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But even if there had been water, life doesn't start overnight. Even a simple microbe is the product of complex chemical systems that take millions of years to evolve. Had the water lasted long enough for life to form?Well, when we look at the history of life on Earth, it appears to start very quickly, maybe a hundred million years. Now that seems like a long time, but for a planet that's short. So I would guess that if there was water on Mars for a couple of hundred million years, then life had a good shot at getting started there. And soon they found evidence that water had been there for millions of years. It was all because of one very important picture. Sent back in December 2000, it was a vast formations of sedimentary rock. Sediment is basically made of sand, and could only have been deposited over millions of years by a huge body of water, like a lake or an ocean. It showed that there had not only been masses of water, but that it had been around easily long enough for life to form. The sediments on the surface are now dry and exposed. If they ever had contained life, it cannot possibly have survived. However, scientists hope that microbes deeper down might still be alive, frozen in the ground. To find the actual organic remains of a Martian organism, we are gonna need to go to the frozen material. In the ice life might have been preserved, frozen in a state of suspended animation. No one at this stage could know if microbes, formed millions of years ago, could have survived on Mars. But there are indications that this really is possible. Antarctica, the closest place on Earth to conditions on Mars. More extreme even than Iceland, it's the coldest place on our planet. Until a few years ago, no one thought that anything could survive being deep frozen for millions of years. But research here has helped change that. sedimentary rock: Rock formed at or near the Earth's surface by the accumulation and lithification of fragments of preexisting rocks or by precipitation from solution at normal surface temperatures. Sedimentary rocks can be formed only where sediments are deposited long enough to become compacted and cemented into hard beds or strata. They are the most common rocks exposed on the Earth's surface but are only a minor constituent of the entire crust. Their defining characteristic is that they are formed in layers. Each layer has features that reflect the conditions during deposition, the nature of the source material (and, often, the organisms present), and the means of transport200809/48546。

Millions of Truckers in India Begin Strike印卡车司机示威抗议油价暴涨 In India, millions of trucks have gone off the roads to protest rising operating costs triggered by higher fuel prices and rising taxes. High oil prices are hurting India's economy. 数百万印度卡车驶离公路抗议由于高油价和增长的税收导致的运营成本增加。高油价正伤及到印度的经济。Nearly five million trucks stopped throughout India. Truckers say the rising cost of diesel and taxes levied by the government are wiping out profits. 将近五百万辆卡车在印度全国各地停止行驶,抗议高昂的柴油价格和政府税收。罢工的印度卡车司机们抱怨说,高油价和高税收使他们无利可图。India has hiked petrol and diesel prices twice this year by about 17 percent, following the spiraling cost of crude oil in the international market. 由于国际市场上的石油价格不断暴涨,印度今年先后两次提高汽油和柴油价格,迄今为止,印度的燃油价格上升了大约17%。Truckers want the government to reduce other taxes levied on them to compensate for the rising cost of diesel. For example, they are asking for a repeal of a hike in tolls gathered on highways.  卡车司机要求政府减少税收,特别是取消高速公路的通行费。A consultant to the All India Motor transport Congress, Pradeep Singhal, says it is becoming unviable to run trucks. 全印汽车运输大会的顾问普拉蒂普·辛哈说,卡车运输的成本越来越高,司机们已经感到走投无路了。"