邮差一起到来了。 /201205/181921。
  • 2 Down the coast of Africa第2章 南下非洲海岸For two long years I lived the life of a slave. I worked in escape,but it was never possible.两年多的时间里,我过着奴隶的生活,我在屋子里、花园里干活,每天都计划着逃跑,但一直没能成功。I thought about it day and night. My master liked to go fishing in a little boat,and he al-ways took me with him.我日夜思考着逃跑的事。我的主人喜欢乘小船去钓鱼,而且总是带上我。A man called Moely,and a young boy also went with us.一个名叫莫雷的男人及一个小男孩也总跟随着我们。One day my master said to us,#39;Some of my friends want to go fishing tomorrow. Get the boat y.一天主人对我们说:“我有些朋友明天想去钓鱼,把船给准备好。”So we put a lot of food and drink on the boat,and the next morning,we waited for my master and his friends.于是,我们搬了很多食物和饮料到船上,在第二天早上,我们等候着主人和他的朋友。But when my master arrived,he was alone.但主人来时却是他独自一人。#39;My friends don#39;t want to go fishing today,#39;he said to me. #39;But you go with Moely and the boy,and catch some fish for our supper tonight. #39;“我的朋友今天不想去钓鱼了,”他对我说,“但你和莫雷及这孩子去为我们今天的晚餐捕些鱼来。”#39;Yes,master,#39;I answered quietly,but inside I was excited. #39;Perhaps now I can escape,#39;I said to myself.“是,主人。”我平静地回答,但我内心很激动。心想,“也许这回我可以逃脱了。”My master went back to his friends and we took the boat out to sea.主人回到他的朋友们那儿去了,我们坐船出了海。For a time we fished quietly,and then I moved carefully behind Moely and knocked him into the water.静静地钓了一阵鱼,然后我小心翼翼地移到莫雷的身后把他推到了海里。#39;Swim!#39;I cried. #39;Swim to the shore!#39;“游回去,”我大声喊着“朝岸上游!”My master liked to shoot seabirds and so there were guns on the boat.我的主人喜欢打海鸟,所以有几只在船上。Quickly,I took one of these guns. Moely was swim-ming after the boat and I shouted to him:我迅速地抓过一,莫雷正跟在船后面游,我朝他叫道:Go back to the shore!You can swim there—it#39;s not too far.“回到岸上去!你可以游到那儿,这儿离海岸不太远。I won#39;t hurt you,but if you come near the boat,I#39;ll shoot you through the head!我不会伤害你,但如果你一靠近这只船,我就会打穿你的睑袋!”#39;So Moely turned,and swam back to the shore as quickly as he could.于是,莫雷转过身尽他最快的速度游回岸上去了。Then I said to the boy,#39;Xury,if you help me,I#39;ll be a good friend to you.然后,我对这小孩说:“苏里,如果你帮我,我会是你的好朋友,If you don#39;t help me,I#39;ll push you into the sea too. #39;如果你不帮我,我同样会把你丢到海里去。”But Xury was happy to help me. #39;I#39;ll go all over the world with you,#39;he cried.但苏里很乐意帮助我。“我愿意跟着你走遍世界,”他大声说。I wanted to sail to the Canary Islands,but I was afraid to go too far from the shore.我想驶向加纳利岛,但是不敢远离海岸。It was only a small boat. And so we sailed on south for some days.这只是一只小船。因此我们向南航行了几天。We had very little water,and it was dangerous country here,with many wild animals.我们只有很少的水,这儿是危险的国度,有许多野生动物。We were afraid,but we often had to go on shore to get more water.我们害怕,但是我们常常不得不上岸去取水。Once I used a gun to shoot a wild animal.有一次我用射死了一只野兽。I don#39;t know what animal it was,but it made a good meal.我不知道这是什么动物,但它成了一顿美餐。For about ten or twelve days we sailed on south,down the coast of Africa.沿着非洲海岸我们朝南航行了大约10天至12天,Then one day we saw some people on the shore—strange,wild people,who did not look friendly.随后一天我们看到岸上有些人——古怪的野人,他们看起来并不友善,By now we had very little food,and We really needed help. we were afraid,but we had to go on shore.那时我们的食物很少了,我们实在需要帮助,我们害怕,但我们不得不上岸。At first,they were afraid of us,too. Perhaps white people never visited this coast.开始,他们也害怕我们。或许白人从没有访问过这海岸。We did not speak their language,of course,so we used our hands and faces to show that we were hungry.当然,我们不会说他们的语言,我们只好用手势和脸部表情来表明我们很饿。They came with food for us,but then they moved away quickly.他们把食物搬给我们,随即迅速地离开。We carried the food to our boat,and they watched us.我们把食物搬上船,他们瞧着我们。I tried to thank them,but I had nothing to give them.我试图感谢他们,却没有什么东西可以送给他们。Just then two big wild cats came down to the shore from the mountains.正在这时候,两只大野猫从山上窜到海边来。I think they were leopards.我想它们是豹子。The people were afraid of these wild cats,and the women cried out. Quickly,那些人们害怕这些野猫,那些妇女们尖叫起来。I took a gun,and shot one of the animals.很快地,我拿起一枝,击中了其中一只野兽。The second wild cat ran back up into the mountains.