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山东省青岛市六院价格青岛什么引起宫颈糜烂青岛中医院是不是三甲医院 Wolf Spider Mating Choices狼蛛的择偶观Well, you know what they say. A woman will marry the man who reminds her of her father, and a man will marry a woman who reminds him of his mother.人们常说,女人会嫁给让她想起自己父亲的男人,男人会娶让他想起自己母亲的女人。Well were hardly the only animals to choose mates based on our early social interactions. In fact, though worlds away from us as a species, some female wolf spiders also make their mating choices on the basis of familiarity.当然,人类并不是唯一以早期的社会交往为基础选择配偶的物种。实际上,同看整个世界,除了人类这一物种外,雌性狼蛛也是以熟悉程度来选择配偶的。Male wolf spiders run the gamut in physical appearance. They can vary in color and in hairiness. Whats interesting is that there isnt a general preferred look among females, but instead, females prefer males who look like males they encountered when they were young and sexually immature.从外形上看,雄性狼蛛形形色色。他们的颜色及绒毛都各不相同。有趣的是,雌性狼蛛在选择配偶时根本没有什么偏爱的外形特征。相比而言,雌性狼蛛更喜欢选择那些看起来像是她们在年轻的时候或尚未性成熟时所遇到过的雄性狼蛛作为配偶。In fact, some female wolf spiders prefer familiarity to the extent that they will often eat a male suitor that doesnt fit that profile. The wider her range of familiarity with different looking males, the more discriminating a female is, and thus more likely to devour a male who looks unfamiliar.事实上,雌性狼蛛偏爱“熟人”已经到了这样的地步——她们通常会将那些陌生的“追求者”吃掉。雌性狼蛛所碰到的外形不同的雄性狼蛛越多,她的辨识能力越强,她吃掉外形陌生的雄性狼蛛的几率就越高。The influence social experience has on the female wolf spiders mating choice is almost unheard of among invertebrates. This spider challenges what we thought we knew about arachnids and invertebrates.在无脊椎动物这一群体中,社会经验对雌性狼蛛择偶的影响可说是闻所未闻的。狼蛛的这一特性也挑战了人类对蛛形纲动物及无脊椎动物的认知。 /201211/210509Books and Arts;Artists and photographers;Point and paint文艺;书评;艺术家和摄影师;瞬间与永恒;A long overdue study of the influence early photography had on painting;早期摄影对绘画的影响,一项迟来的研究;“I have all my subjects to hand”, Pierre Bonnard, a French post-impressionist painter, once wrote. “I go to see them. I take notes. Then I go home. And before I start painting I reflect, I dream.” At the turn of the 19th century, the “notes” Bonnard made included snapshots that he took with his flexible hand-held Kodak camera, which had first been introduced in 1888.“我手头上有全部素材”,法国后印象主义画家皮埃尔·波纳尔曾经写道。“我去采风。做记录。然后回到家。开始作画前我会在脑中回想,让思绪放飞。”在19世纪之交,柯达推出第一台相机(1888年),这里波纳尔所说的“记录”就包括用轻巧便携的柯达相机拍的快照。Unhampered by hefty equipment (the Kodak was held at waist level and had an arrow marked on top to help point the lens) or long exposures, Bonnard and his fellow painters from the Nabi group, Edouard Vuillard and Félix Vallotton, were among the first artists to use the camera to observe fine details, perspectives and light effects too fleeting to see with the naked eye. A painstakingly curated new show juxtaposes 220 mostly unpublished vintage snapshots by seven fin-de-siècle artists along with their paintings, prints and drawings in an effort to demonstrate how this new way of seeing inspired and expanded the painters creative vision.不受笨重机器的束缚(这款柯达相机可以挎在腰部,相机顶端的箭头帮助对准镜头),不用拍长曝光的照片,波纳尔和其他两位纳比派画家——爱德华·维亚尔和菲利克斯·瓦洛通,首开先河利用照相机观察景物的细枝末节、透视图像和光影效果,这些转瞬即逝的景象很难用肉眼观察。最近一个新的作品展展出了由7位“世纪末”艺术家拍摄的220幅老式照片(大部分未曾公开),同时展出的还有他们的油画、印刷品和素描作品。此次展览的举办颇费周折,目的在于向人们展示这种全新的观察方法如何激发和拓宽了画家的创作视角。