The toll tax is increasing day by day and there is no mechanism to check how the toll tax is levied," he said. "There are many taxes which are levied in the name of development and road maintenance, so there is no need for raising the tax or levying new taxes."  “高速公路收取的通行费天天都在上涨,而且没有任何机制来检查这些通行费到底是怎么征收的。很多税费都是以公路保养和发展的名义征收的,所以根本没有必要提高税收和征收新税。”Transportation minister T.R. Baalu says there is not much leeway to reduce taxes. He says the increase in tolls and taxes is needed to fund road construction and maintenance.  然而印度交通部长巴鲁说,减少税收的空间不大。他表示,只有增加高速公路的通行费和其他税收才能筹到所需的资金来进行公路建设和公路保养。The government has appealed to the truckers to call off the strike, but the truckers have vowed to stay off the roads till their demands are met.  印度政府呼吁卡车司机们放弃罢工,但是卡车司机们表示,除非他们的要求得到满足,否则的话,他们是不会复工上路的。One round of talks with the government has failed, but more talks have been planned. 卡车司机跟政府的第一轮谈判以失败告终,不过他们计划举行更多的会谈。Trucks are a lifeline for India's economy, hauling nearly 70 percent of goods transported across the country. There are fears that a prolonged strike could lead to shortages and increase inflation, which is running at a 13-year-high of more than 11 percent.  卡车运输可以说是印度的经济命脉,因为印度全国各地大约70%的货物都是靠卡车运送的。人们担心,卡车司机的罢工如果持续下去,势必导致供应短缺和通胀恶化。印度目前的通货膨胀率超过11%,达到13年来的最高水平。India has been hit hard by surging oil prices because it imports more than two thirds of its fuel requirements, and analysts say the high economic growth the country has witnessed in recent years could slow. 石油价格暴涨给对印度的冲击非常大,因为印度三分之二以上的燃料依赖进口。分析人士指出,油价居高不下将使印度经济最近几年的高速增长开始走缓。200807/43297。

13第十三单元Conversation 1会话 1A:Mr. Wang, Ive had scheduled for your two days stay in Shanghai. You can make some changes if it does not suit you.A:王先生,我为你在上海两天的逗留作了安排。如果你觉得不合适的话,可以作些变动。B:All right. Please it to me.B:好的,请念给我听听。A:On Friday morning, Mr.Wang,the director of Shanghai Research Institute,will visit you at the hotel. In the afternoon,you will discuss some problems with Mr. Yang,vice manager of computer corporation.A:星期五上午,上海研究所所长王先生会来饭店拜访你。下午你将和电脑公司副经理杨先生讨论一些问题。B:Very good.B:很好。A:On Saturday,youll leave the hotel for sightseeing. Miss Lu will be your guide.A:星期六,你将离开饭店去观光。卢是你的导游。B:Oh,thafs great.B:噢,太棒了。Conversation 2会话 2A:Mr. Jackson,Ive drafted a schedule for your business trip next week. You may have a look.A:杰克逊先生,我为你下周的商务旅行作了一下安排。你可以看一下。B:Oh, great! Let s discuss it together. Now,when am I off then ?B:噢,好的!我们一起讨论一下吧。那么,我什么时候离开?A:Youre leaving on Tuesday morning.A:你星期二上午离开。B:What time exactly?B:到底什么时候?A:Your flight takes off at 8:10 a. m. And you arrive in Shanghai at 10:40. Mr. Yang is meeting you at the airport. Wednesdays a busy day. Youre attending the conference in the morning and in the afternoon youre going to the exhibition.A:你的飞机上午8点10分起飞,10点40分到达上海。 杨先生会在机场接你。星期三是忙碌的一天。你上午参加会议,下午去展览会。B:Oh,am I seeing Mr. Li?B:噢,我见李先生吗?A:Yes,youre seeing him on Thursday. Youre inspecting the factory in the morning and having dinner with him in the evening.A:是的,你星期四见他。你上午视察工厂,晚上与他一起吃晚餐。 ;B:Ive got a schedule!B:行程真满。A:Oh, thats not everything. Youre free on Friday and then on Saturday youre catching the 9 oclock plane back to Guangzhou.A:噢,这还不是所有的事。你星期五有空,星期六你乘9点钟的飞机回广州。 /201604/439989。

