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来源:百家卫生    发布时间:2020年02月25日 02:29:41    编辑:admin         

科学专栏作家李·霍兹介绍了目前在南极洲西部冰原区进行的庞大计划,在那里有一队伍通过钻探具有一万年历史的冰块以获取关于气候变化的关键数据。 Article/201501/355550。

But on that night,但那天晚上people all over the earth looked up at the night sky世界各地的人仰望夜空时and knew that there were two men up there,都知道月亮上正有两个人looking back at them.回望着他们I remember the night of the landing and I looked up from the parking lot我还记得登陆月球的那个晚上,我在停车场抬头仰望and there was the moon and you could see the little dark看到天上的月亮smudge over on the right side of the moon,和月球右侧的一抹黑影which is the Sea of Tranquillity.那就是宁静海And you know that there were two men,而我们知道两位登月者Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin at that time,阿姆斯壮和艾德林by that time, trying to sleep in their lunar module当时正试着在登月小艇中睡觉on the surface of that smudge that you can see from Houston.登月小艇就停在远从休士顿就能看到的那抹黑影上Over the next 3 years, 5 more missions landed on the moon.在其后的三年间,陆续完成了五次登月任务Each one was more ambitious than the last.每一次都比上一次更有野心Whereas Armstrong and Aldrin had only taken a few tentative steps阿姆斯壮和艾德林小心翼翼地from the lunar module,在登月小艇附近走了几步the astronauts on later missions travelled miles across the surface.其后任务的太空人在月球表面上长途跋涉好几里They spent days at a time on the moon,他们一口气在月球上停留好几天visiting different locations,探访不同区域collecting samples of rock and soil收集岩石和土壤样本and setting up scientific experiments.并进行科学实验Guess what we just found, I think we found what we came for.你猜我找到什么?我找到了我们此行的目的--Rock eh?结晶岩Yes sir.没错But down on earth, with each mission,但是人们对登月任务的兴趣the public interest was starting to wane.却大不如前By the time it came to Apollo 17 NASA even had to阿波罗17号升空时pay the American TV networks to cover the mission.航太总署还得花钱请美国电视台报导By the fourth or fifth time that we had gone to the moon到了第四、五次时it was probably was page 2 or 3 news.登陆月球大概成为第二版或第三版的新闻You know, it wasn#39;t, it certainly wasn#39;t headline.不再是头条There is...找到了,你们看…People were getting bored with going to the moon.人们开始觉得去月球很无聊Once you#39;ve seen astronauts collect rocks for a few times,看太空人收集岩石it ceases to fascinate.看了几次之后就没什么意思了Going to the moon had been done and there was a feeling登月任务圆满成功that it was now time to do other things.人们觉得现在该做些别的事情了There#39;s a state of apathy in the ed States now I guess,美国人越来越冷淡people just don#39;t care one way or another.我觉得他们已经不关心了I#39;m saying that it#39;s,我觉得we are spending too much money on the moon.我们为登陆月球花了太多钱I think they could use the time,他们可以把这些时间the energy and the money to better advantage here精力和金钱in the ed States.用在改善美国国内情况上There#39;s lots of room for improvement here.国内进步的空间还很大Rather than spend all that money exploring space国内有这么多人在挨饿when people are starving here,他们还大手笔地展开太空任务and that money could be put to very good不如把钱拿来use in improving life here.改善人民的生活When we finally got there,我们终于抵达月球后it turned out our moon didn#39;t harbour life or even water.发现月球上没有生物,连水也没有It was not the home of the Gods or rampaging herds of bison.那里不是诸神的宫殿,也没有横冲直撞的野牛 Article/201504/372527。

