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Michael Larson is one of the most powerful men in US wealth management you have never heard of. He is the chief investment officer for Bill and Melinda Gates Investments (BMGI), and as such is in charge of managing Bill’s personal wealth through Cascade Investment, as well as handling the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation Trust endowment. Despite his high-profile job, he works hard and successfully to stay out of the public eye — Cascade declined to speak for the purposes of this article.迈克尔·拉森(Michael Larson)或许是你从未听说过的美国财富管理界最具影响力的人物之一。他是比尔及梅琳达·盖茨投资(Bill and Melinda Gates Investments, BMGI)的首席投资官,以此身份负责通过Cascade Investment管理盖茨的个人财富,以及打理比尔及梅琳达·盖茨信托基金(Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation Trust)的受捐资产。虽然岗位备受瞩目,但拉森努力成功地避开了公众的视线——Cascade拒绝接受为完成此稿而进行的采访。Bill Gates hired Larson 22 years ago to take over the investment of his personal wealth, which was about bn at the time. Since then Gates’s fortune has grown to around bn (of which he has given away around half) after Larson diversified the funds out of Microsoft, Gates’s software company, and into a broad range of investments.22年前,比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)聘请了拉森接管其个人财富的投资,当时前者的资产约为50亿美元。自那时起,拉森将盖茨的财富在他的软件公司——微软(Microsoft)以外进行广泛的多样化投资,盖茨的财富已增至约800亿美元(其中约一半已被捐出)。Cascade is not a family office in the traditional sense and does not like to call itself one. It does not handle logistics, payroll or expenses for the foundation and is purely an asset management firm that invests Gates’s personal wealth. BMGI is an organisation that manages the portfolios of Cascade, the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation Trust and other entities, but again it does not label itself as a family office.Cascade不是传统意义上的家族理财室(family office),它也不喜欢被这样称呼。它不负责为盖茨的信托基金管理后勤、工资或者费用出,而完全是一家为盖茨个人财富做投资的资产管理公司。BMGI负责管理Cascade、比尔及梅琳达·盖茨信托基金及其他实体的投资组合,但它也不会给自己贴上家族理财室的标签。The way BMGI is structured allows the foundation to separate its programme work from its investments, say people close to the organisation. This has meant that more money has been created to go into the foundation’s mission to fight disease and improve education in the developing world.接近该机构的人士称,BMGI的结构可以让盖茨的基金会将慈善工作与投资分开。这意味着赚到的更多的钱都用在了该基金会的使命上:对抗疾病、提升发展中国家教育水平。Based in Kirkland, Washington, Cascade shies away from media attention. It declined to comment on its investment strategies but it is known to invest globally and across many asset classes. Its five largest publicly disclosed equity holdings are: Canadian National Railway; Republic Services, the waste removal company; Ecolab, the disinfectant maker; Femsa, the drinks group; and Deere, the maker of agricultural machinery.总部位于华盛顿州科克兰德(Kirkland)的Cascade避开了媒体的关注。该公司拒绝对其投资策略进行置评,但众所周知的是,它在全球范围内的许多资产类别都有投资。该公司公开披露的5宗最大规模持股涉及的公司包括:加拿大国家铁路公司(Canadian National Railway)、垃圾处理公司Republic Services、消毒剂制造商Ecolab、饮料集团Femsa以及农业机械制造商Deere。Cascade has holdings in property and non-technology companies. It holds around a 4 per cent stake in Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway investment group, owns 47 per cent of the Four Seasons hotel company and about 6 per cent of Bunzl, the distribution and outsourcing group. In August, it increased its stake in Strategic Hotels and Resorts to 9.8 per cent.Cascade在地产以及非科技公司也持有股份。它持有沃伦巴菲特(Warren Buffett)旗下伯克希尔哈撒韦(Berkshire Hathaway)投资集团约4%的股份,拥有四季酒店(Four Seasons) 47%的股份,以及分销与外包务集团Bunzl约6%的股份。今年8月,Cascade将其在Strategic Hotels and Resorts持有的股份提升至9.8%。