World Leaders Pledge to Combat Food Crisis罗马峰会达成协议解决粮食危机  World leaders at a UN summit in Rome have pledged to reduce trade barriers and boost agricultural production to combat a global food crisis. At the end of a 3-day world food security summit in Rome, delegates approved a declaration resolving to ease the suffering caused by soaring food prices. 各国领导人在罗马召开的联合国粮食峰会上承诺削减贸易壁垒,增加粮食生产,以对抗全球粮食危机。在为期三天的会议结束后,与会代表通过宣言,寻求缓解高粮价的方案。It was no easy matter for the delegates at the world food security summit in Rome to reach an agreement on a final declaration to ease increasing hunger in the world. Nearly 5,000 representatives from more than 180 countries spent three days discussing how to ease the suffering caused by soaring food prices. 对于汇集罗马的与会代表来说,达成反饥饿的共同宣言并不容易。来自180多个国家的将近5千名代表用了三天时间来探讨如何缓解高粮价引发的苦难。Delegates held their talks at the ed Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. At the end of a long third day, an agreement was reached. FAO Director General Jacques Diouf had said at the start of the conference that the time had come for action. 这次峰会在联合国粮农组织的总部召开。会议的第三天,也就是最后一天,峰会达成了协议。粮农组织总干事雅克.迪乌夫表示,解决粮食危机迫在眉睫。"We have approved a declaration, you know that it has not been very easy as usual and, in addition, during the discussions, the third elements of the global framework for action, global framework for action, that document was also presented in the framework of the task force," he said. 迪乌夫说:“我们通过了一项宣言。你们知道,象往常一样,这件事并不容易。此外,在讨论过程当中,工作小组还审议了全球行动框架的有关文件。”He added that what essentially was reached at the Rome conference was a political declaration of intent to ease hunger. The document calls for swift help for small-holder farmers in poor countries who need seed, fertilizers and animal feed in time for the approaching planting season. But it remains to be seen if the words adopted in Rome will translate into changed farm or trade policies at home. 迪乌夫说,罗马峰会最终达成的实际上是一项对抗饥饿的政治宣言。这份文件呼吁立即向贫困国家的小农场主提供帮助。他们急需种子、化肥、饲料援助,以便赶上即将到来的种植季节。但是,罗马宣言的文字能否转化成有关国家的贸易和农业政策,尚有待观察。Diouf said the gathering wasn't a pledging conference but billions of US dollars from countries, regional banks and the World Bank were promised to combat hunger. 迪乌夫说,尽管这次大会并非筹款会议,但是,一些国家、地区、以及世界仍然承诺提供几十亿美元用于对抗饥饿。"At the closing of the conference the representative of the ed States indicated that they would be committing 5 billion US dollars over the next years in support of agriculture and food security," he said. 迪乌夫说:“在大会结束的时候,美国代表表示,美国将在未来五年内投入50亿美元用于农业和食品安全。”Some Latin American countries have raised strong objections to the declaration. These included Cuba that was disappointed the document does not criticize the long-standing U.S. embargo against the Communist-run island. 包括古巴在内的一些拉美国家对宣言表达了强烈的反对意见。古巴对于宣言没有批评美国长期对古巴实行的贸易禁运政策表达了失望。Argentina was unhappy over the language about trade barriers. It says the declaration does not blame farm subsidies in the US, European Union and other Western food-producers for a major role in driving up prices. 阿根廷对于宣言有关贸易壁垒的措辞表示不满。阿根廷代表认为,宣言没有批评美国、欧盟以及其他西方国家的农业补贴对粮价上涨产生的主要影响。Delegates at the summit also discussed the contentious issue of biofuels, recognizing that there are both "challenges and opportunity." 出席罗马峰会的代表们还讨论了生物燃料这个具有争议性的问题。代表们承认,生物燃料既是挑战,也是机遇。200806/41340。

UN Says N. Korea Ejects Inspectors From Nuclear Reprocessing Plant北韩终止国际社会对其核设施监督   North Korea has taken dramatic steps toward fulfilling its threat to resume production of nuclear weapons material.北韩朝着实现其恢复生产核武器材料的威胁采取了极端的步骤。The International Atomic Agency, or IAEA, confirms North Korea has ended international supervision of activities at its main nuclear reprocessing facility in Yongbyon. Melissa Fleming, a spokeswoman for the U.N. agency, confirms it has complied with North Korea's demand to remove seals and cameras.国际原子能机构实,北韩终止了国际社会对其主要核设施的监督活动。国际原子能机构发言人弗莱明说:"There are no more seals and surveillance equipment in place at the reprocessing facility," she said.“北韩要求国际原子能机构拆除宁边设施上的封条和监视设备。”Fleming says the North has disclosed plans for the facility in the near future.弗莱明说,这项工作星期三已经完成,北韩为这个设施制定了近期计划。"The DPRK has also informed the IAEA inspectors that they plan to introduce nuclear material to the reprocessing plant in one week′s time," she said. "They further stated that from here on the IAEA inspectors will have no further access to the reprocessing plant."