We all feel in control of our actions and thoughts,It#39;s what defines us,But as biology and technology begin to intertwine,the question remains:Could your brain be hacked?我们似乎都能控制自己的思想与行为,这定义了我们自身。而当生物和科技纠缠进来时,问题来了:你的大脑会被黑吗?The truth is,the brain is an electrical device,And because of this,we can interface it to our own electronic devices,In fact,hundreds of thousands of people are aly taking advantage of this with cochlear implants,a type of hearing aid which make sound in the brain through electrical impulses,However,electricity isn#39;t exactly precise.大脑其实是个电气设备。正因此 我们可以把它接到自己的电子设备上。现在,数十万人已经得益于此,通过电子耳蜗 这是一种助听器,通过电冲动让人产生听觉。但是,电信号并不特别精确。It ends up sping signals across many neurons in the brain,And in the case of hearing,this can make the signal muddy or blurry.To solve this problem,researchers have found a way to use light,which you can aim and it#39;s much more precise to stimulate the desire parts of the brain.And it#39;s this light that may be the key to very specific control over the brain.最后,信号会波及脑内许多神经元。而在听觉方面 这会让信号变模糊。为了解决这个问题,研究者找到了一种利用光的方式,瞄准一点的方式在刺激大脑特定部分上更精确,光也可能成为精确控制大脑的秘诀。But first,these cells must somehow learn how to use light as an input source.As crazy as it might seem a harmless none reproducing virus is used to insert genes in the desired neurons or brain cells.These genes are taken from other organisms that use light to survive such as algae.但首先 这些细胞得知道怎么利用光作为输入源。这听上去有点疯狂,不可复制的无害病毒被用来,来向目标神经元或脑细胞中插入基因。这些基因来自于需光生存的有机体 如藻类。Surprisingly,we use the same genetic and cellular mechanisms as them,So if you take DNA from one and insert it in another.it still works,These genes encode for proteins that allow the neuron or brain cell to act as a solar cell.As a result,they react to incoming light and convert it to electronic signal,while cells without the new DNA remain unreacitive,All we need now is an optical source to shine light on these neurons.when we want them activated.惊人的是,人类与其基因与细胞机理相同。因此 如果你将一者的DNA移植到另一者后,它还能用。这些基因可编组出使神经或者脑细胞 充当太阳能电池的蛋白质。最终 它们对射入光线产生反应 将其转变成电信号 而无新DNA的细胞仍不反应。我们缺的只是能在需要它们被激发时 照亮它们的光源。Create the set up within the reward system of the brain,and you could make someone happy with the push of a button,Stick it into the motor cortex and yu could control parts of movement.And this is exactly what scientists have done.This mouse has fiber optic cables wired into its right motor cortex,which controls movement to the left.将装置按在大脑的奖赏系统内,你就能在一键之下让别人开心起来。把它安在运动皮质上 你就能操纵一部分的动作。科学家已经做到了这点。这只老鼠的右侧运动皮质被接入了光缆。它控制着老鼠左侧的运动。As soon as the light is shot into its altered solar panel neurons,it cannot help but run to the left,Its thoughts and actions have been hacked.So,what happens when we begin to stick technology into our brains?On the one hand,it may open the doors to managing physically debilitating diseases,personality disorders or even conditions such as depression.Turn on or off the necessary cells,and wall up.当其太阳能神经元受到光照时,它会不由自主地向左跑。它的思想和动作被“黑”了。那么,当我们开始用科技武装大脑时会发生什么?一方面 它将打开治疗躯体衰竭性疾病,人格障碍甚至抑郁等症状的大门。打开或关闭必要的细胞 堵住它们。Heck,the average person maybe able to integrate this technology in order to augment their vision.or play games in their mind,And as we began to understand the intricacies of our brain,which region specifically control which actions and thoughts,this technology will bear even more significance.另外 常人也可能借助这种科技来增强视觉能力,或者在脑海中玩游戏。同时,当我们开始理解大脑之错综复杂时,哪个区域控制那种行为或思想,这项科技的影响力将更深远。However,the ethical concerns and risks look quietly around the corner,So,knowing that your brain could be hacked,would you want this technology in your brain?但是 伦理方面的顾虑也在暗处张望。那么 既然知道你的大脑可以被黑,还想把这种科技装到脑子里吗? Article/201501/355354。

It#39;ll sp its civilization across Europe and beyond.它将自己的文明传遍欧洲甚至整个世界And it will do it...by conquest而传播的方式则是 战争61 A.D.An amphibious force 800 miles from Rome.公元六十一年 罗马派出一只两栖舰队前往八百英里外的大陆Mankind sps civilization through conquest.人类通过战争传播自己的文明The Romans are heading for Europe#39;s north-west frontier.罗马人正在朝着欧洲西北部边线挺进In command, General Suetonius Paulinus.军队由苏埃托尼乌斯·保利努斯将军指挥Ruthless, determined,He#39;s Rome#39;s enforcer.他冷酷无情 决心坚定 是罗马的执行者Having crushed an uprising in North Africa,在镇压了北非殖民地的一场起义后His orders are to do the same in Britain.他被调到英国去镇压那里的起义For twenty years,Britons have waged a guerilla war against Roman occupation.二十年间 英国人一直以游击的方式抵抗罗马帝国的侵略Expert riders, fierce warriors,他们是技艺精湛的骑士 无畏的勇士They collect the heads of their enemies.以搜集敌人的头颅为荣 Article/201510/403310。

The British wars began here, in St Giles#39;s Cathedral, Edinburgh,on the morning of July 23rd, 1637,1637年7月23日清晨 英国内战正式在爱丁堡的圣吉尔大教堂打响and the first missiles that were launched were not cannonballs,they were footstools.但第一波攻击并非是威力惊人的加农炮 相反 仅仅是一些脚凳They were launched straight down the nave,and their targets were the dean and bishop of the cathedral.它们被直接扔进教堂中殿 而它们的目标则是教堂的主任牧师和主教The right reverends had just started to from a royally authorised new prayer book,牧师和主教们正准备 朗读新的皇家授权的祈祷书and it was this attempt to from the liturgy which had triggered a deafening outburst of shouting and wailing,就仅仅是准备朗读的仪式 就已经使教堂内民众发出了 震聋发聩的哭喊与哀号especially from the many women gathered in the church.特别是激怒了聚集在教堂中的女性The prayer book riots, though, were just the fuse.但对祈祷书的反对浪潮 仅仅是一根导火索What those who lit it wanted was to blow up the bishops and the whole royal church establishment in Scotland.而点燃这条导火索的人 目的在于 撼动主教以及苏格兰皇家教会体系的根基On February 28th, 1638,a national covenant was signed in a four-hour ceremony1638年2月28日 在长达四小时 伴随着布道和圣歌的仪式上along with sermons and psalms exhorting the godly to be the new Israel.勉励着虔诚的人创造新的乐园 同时签署了公约The next day, the covenant was brought here to the open churchyard at Greyfriars,第二天 他们将公约带至 格雷弗赖斯的露天教堂墓地之中where hordes of ordinary Scots added their signature.在那里很多苏格兰人也共同签署了公约Copies were made and distributed the length and bth of Scotland.很快 公约的副本 就被分发到了苏格兰的大街小巷 /201703/497043。

栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201510/399265。

栏目简介:A French theater group will put on a musical version of ;The Girl, the Devil and the Windmill; at the city#39;s Lyceum Theater next Tuesday as part of the Croisement Festival. The show will be in French with Chinese subtitle. Article/201702/492617。