Henri Rivière, a French printmaker and designer, climbed the soaring Eiffel Tower before it was completed in 1889 to photograph the exhilarating lines and angles of its iron girders set against the Paris sky for a series of 36 lithographs. Vuillard and a gifted, yet little-known, Belgian painter named Henri Evenepoel used the camera as a sketch book and aide-mémoire to capture everyday moments with family and friends. Bonnard in turn photographed his slender, round-faced mistress and muse, Marthe de Méligny, naked in a glade, as inspiration for his illustrations of “Daphnis and Chloé” by a second-century Greek novelist and romancer, Longus.亨利·里维埃,法国版画家和设计师,为了完成由36个石版画组成的一系列作品,曾爬上还未竣工的高耸的艾菲尔铁塔(铁塔于1889年落成),拍摄下了以巴黎的天空为背景,铁塔的钢筋铁架纵横交错构成的振奋人心的画面。维亚尔和另一位才华横溢但名不见经传的比利时画家亨利·埃费内普尔把照相机当作素描本和备忘录,用以扑捉和家人朋友的日常生活瞬间。而波纳尔拍摄的则是他那身材苗条脸盘很圆的情妇,以及他灵感的源泉玛莎·Méligny在树林中一丝不挂的照片。他在给公元2世纪希腊传奇小说家隆古斯的小说《达佛涅斯和克洛伊》做插图时,灵感就来自这些照片。Neither Vuillard nor Bonnard, with whom he shared a studio, actually copied photographs in their resonant, small-scale paintings of domestic interiors. Instead, both tried to replicate the immediacy of snapshots (or instantanés as they were called in France) often catching their subjects mid-gesture. Using his photographs only as an occasional reference point, or to reflect a mood, Vuillard recomposed his subjects at will. “At Table, Lunch” and “In Front of the Tapestry: Misia and Thadée Natanson” both show abbreviated figures, whether absorbed in eating a meal, or with their backs to the viewer. Vuillards figures, who are almost swallowed up by the vibrant decor, have an apparitional quality that appealed to the 20th-century French photographer, Henri Cartier-Bresson, who described Vuillard and Bonnard as among the artists he most admired.波纳尔和维亚尔共用一个画室,两人的小幅装饰画均有一定反响,但实际上这些画并非选自他们拍摄的照片。他们想要尝试的是重现快照(法语为instantanés)中被瞬间定格的运动中的人物。对于维亚尔来说照片仅是一种临时的参考或某种情感的反应,他会随心所欲地对主题进行重塑。《餐桌边的午餐》和《在挂毯前:米西亚和塔德·纳坦松》呈现的都是缩影式的人物,或是在全神贯注的用餐,或是背对着观众。维亚尔画中的人物几乎会被色鲜明的画面所淹没,有种若隐若现的效果。20世纪法国摄影师亨利·卡帝尔·布烈松对这种画风极为欣赏,他把维亚尔和波纳尔视为偶像。A Dutch painter, George Hendrik Breitner, also seizes a moment in time in a bustling Amsterdam street scene that is dominated by a veiled figure holding a fur muff up to her face, looking blurred and fugitive, as in real life. Now acknowledged as a gifted photographer in his own right, Breitner used his camera for “Girl in Red Kimono” (pictured right above with its photographic model, left). This precise yet atmospheric re-creation of his snapshot of a girl curled up on a divan, shows her intricately patterned kimono in sharp contrast with the design of the Persian carpet at her feet.与此同时,荷兰画家乔治·亨德里克·布赖特纳也抓住时机记录下来阿姆斯特丹川流不息的街景,画面突显了一位头戴面纱的女子,身上包裹着毛皮披肩,只露出脸,神情隐约难辨,整幅画作看起来非常逼真。布赖特纳凭借自己的努力被公认为天才摄影师,他利用相机绘制出《穿红色和的女子》(右上图为画作,左图为模特照片)。照片中的女孩蜷曲在沙发上,身上的和花纹精致复杂,与脚下的波斯地毯的图案对比鲜明,布赖特纳根据这张照片进行的再创作描绘精确,完美的再现了原照的氛围。Unlike their official work, none of this exhibitions seven artists ever intended their photographs to go on public display. Photography, for them, was a mechanical process rather than an art form. Some of the images come from the attics and albums of the artists families; Rivières photographs, now at the Musée dOrsay, were catalogued only in 1988. Vallotton, who left just 20 images, compared with 2,000 left by Vuillard, may even have destroyed the evidence following accusations that he copied a central figure from a photograph published in a French magazine in 1908. Snapshot studies for two of his paintings, “Beach at Etretat” and a portrait of his wife entitled “Red Room, Etretat”, show how he worked from photographs, eliminating extraneous details and grey shadows. He used this pared-down style to create powerful groups of figures or psychological portraits.