Under Larson, Cascade has focused some of its attention on UK-listed stocks. In 2008, it bought a 3 per cent share of Carpetright, the flooring retailer, but has since reduced its stake. It has also invested in Diageo, the distiller, and JJB Sports, the retailer.在拉森的领导下,Cascade将一部分注意力集中在英国上市的股票上。2008年,Cascade收购了地板零售商Carpetright 3%的股份,但后来又进行了减持。它还对英国酒商帝亚吉欧(Diageo)以及零售商JJB Sports进行了投资。Cascade does not publicly disclose its performance results but it has been reported that because of Larson’s relatively conservative strategy, Cascade’s losses in the 2008 financial crisis were smaller than the industry average for the full year. Since 1995, Larson has delivered a compound annual return of around 11 per cent.Cascade未公开其业绩成果,但据报道,由于拉森相对保守的策略,在2008年金融危机期间Cascade的损失低于该行业的全年平均水平。自1995年以来,拉森实现了约11%的年复合回报率。Like Cascade, many single family investment firms are moving away from the term “family office”. Catherine Tillotson, managing partner of Scorpio Partnership, the consultancy, says: “A tour around London’s elite wealth management boutiques reveals the growing popularity of the term ‘private investment office’. Once loosely described as family offices or multi-family offices, this linguistic shift aims to put a finer point on their capabilities as independent advisers on family wealth.”像Cascade一样,许多单家族投资公司也在摆脱“家族理财室”的称谓。咨询公司Scorpio Partnership执行合伙人凯瑟琳舠洛森(Catherine Tillotson)说:“到伦敦的精英财富管理圈转一转,就可以看到‘私人投资理财室(private investment office)’一词越来越受欢迎。它们曾经被宽泛地形容为家族理财室或多家族理财室,这种用词变化旨在更明确地指出他们作为家族财富独立顾问的能力。”This change is not only happening among high-end investment firms; lawyers and accountants too are coining new phrases. “Family business consulting”, “private company services” and even “strategic philanthropy advice” have joined the lexicon of wealth management for the extremely rich, she says.这种变化不仅发生在高端的投资公司,律师、会计师们也在创造新用语。“家族企业咨询(family business consulting)”、“私人公司务(private company services)”甚至“战略慈善建议(strategic philanthropy advice)”都加入了为顶级富豪管理财富的专用词中,她说。What they signal is that family wealth investment management is big business. Across the world, Tillotson believes there are about 79,000 very rich individuals (those with personal wealth greater than m) who control roughly tn in assets. Many of them are business-owning families or those so-called “financial families”, who have sold operating businesses. When it comes to managing that money, they want to apply the best possible investment advice.这些变化显示出,家族财富投资管理是笔大生意。蒂洛森认为,全世界约有7.9万名大富豪(个人财富超过5000万美元),他们控制着约19万亿美元的资产。他们中很多都是拥有企业的家族或者是出售运营企业的所谓的“金融家族”。当需要管理这些财富时,他们希望得到最好的投资建议。“To this end they are increasingly sharing their experiences with other families via specialist peer networks, events and publications, and with their advisers,” says Tillotson. “So where once the term ‘family office’ was synonymous with the isolated management of an individual family’s wealth, today it perhaps best describes a growing body of professional knowledge and an industry in its own right that includes both specialist and general practitioners.”“为此,他们越来越多地通过专家同行网络、活动和出版物、以及他们的顾问与其他家族分享自己的经历,”蒂洛森说,“因此,曾经等同于孤立管理单一家族财富的‘家族理财室’一词,如今也许可以最恰当地描述一套越来越庞杂的专业知识以及一个本身囊括专才和通才从业者的行业。”The family office market can take many forms, from a single former executive assistant helping a patriarch/matriarch, to a 40-person professional investment organisation that also deals with personal affairs.家族理财室可以采取多种形式,可以是一位前行政助理来协助家族负责人,也可以是一个40人的专业投资机构在为家族理财的同时还打理私人事务。