另外一只跑回了山里。Guns were new to these African people,and they were afraid of the loud noise and the smoke.对这些非洲居民来说很新奇,他们害怕这轰响的声音与烟雾。But they were happy about the dead wild cat.但他们对死的野猫很感兴趣。I gave them the meat of the dead animal,and they gave us more food and water.我送给他们这只死兽的肉,他们给了我们更多的食物和水。We now had a lot of food and water,and we sailed on.现在我们有了很多的食物和水,我们继续航行。Eleven days later we came near the Cape Verde Islands.11天后我们接近佛得角群岛。We could see them,but we couldn#39;t get near because there was no wind. We waited.我们可以看见它们,但由于没有风我们不能靠近。我们等候着。Suddenly Xury called to me,#39;Look,a ship!#39;突然,苏里对我叫着,“看哪,一只船!”He was right!We called and shouted and sailed our little boat as fast as we could.他是对的!我们叫喊着并且尽可能快地划着小船。But the ship did not see us. Then I re-membered the guns which made a lot of smoke.但是那只船并没看到我们。这时我想起可以产生很多烟雾。A few minutes later the ship saw us and turned.几分钟后那只船看到了我们并且转了过来。When we were on the ship,the Portuguese captain listened to my story.等我们上了他们的船,葡萄牙船长倾听了我的故事。He was going to Brazil and agreed to help me,but he wanted nothing for his help.他正要去巴西并且答应帮助我,但他对我的帮助不要任何偿报。#39;No,#39;he said,when I tried to pay him. #39;Perhaps,one day,someone will help me when I need it. #39;当我试图付钱给他时,他说:“不,也许,有一天,当我需要帮助时,有人也会帮助我。”But he gave me money for my boat,and for Xury,too.但是他却付钱买下我的船,也买下了苏里。At first,I did not want to sell Xury as a slave,after all our danger-ous adventures together.起初,我不愿意把苏里卖作奴隶,毕竟一起经历了我们所有危险的冒险过程。But Xury was happy to go to the cap-tain,and the captain was a good man. #39;In ten years#39;time,#39;he said,#39;Xury can go free. #39;但苏里很乐意跟随船长,这位船长是一个好人。“十年后,”他说,“苏里将会获得自由”。When we arrived in Brazil three weeks later,三星期后我们抵达巴西,I said goodbye to the captain and Xury,left the ship,and went to begin a new life.我告别了船长和苏里,离开了船。继续开始了一个新的生活。 Article/201202/171782。
  • Modern-Day Pirates 仿你千遍也不“赝”倦Tired of paying 00 for a Louis Vuitton handbag? Snatch up a replica of the designer's work in Hong Kong's street markets for only a thousand, and it will take a leather expert and a microscope to tell it apart from the real McCoy. Such sophisticated counterfeiting only scratches the surface of a problem that is plaguing corporations around the world. In Asia, this business draws everyone from powerful underworld organizations with ties to politics and the military to husband-and-wife teams who brew fake Coca-Cola in bathtubs. The prevalence of and demand for these rip-off goods accounts for approximately US0 to 300 billion in annual global losses for multinationals such as Nike or Yamaha. Look at a typical illegal CD plant based in Malaysia. After bribing key officials and plunking down cash for CD duplication machines and such, the plant can expect to take in about US million each month. Sometimes, the profit margins are better than in trafficking narcotics. Corporations, increasingly frustrated with ineffectual efforts by governments to crack down on piracy, have either turned to private detectives for help or have even built their own antipiracy squads in hopes of stemming the avalanche of bogus merchandise.Unlike law enforcement agencies, however, piracy profiteers play by no rules, and arrests and convictions are few and far between. Consequently, corporations point out that without better cooperation from governments, their war has aly been lost. 没有兴趣买两千美元的LV手提包吗?在香港的路边小摊,到处都有名牌设计师的仿制品,只需花一千元,而且要皮革专家用显微镜才能与McCoy真货区别开来。诸如此类精致的赝品,不过是触及了问题的表面,世界各公司、企业均深受其害。 在亚洲,这项“行业”吸引着每一个人,大到与政界、军方勾结的强大的黑社会组织,小到在浴缸里仿制可口可乐 的小夫妻小组。这些“赝品”随处可见、需求量之大,使得像Nike、YAMAHA等跨国公司每年全球损失高达二千亿到三千亿美元。 看看在马来西亚的某间典型的违法CD制造厂。先贿赂重要官员,再花大钱买下CD刻录机等等,这家工厂预计每个月可赚一百万美金左右。这种利润有时比贩卖大麻还可观。 由于各国政府打击假冒伪劣产品成效不显著,各公司渐感失望之馀,转而求助,甚至自己成立反仿冒小组,希望能遏止排山倒海而来的伪造商品。 然而,靠仿冒牟利的人可不像执法机关那样按牌理出牌,被捕判罪者少之又少。为此,各公司指出,少了政府的大力配合,这场仗他们已经输了。 Article/200803/29865。
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