此次展览涉及的7位艺术家从未打算把这些照片作为正式作品公布于众。对于他们来说摄影只是一个机械加工过程,并非艺术。许多图片是他们的家人从阁楼上或是影集里找到的。里维尔拍摄的照片现在展览于奥赛物馆,但也只是在1988年才被收入物馆。而瓦洛东仅留下20幅图片,相比维亚尔的2000幅照片,他的数量就少多了。他曾被指责抄袭了1908年出版的一本法国杂志里的照片——照片中的一个主要人物,但如今从这些少量留存的照片中已找不到任何据。瓦洛东有两幅画作,《埃特尔塔的沙滩》以及他为妻子画的题为《红色房间,埃特尔塔》的肖像画,对照相片进行研究,可以发现他如何利用照片学习去除冗余的细节和不必要的阴影。采用这种简洁的风格瓦洛东创作出很多场面宏大的画作以及心理肖像描写。Vallotton and Vuillard liked to exchange photographs. Evenepoel, a pupil of Gustave Moreau who took almost 900 photographs, including a series of searching self-portraits, in the two years before he died of typhoid aged 27, described his camera as a “real gem”. A photograph of his hesitant family about to cross the Place de la Concorde recalls Edgar Degass famous portrait of Vicomte Lepic and his daughters, while images of his cousin Louise de Mey and their son Charles embody the emotion he invested in his portraits.瓦洛东和维亚尔喜欢交换照片。另一位艺术家埃费内普尔,师从古斯塔夫·莫罗,在短短2年间拍摄了近900幅照片,包括一系列探索式的自画像,但他随后不幸死于伤寒,年仅27岁。他曾描述他的相机是“真正的宝物”。埃费内普尔有一张照片记录了他的家人踯躅着准备穿过协和广场,这张照片让人想起埃德加德加著名的肖像画《会计师和女儿们》。另一张画像描绘了他的表路易丝·梅伊和儿子查尔斯,画面体现出他作画时的情感投入。“I savour them all [my snapshots] with the slightly sad joy of reflecting that all this good time is past”, Evenepoel wrote to his father in 1897. These images, like most in the exhibition, are startlingly small. But close inspection reveals a finely detailed portrait of how this group of artists lived and worked, and it conveys the real sense of the excitement they felt as they experimented with their seemingly miraculous new gadget.“我细细地品味它们(我的照片),但一想到照片中美好的时光都已逝去,喜悦中不免略带感伤”,1897年埃费内普尔在写给父亲的信中说到。这些图片和其他展出的作品一样画幅都非常小。但经过细细观察,这些艺术家生活和工作的细节便详尽地呈现在眼前,同时艺术家们在用这个看似不可思议的新型小玩意儿做尝试时的喜悦和兴奋也流露无余。“Snapshot: Painters and Photography 1888-1915” is at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, until January 8th 2012. It will be displayed at the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC, from February 4th until May 6th and at the Indianapolis Museum of Art from June 3rd until September 2nd.“照片:画家与摄影师 1888-1915”在阿姆斯特丹梵高物馆展出,结束日期2012年1月8日。该展览还将于2月4日至5月6日在华盛顿菲利普斯陈列馆展出,6月3日至9月2日在印第安纳波利斯艺术物馆展出。 /201303/230985山东省第二医院网上预约挂号

青岛无痛人流去那个医院好青岛市城阳区人民医院电话 Books and Arts; Book Review;Understanding language;Talk, talk;文艺;书评;理解语言;不停地说;Language: The Cultural Tool. By Daniel Everett.《语言:文化的工具》,丹尼尔·埃弗雷特著。For half a century an influential group of Western linguists, led by Noam Chomsky, have argued that language is an innate human faculty, the product of a “language organ” in the mind. Other prominent “innatists” include Steven Pinker, an evolutionary psychologist and author of “The Language Instinct”, and Derek Bickerton, a linguist at the University of Hawaii and developer of a “bioprogramme” theory of language. Innatists believe that all languages share fundamental features. And linguistic innatism is part of a wider debate about just how much of human nature is wired into the brain.半个世纪以来一个由乔姆斯基领导的西方语言学家的群体已经实,语言是一种先天的能力,是大脑中“语言器官”的产物。另一个杰出的“先天派”包括进化心理学家、《语言本能》的作者——史蒂夫皮克和夏威夷大学的语言学家、“生物计划”语言理论的创始人——德里克贝克顿。“先天派”认为所有的语言都有共同的基本特点,并且语言天赋论是关于到底有多少人类本性被用于智力运作的宽泛讨论的一部分。Daniel Everett, a linguist at Bentley University in Massachusetts, disagrees on both innatism and the fundamental similarity of languages. He spent years learning tiny languages in forbidding jungle villages, experiences he recounted in his 2008 memoir, “Dont Sleep, There Are Snakes”. (A former Christian missionary whose original goal was sping the gospel, he fell away from his faith.) In his new book, “Language: The Cultural Tool”, Mr Everett moves away from narrow linguistic anthropology to broad theory. He argues that language is not the product of a “language organ” but an extension of general intelligence.