Bill Woodson, north America head of the family office group at Citi Private Bank, says: “While family offices take different forms, the challenges they face are very similar and, as a result, the ultimate solutions they adopt as they evolve tend to be similar, although addressed with varying levels of focus, staffing and professionalism.”花旗私人(Citi Private Bank)家族理财部北美负责人比尔伍德森(Bill Woodson)说:“虽然家族理财室的形式不同,但他们面临的挑战非常相似,因此,他们发展到后来采取的最终解决方案会趋于相似,尽管这些解决方案在焦点、人员及专业性上的水平不同。”He adds that family offices are changing and evolving in a number of fundamental ways. First, an industry has developed around supporting family offices. This allows them to outsource functions previously done in-house.他补充说,家族理财室正在经历一些根本的转变、发展。首先,围绕家族理财室已经发展出一项持性产业。这使他们可以将此前的内部职能外包出去。Second, there are more family offices as a result of the increase in wealth globally and greater information is available about best practice and resources.第二,由于全球财富增长,以及关于最佳实践和资源的更完善信息易于获得,诞生了更多的家族理财室。This helps family offices “professionalise” earlier than they would have before.这有助于家族理财室较之以前更早地实现“专业化”。Third, Woodson adds, the generational shift in control of family wealth has changed what family offices focus on and how they are structured.第三,伍德森补充说,家族财富的代际控制转移改变了家族理财室的关注点及结构。“Younger family members tend to, at a higher rate than before, focus on pursuing philanthropy earlier and on integrating philanthropy into a family’s investment activities,” he says.“比以前更高比例的年轻家族成员倾向于更早专注从事慈善事业,并将慈善整合到家族的投资活动中,”他说。 /201510/406680Jack Solomon, a 74-year-old industrial chemist from Westchester, New York, had been waiting for the internet home-sharing revolution for years. Looking for a home to retire to in 2005, he and his wife ended up with a house in East Hampton and — as you do — a neighbouring island that sleeps 36.来自美国纽约州威斯彻斯特县(Westchester, New York)的74岁工业化学家杰克所罗门(Jack Solomon)多年来一直在苦等互联网私宅共享革命浪潮的到来。2005年他与妻子四处找寻退休后的住所,最终在东汉普顿(East Hampton)“安营扎寨”,这座邻近东汉普顿的小岛上共住有36人。He toiled unsuccessfully on craigslist, the local classifieds service, trying to eke out some income from the island when not in use for stays with family and friends. When it came, the new wave of home sharing websites was a godsend; today he has a steady stream of bookings for the island courtesy of Airbnb, TripAdvisor and VRBO (a popular US rental site).他曾在当地分类广告网站Craigslist上打广告,希望房子空置时(自己家人与朋友不在此居住时)能对外出租,但却以失败告终。当这一天终于成为现实时,不断涌现的私宅分享网站如同及时雨。如今拜Airbnb 、TripAdvisor以及美国知名租赁网站VRBO所赐,预订他小岛住所的人络绎不绝。Airbnb reports a boom in short-term home lets by the super-rich. In June, the number of one-bed listings charging more than 1,000 per night was nearly three times what it had been a year before. Asia is leading the charge: high-end apartments — those with pools and gyms — grew quickest in Tokyo (up 78 per cent) and Hong Kong (up 70 per cent). Over the same 12-month period, London listings grew by half and those in Paris a third.Airbnb报告称:富豪临时出租私宅者大幅飚升。今年6月,上网招租的单张床位数(每晚租金超过1000英镑)同比增长了近3倍。亚洲租金首屈一指独领风骚:带泳池与健身房的高档住宅的租金在东京与香港同比增幅最大,分别达78%与70%。过去一年,伦敦待租房屋的租金同比增长了50%,巴黎则同比增长了三分之一。Premium home rental sites are booming. Luxury Retreats, which claims to turn away 95 per cent of those who offer their (mainly) holiday homes, now has 2,800 properties, largely in the US and the Caribbean, with nightly rates ranging from ,000 to 4,000, for the plushest private island. Onefinestay has been listing plush pads since 2010 in sought-after city locations and now has 2,000 homes across London, New York, Paris and LA, with a combined value of 6bn. Villas.com, the vacation rental site operated by booking.com, which includes plenty of plush pads, boasts 308,000 vacation homes.高档住宅租赁网站也快速涌现。