她说:“北韩还告诉国际原子能机构检查人员,他们计划在一个星期内将核材料运入这个设施。他们还表示,从现在开始,国际原子能机构检查人员不再能够进入这个设施。”South Korean officials say they are very concerned about North Korea's actions, which pose a serious challenge to an international deal aimed at ending its nuclear weapons capabilities.韩国官员表示,他们非常关注北韩的行动,他们认为这些行动对旨在终止北韩核武器能力的一项国际协议构成了严重挑战。Pyongyang promised South Korea, the ed States, Japan, China and Russia last year it would fully disable the Yongbyon facility, and declare its nuclear programs as a step toward eliminating them altogether. After submitting the declaration months past the agreed deadline, North Korea has refused to agree on a set of steps for outside teams to verify that the declaration is accurate.平壤去年曾经向韩国、美国、日本、中国和俄罗斯保,将完全终止宁边设施的活动,并提交核项目清单,作为完全去核化的一步。在超过最后期限几个月才提交核项目清单之后,北韩拒绝接受由外部团队核查其核清单准确性的一整套措施。The ed States says it will not remove North Korea from a State Department list of nations accused of sponsoring terrorism until there is a verification agreement. North Korea says the verification issue is separate from Washington's promise to remove it from the terror list. In recent weeks, it has threatened to restart the Yongbyon reactor, and says it is no longer interested in being removed from the U.S. list.美国表示,在就核查机制取得共识之前,不会把北韩从国务院一个被指责资助恐怖主义的国家的名单中去除。北韩表示,核查问题与华盛顿将北韩从恐怖名单中除名的保是两回事,最近几个星期,北韩威胁重启宁边反应堆,并声言,北韩对从恐怖名单中除名不再感兴趣了。South Korea has hinted it may delay energy and other assistance it committed to provide North Korea under the six-nation deal. That could further constrict North Korea's impoverished economy, which has endured strict international sanctions since Pyongyang tested its first nuclear weapon in 2006.韩国方面暗示,可能会推迟根据六国协议承诺提供给北韩的能源和其他援助。而这将使北韩贫困的经济进一步受到挤压。平壤2006年试验第一枚核武器以后,国际社会对北韩采取了制裁行动。200809/50340。

paper pusher ------ 没能耐的人(非正式) 英文释义(INFORMAL) A person who works in an office and handles routine information on paper all day. 例句I work in an office, so my brother, an energetic sales representative who travels a lot each day, often teases me by saying Im just a paper pusher.我坐在办公室里工作,而我的兄弟是一位精力充沛的销售代表,每天都在四处奔波,他经常取笑我,说我没能耐。 /201610/471183。

I am at the very center of the great white continent, Antarctica. The South Pole is about half a mile away. For a thousand miles, in all directions, there is nothing but ice. And, in the whole of this continent, which is one and a half times the size of the ed States and larger than Europe, there is a year-round population of no more than 800 people. This is the loneliest and the coldest place on earth, the place that is most hostile to life. And yet, in one or two places, it is astonishingly rich. Penguins come here by the million and endure temperatures of minus 70 degrees centigrade and winds of 120 miles an hour. Other birds fly right to the heart of the continent, even though they have to dig away snow in order to find a place to nest . And here is the nursery for over half the world's seals. Antarctica is remote from all other continents, surrounded by the vast southern ocean and smothered by a blanket of ice so immense that it contains over three quarters of the world's freshwater. All life in the Antarctic is dominated by the ice. All but 2% of the continent is covered by it. Its very whiteness reflects back what little heat there is in the sun's feeble rays. And snow, when it falls, remains permanently frozen. So that now, after accumulating for millions of years, it has formed this gigantic ice cap and the ice beneath my feet is three miles thick. Submerged beneath it are mountain ranges as high as the Alps, only their summits project through it.words and expressionsfeeble: 微弱的, 薄弱的project :To extend forward or out; jut out:突出200808/46904。