丹尼尔 埃弗雷特,马萨诸塞州宾利大学的语言学家,对语言的天赋论和基本相似性都持有不同的看法。他在与世隔绝的小村庄里花费了数年的时间研究一些小语种,并在他2008年的自传《不要睡,有蛇!》里重新总结了这段经历。(一个曾经把传播福音作为最初目标的基督教传教士,后放弃了他的信仰。)在他的新书《语言:文化的工具》中,埃弗里特先生把狭隘的语言人类学从宽泛的理论中分离出来。他认为语言并不是语言器官的产物,而是一般智力的延伸。Instead of unfolding in the same way in Paris and Papua New Guinea, languages are crafted by their speakers to meet their needs. He cites the Piraha, the Brazilian Amazonian group he has spent the longest time living with. There are no numbers beyond two in Piraha because, Mr Everett argues, they have no money, engage in little barter trade, do not store food for the future and do not think about the distant past. This “living for the moment”, which the Piraha enjoy (they think Western life sounds dful), shapes their language.相反地,以同样的方式在巴黎和巴布亚新几内亚展开,语言发言者精心制作以满足他们的需求。他用他在巴西亚马逊居住时间最长的种群皮尔哈举例,他实在皮尔哈没有超过两位数的数字因为他们没有货币去进行小型货物交换贸易,不用为未来储存食物,也不用思考遥远的过去。这种皮尔哈人享受的“活在当下”的生活方式削弱了他们的语言。(他们认为西方人的生活听着很可怕)That different cultures have different words is unsurprising. It is when these differences affect cognition (the Piraha cannot do maths, for example) that things get interesting. But Mr Everetts most controversial argument, and his biggest challenge to linguistic innatism, is about grammar.不同的文化有不同的文字并不令人惊奇,但当这些不同之处影响到了认知能力时事情就变得有趣了。(举例来说,皮尔哈人不会数学。)但是埃弗里特最有争议的论据和对语言天赋论最大的挑战是关于语法的。Mr Chomsky has argued that “recursion” is the key feature of all human language. This is the embedding of smaller units inside bigger ones: a subordinate clause is a kind of recursion, embedding a sentence in a bigger one. Mr Everett says that the Piraha lack grammatical recursion, and that even if recursion is universal (Piraha use it in stories if not within sentences), this does not prove the existence of the language organ. Information is naturally organised with smaller bits nesting inside larger ones. That nearly all humans would find this linguistically useful is little different than widely varying societies independently inventing the bow and arrow—it is simply useful, and no proof of an instinct. True instincts, like turtles making their way to the sea or ducklings bonding with their mothers, require no learning. Language does. Animals do not truly excel in their deployment of basic instincts, whereas some humans clearly use language much better than others.乔姆斯基已经明“递归”是所有人类语言的关键特征。递归是让更小的单位嵌入更大的单位内部:一个从句是一种递归,把一个句子嵌入更大的句子中。埃弗里特说皮尔哈缺乏符合语法规则的递归,即使递归是普遍存在的(皮尔哈人把它用在没有长句子的故事中),也不能明语言器官的存在。信息是用小字节嵌入更大的字节而自然组成的。几乎所有人都能发现这种语言学的用途和广泛变化的社会独立发明弓和箭是不同的,它是有用的而且没有本能的明。真正的本能是不用明的,就像海龟用它们的方式去海边和小鸭子总是跟着它们的妈妈一样。语言也是如此。动物们并不是真的擅长本能的调度,而有些人显然能比其他人更好的使用语言。But Mr Everett, in trying to reach a popular audience while making an argument aimed at professional linguists, makes some awkward compromises. He cites a paper by other researchers claiming to have found that there are no features that are common to all languages, an argument that is crucial to his thesis. But he does not give enough detail for the er. Later he even contradicts himself, saying that all languages have nouns and verbs.但是当埃弗里特针对语言学家得出结论时,为了争取到受众的欢迎而做了一些笨拙的妥协。他援引其它研究者的论文,声称已经发现了没有所有语言共通的特征,作为他的论文中一个重要的论据。但他并没有向读者展示更多细节。