Luxury Retreats声称把95%有意出租者的度假屋者拒之门外,如今旗下拥有2800套房源(多数位于美国与加勒比海的最为奢华的私人海岛),每晚租金从1000美元至12.4万美元不等。2010年以来,Onefinestay一直招租城市黄金地段的豪华住所,如今在伦敦、纽约、巴黎以及洛杉矶等地拥有的房源多达2000套,总价值超过60亿英镑。由booking.com负责经营的休假房屋租赁网站Villas.com名下把大量豪宅出租,自诩名下度假房多达30.8万套。Second-home owners are getting younger, meaning more look to the internet for smart rental solutions when they are not using their homes themselves. The average age of second-home buyers in the US dropped from 52 to 43 in the 10 years to 2013, according to the US National Association of Realtors.二手房主越趋年轻化,他们更希望房屋空置时能通过租赁网出租。据全美房地产经纪人协会(US National Association of Realtors)统计:过去10年(截止2013年),美国二手房主的平均年龄从52岁降到了43岁。Increasingly, people are renting their main homes, too. “Where the super-rich have listed secondary residences for some time, now they’re starting to offer their main homes while staying in other properties or holidaying,” says Olivier Gremillon, who runs Airbnb’s European business.不仅如此,出租主宅者也越来越多。“富豪过去上网出租自己的次要住宅,如今当自己住到别处或是外出休假时,则开始把主宅临时出租。”Airbnb欧洲区负责人奥利维耶格雷米翁(Olivier Gremillon)说。Online home rental sites typically feature interactive calendars allowing owners to switch availability on or off at a moment’s notice, dodging the advance commitment typically required by property rental firms. As importantly, messaging apps and sophisticated review systems provide homeowners with the information they need to vet potential guests.家租网通常以交互式日历招揽客户:允许房主可即刻告知房屋能否出租,从而规避了房屋租赁公司通常要求的提前预约规定。同样重要的是:短信通知程序与先进的复查系统可给房主提供相关信息,用以审核有意承租者。Two years ago, Francesca Diana, an Italian jewellery designer who runs her global business from Rio, bought a private island on a rural nature reserve about an hour and half’s drive from her home. It has become a precious retreat: “I’d never rent it to someone unknown or give up the control over who could stay there,” she says.2年前,在巴西里约经营全球业务的意大利首饰设计师弗朗西斯卡戴安娜(Francesca Diana)购买了一座私人小岛,它位于当地自然保护区内,距离自家约1.5小时车程。“我永远也不会把它转租给陌生人、或是把它交给想长住的人。”她说。Through Airbnb, she corresponds with prospective guests to discover their interests and expectations, then s reviews from previous hosts to check their form. “I need to know they will respect the national park and aren’t here to use the island to party on,” she says. This choosiness, and the fact that she will only take guests for a week or more, cuts down her rental periods. But like many of today’s premium home-sharers, her motivation is social as well as financial.借助Airbnb,她与有意承租者取得联系,了解对方的兴趣爱好及期望值,再通过浏览以往招租房主的评价掌握其实际为人。“我得弄清楚对方是否尊重国家公园的相关规定,租住小岛是不是用于操办聚会。”她说。她的挑剔、再加上其容许的出租期只有一周左右,从而减少了她的总租赁时间。但与当今诸多豪宅共享者一样,她的动机是社会与经济目的兼而有之。Laurent also likes the company. A scion of a large French family — he won’t give his surname — he lets his sumptuous 4,300 sq ft Louis XVI-period spare apartment in Paris. Extra income for maintenance is handy, he says, but his guests, and their generous reviews, are what he gets excited about. He’ll give tours of the house, explaining which family castle features in this painting, which French king once sat in that armchair and when that celebrity came to stay. For between 650 and 1,000 per night, depending on the season, he’ll throw in a few of his own staff of “cleaners, driver, guardian and cooks”.不愿透露自己姓氏的法国某望族传人洛朗(Laurent)也喜欢与人为伴,他对外招租的是自家位于巴黎、始建于路易十六时期(Louis XVI)、面积达4300平方英尺的空置豪宅。这些贴补维修费的额外收入唾手可得,他说,入住客户以及对方的溢美之词同样让他很是受用。他通常会带客人走马观花一番,向对方讲述家族藏画中画的是哪座家族城堡、自家扶椅坐过哪位法王陛下、以及哪位名流曾下榻此处。每晚租金介于650-1000英镑之间,具体数额视季节而定,他还会免费安排自己的“清洁工、司机、保安以及厨师”来此务。Visitors during Paris Fashion Week can hobnob with models and celebs at one of his exclusive parties. Younger members of the home-sharing revolution pick their guests with more specific aims in mind. Ben James, who is 26 and “predominantly single”, rents out one or both rooms in his Mayfair penthouse, which includes a huge roof terrace. He’d probably pass on a request from a family with young children, he says, “but two young ladies over in London for a party fit more with my lifestyle”. Family in the area means that he can move out briefly if a long booking doesn’t quite sync with his own travel plans; at 700 per night, a three-week stay is, he points out, “a decent chunk of change”.巴黎时装周期间,游客可在洛朗组织的高档聚会上与参会的名模、名流进行亲密互动。私宅共享浪潮中的年轻一代挑选租客时目的性更为具体。26岁的本礠姆斯(Ben James)崇尚独身,他把自己伦敦梅费尔区(Mayfair)顶层公寓(带有面积很大的露台)的一两个房间对外招租。他通常愿意租给带有小孩的家庭租住,他说,“但是,两位住在伦敦的年轻姑娘若是合伙租住,则更符合我的生活方式”。他自己的家庭就在附近,如果长期出租与自己的出游计划相冲突,他可以短时搬出去住;他说:每晚700英镑的租金,若是租上三周,自己就有了“一大笔零花钱”。James was probably never shy, but others have taken a while to get comfy with the concept of house sharing.詹姆斯也许无所顾忌,但有些人真正接受私宅共享理念则需假以时日。Prime Airbnb listings surged last year when the firm hiked its insurance policy from 50,000 — about enough to cover a vase in some London homes — to 1m. Owners can add their own deposit requirements and checking procedures. In 10 years Laurent has lost only a Bose sound system and a few bottles of champagne from the cellar.去年,当Airbnb把保险赔偿费从5万英镑(刚够赔偿伦敦某些豪宅中的一只花瓶)猛增至100万英镑后,到Airbnb网招租的豪宅数大幅飚升。户主还可以要求添加定金要求以及增加核对程序。10年来,洛朗只丢过一套Bose音响系统以及几瓶窑藏香槟。Many rich users once avoided posting photos on their Airbnb profiles for fear of friends thinking they were hard up, says Gremillon. All that has changed: “now it’s cool to be part of the sharing economy; it’s something for people to talk about over dinner parties.” Some have been led by tech savvy kids, who grew up holidaying on strangers’ sofas via couchsurfing.com, and now rent or sublet their homes on even the shortest trips. Others have been lured by sites that take the hassle out of the rental process in exchange for keeping a share — typically up to half — of what guests are charged. At Onefinestay and LuxuryRetreats, after a rental price is agreed all the owner must do is decide whether to accept or reject subsequent bookings. Onefinestay ships in linen, towels and toiletries, and uses aircraft-style tamper tape seals to signal to guests which rooms or draws are off limits.很多有钱的房主曾竭力避免把豪宅照片上传至Airbnb网页,因为担心亲朋好友会误以为自己手头拮据,格雷米翁说。但此一时、彼一时也:“如今成为共享经济的一分子很潮很酷;它俨然成了各种饭局的谈资。”如今的技术男成了引领潮流者,他们从小到大随家人度假时,每次都睡在陌生人家(通过couchsurfing.com网承租)的沙发床。如今他们即便短途出游,往往把自家房子出租或转租于他人。其他人则被许诺简化招租程序的网站吸引,对方开出的条件是租金分成(通常达一半)。在Onefinestay及LuxuryRetreats,租金谈妥后,房主只需决定是否接受随后的房屋招租。Onefinestay备好床单、毛巾以及化妆品、并使用飞机上的密件启封方式向客人标示哪些房间与区域禁止进入。A few users with posh pads may not be super-rich. Lower-income European aristocrats are increasingly employing Airbnb to rent outbuildings on their estates, helping to fix leaking roofs, says Gremillon.有些豪宅户主可能并非富豪。越来越多的低收入欧洲旧贵族借助Airbnb网把自家豪宅的附属房屋对外出租,以赚取屋顶渗漏维修费用,格雷米翁说。Others are cash-strapped enthusiasts. Alain Etienne Marcel did a deal with the French town of St Malo, where he lives, to restore a 17th-century fort off the coast in return for a 99-year lease on the property. When he had returned some of the rooms to their original condition, he started to take bookings through Airbnb for up to ㄠ,600 per night. The revenue funds the rest of the work and helps pay for public visits to the fort, his original motivation for the project.其它热衷对外招租的豪宅则是因为资金短缺。阿兰縠节覄氠庚尔(Alain Etienne Marcel)与法国小镇圣马洛(St Malo,他如今居住于此)签订协议,他帮助修复一座17世纪的海滨要塞,条件是自己获得要塞99年的租用期。