不久后他甚至自相矛盾的说所有语言都是有动词和名词的。He argues that differences between societies lead to profound differences between languages, but fails to drive the point home fully. The Wari people use the word “hole” or “vagina” as the ordinary word for “wife”. Could this be denigrating of women? Or, since the birth canal is the point of departure for human life, could it be a way of praising them? Mr Everett is not sure.Or take Banawá, another Amazonian language, in which the default gender of an unknown person or mixed group of people is feminine, not masculine as in most languages. The Banawá also practise rigid gender segregation, even whipping young girls bloody after their first menstruation. Could the unusual gender-assignment of Banawá be a product of this gender-segregated Banawá society? “The only answer at present is, ‘Perhaps,” he writes. Even the lack of grammatical recursion in Pirah?, Mr Everetts key piece of evidence that it is culture that creates language, cannot tell the whole tale. Similar tribal cultures have languages bristling with recursion.他认为,社会之间的差异导致不同语言之间的深刻分歧,却不能充分明其原理。沃利人用“洞”、“阴道”这样的词汇作为“妻子”的代名词;难道这是对女人的玷污?或者,产道是人类生命的出发点,难道这是一种赞美他们的方式?埃弗里特并不能确定。或者用亚马逊地区的另一种语言巴纳沃来举例,在大部分语言中,一个不知名的人或者一个混合群体的默认性别是女性,而不是男性。巴纳沃人仍然坚持严格的性别隔离,甚至要在女孩们第一次来月经后把她们鞭打的鲜血淋漓。巴纳沃的这种特殊的性别对待难道是巴纳沃社会性别隔离的产物?“现在唯一的是‘也许吧”,他写到。即使是缺乏语法递归的皮尔哈,埃弗里特据的关键点仍然是文化创造了语言,但这不能断定整个叙述。类似的种族文化里存在着充满了递归式的语言。Mr Everett thinks it possible that culture influences grammar, but he is not sure. He acknowledges that conjecture about what causes linguistic differences has been a staple of much irresponsible amateur linguistics. It is hard to work out where culture has affected language, where language affects culture and cognition (a hot topic of psycholinguistic research), and where the differences are unrelated. Mr Everett has taken a shot across the innatists bow, and an impressively modest and reasoned one given that Mr Chomsky once called him a charlatan. His case is not wholly proven, but it deserves a serious ing, and a response beyond name-calling.埃弗里特认为文化影响语法是可能的,但他并不确定。他承认,关于引起语言差异原因的猜想已经成为多数不负责任的业余的语言学的主题。文化在哪影响了语言、语言在哪影响了文化和认知(心理语言学研究的一个热门话题)、差异在哪是无关联的都很难计算。埃弗里特提醒先天派,一个印象深刻的谦逊的合理的人是会考虑到乔姆斯基曾经笑话他是个骗子。他的情况并不能完全明,但值得一读,还有超越了人身攻击的回应。 /201211/211365青岛胶州市中心医院官网

青岛做无痛人流哪里比较好The Lick party was forced to use substandard equipment.这个力克党被迫使用不合格的设备。Campbell has no choice but to take the risk.坎贝尔别无选择,只能冒这个险。He has a total solar eclipse all to himself and may never have another opportunity like this again.这是只有属于他自己的一次日全食,他们可能从来不会再有像这样的另一次机会。Campbells part travels to Goldendale, Washington and gets y for the coming eclipse.坎贝尔前往华盛顿,准备迎接即将到来的日食。It was close to home so the whole family went.由于离家非常近,所以全家人都动身前往。Campbells goal is to photograph the stars that emerge in the brief period when the sun is hidden by the moon.坎贝尔的目标是拍摄当太阳被月球档上而星星出现的短暂时段。But on Saturday, June 8th 1918, it seems that the universe is once again not y to yield its secrets.但在1918年6月8日的周六,似乎宇宙再次不准备揭示它的秘密。Clouds moved in and it looked like he wouldnt even get observations and Russia would be repeated which he hated.云爬了上来,它看起来就像甚至不想被观察而俄罗斯再次重复他讨厌的。And suddenly just at the crucial time when they needed the clear sky the clouds parted.忽然在这关键时间云层散开,他们需要晴朗的天空再次出现。Campbell begins taking photographs of the spectacle.坎贝尔开始拍摄。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/182163 青岛人民医院有无痛人流术吗青岛学生做无痛人流多少钱



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