他把某些房间原样修复后,就开始通过Airbnb网接受客户预订,每晚租金高达1600欧元。收入用于未竟的修复工程以及贴补公众参观的费用(这是他最初的动因)。The new home-sharing economy also offers a radical solution to the fraught uncertainties of relocation.全新的共享经济还给充满变数的异地安家提供了根本出路。When tech entrepreneurs Leila Zegna and her husband were planning a move from San Francisco to London last autumn, they compiled a shortlist of six central London neighbourhoods. Rather than gamble with a year-long lease in an area they might not like, they used Onefinestay to find three-week home rentals in each of the six areas. The company provided a list of suitable homes and arranged each stay; the couple arrived to a welcome from an agent and a mobile phone preloaded with the owner’s local tips, from restaurants to dry cleaners. Zegna estimates that the rental cost was just 15 per cent more than that of a long-term let. “It was a great adventure: we were incredibly mobile, living out of a suitcase and exploring each neighbourhood every night after work and at weekends,” she says, adding that global firms should follow her lead to make foreign postings more appealing.去年秋天,当科技创业者莱拉瀠尼亚(Leila Zegna)伉俪计划从旧金山搬至伦敦时,他们最终圈定了伦敦市中心的6处住宅区。他们没有选择在一个小区长租一年(他俩不太喜欢),转而通过Onefinestay网在每个小区各租住三周时间。网络租赁公司提供了几家候选家庭,并妥善安排好了一切入住事宜;夫妻俩每到一处,就有中介公司迎接他们,手机中预装了房主提供的本地务信息(从餐馆到干洗店)。杰尼亚估计租金只比长期租住多出15%。“这是妙不可言的经历:我们来去自如,只需拿个手提箱,每晚下班后以及周末,我们就会在每个小区寻芳探幽一番。”她说,并补充说跨国公司应该积极效仿其做法,如此一来员工驻外肯定争先恐后。Growth in demand for prime home rentals has been driven by the changing tastes of super-rich holidaymakers. Since the financial crisis, a shift from ostentatious consumption to sustainable localism — eccentric cafés and hidden farmers’ markets — has seen affluent travellers swap design hotels for homestays, says Mindy Ewing of Virtuoso, a premium travel agent that sources many of their properties through high-end sharing sites.高端住宅租赁需求增长的动因是外出度假的富豪品味发生了变化。自金融危机以来,从炫富性消费到对风土习俗(怪异的咖啡屋与出世农民的集市)持久偏爱的转变,让不差钱的游客弃住豪华酒店、转而选择农家旅舍,来自高端旅行社Virtuoso的明迪尤因(Mindy Ewing)说,Virtuoso通过豪宅分享网站淘选了许多适合招租的房屋。Frequent business travellers are also a growing market. When 49-year-old Paul Watts was working in San Francisco for a British software firm, he chose home rentals for the half dozen annual trips he made back to London, often with his wife. Now living in London again, they use the site for trips to the Paris office. “It enables us to feel like we have a work-home balance when I’m working abroad; it has been a life-changer,” he says.经常出差者的市场需求也是水涨船高。49岁的保罗瓦茨(Paul Watts)曾在旧金山为一家英国软件公司上班,每年回英国几次,都是与妻子租房住。如今返回伦敦居住后,他俩到巴黎分公司出差时,常常通过租房网站租房住。“我在国外出差时,租房住可以让我们感觉工作与居家两不误;它一直是改变生活的大功臣。”他这样说道。The same appetite for local immersion has driven growth in internet-enabled home swaps. These include HomeExchange.com, or the smaller, plusher, 3rdhome.com, which is a sort of a car club for holiday homes. Once accepted, members pledge their homes, specifying the dates they are willing to let them out; in return they get credits equivalent to the swankiness of their home and the desirability of the time slots they are offering. These they can spend by booking other homes.游客希望能深度入乡随俗,导致网上私宅互换居住行为不断增多。这其中就包括了HomeExchange.com网以及规模更小、也更为奢华的3rdhome.com等网站,后者属于专为度假家庭务、类似汽车俱乐部的网站。一旦接受协议,签约成员必须严守承诺,明确自家愿意出租的时段;作为回报,他们就获得与自家奢华程度以及可供出租时段相对应的信用分,自己预租别人家的房子时可当现金使用。The benefits of home swapping are financial — there’s no income from your guests, so no tax to pay — and fantastical — a steady supply of offers from homeowners in Brazil and the Bahamas to swap with your Kensington duplex will feed daydreams to brighten up the rainiest London workday.私宅互换既能带来经济好处(入住客人并不付房费,因此无须额外付税),也能让美梦成真——巴西与巴哈马的房主源源不断要求与诸位位于伦敦肯辛顿(Kensington)的复式住宅互换居住,此举能让上班的伦敦人浮想联翩,一扫城市阴雨绵绵的天气。As well as the boom in top-end rentals, sites to cater for a range of specialist owners are springing up thick and fast. In the land of the free and home share of the brave, Ryan Galiotto co-founded Kinkbnb.com when one of his friends was barred from a major US home rental site for including pictures of her fully equipped sex dungeon. Back in East Hampton, Solomon may be leading fellow baby boomers into a new dawn of technology-enabled home rental, but that is one site that he won’t be using to list his island.除了豪宅招租激增外,专为各色专用房主务的网站也如雨后春笋般涌现。在崇尚自由、私宅共享的英国,瑞恩加廖托(Ryan Galiotto)一位好友的招租私宅因包含“设施一应俱全”的性地牢照片而被美国某知名家租网站拒之门外,于是愤而与人合办了Kinkbnb.com网站。再次说说东汉普顿,所罗门也许正把同年龄段的婴儿潮一代人(baby boomer)带入科技为依托的家租新时代,但他不会在上述网站上招租自家的小岛豪宅。 /201509/401122Zhao Shuli (1906~1970) was a Chinese novelist and short-story writer.赵树理(1906~1970),小说家。Zhao#39;s familiarity with rural life in North China and his fascination with folk literature and art determined the substance and style of his later writings.赵树理对北方农村生活的熟稔和对民间文学艺术的痴迷决定了他的写作内容和写作风格。After attending a teachers college, he taught in primary schools.上了师范之后,赵树理任小学教师。To supplement his earnings he began writing short stories for local newspapers. 为了补贴家用,赵树理开始给当地的报纸写短篇小说。A zealous promoter of folk literature and art, he wrote a considerable number of rhythmic talks, mini-tales, and sketches.赵树理是一个热心促进民间文学艺术的人,写了大量的说唱、小故事和短剧。He made his name by his short stories ;Hsiao Erh-hei chieh-hun; (1943; ;Little Blacky#39;s Wedding;) and ;Li Yu-ts#39;ai pan-hua; (1943; ;The Rhymes of Li Yu-ts#39;ai;).赵树理的成名作是短篇小说《小二黑结婚》(1943)、《李有才板话》(1943)。They were followed in 1946 by the novel Li-chia-chuang te pien-ch#39;ien (;The Changes in Li Village;) and the stories ;Fu-kuei; (;Lucky;), ;Ti-pan; (;Land;), and ;Tsui-liang-ch#39;ai; (;The Tax Collector;).1946年赵树理创作了长篇小说《李家庄的变迁》和短篇小说《福贵》、《地板》和《催粮差》。His works were widely and his native humour and grace appreciated by even the barely literate.赵树理的读者面很大,他民族式的幽默感和气质甚至连文盲也很欣赏。After 1949 he continued to write prose and edited two magazines.1949年以后赵树理继续写作散文,并且编辑了两本杂志。His novel San-li-wan was published in 1955. His style remained easy, plain, and graceful.赵树理1955年发表《三里湾》,文风仍然是浅显、易懂、优美。He was the recognized leading writer of the ;Shan-yao-tan (Potato) School.;赵树理是公认的“山药蛋派”领袖.His best-known works have been translated into English, Russian, and Japanese, and his collected works were published in the 1980s.他的名作已经被翻译成英语、俄语和日语,其选集已于2o世纪80年代出版。 /201603/430041Rope skipping and throwing sandbags during the class break have been fond childhood memories for many of us. But these days, some students in primary schools in Beijing are kept in the classroom during recess. Why do teachers ban them from going to play outdoors?跳皮筋、丢沙包都是我们童年时候的美好回忆,但是最近发现北京多数小学课间都禁止学生出去玩耍,为何学生遭“圈养”,变成笼中鸟? /201512/413264

Greenpeace, the international environmental group, is challenging the green credentials of outdoor clothing makers including The North Face, Columbia and Patagonia, accusing them of failing to eliminate toxic chemicals in their products.国际环保组织绿色和平(Greenpeace)对The North Face、哥伦比亚(Columbia)和巴塔哥尼亚(Patagonia)等户外装生产商的环保资质提出质疑,谴责它们未能清除自家产品中的有毒化学物质。The attack by Greenpeace came after its scientists this year found traces of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the waters of high-altitude lakes around the world, including the Lago di Pilato in the Apennine mountain range of central Italy.绿色和平此次发难之前,该组织的科学家今年在世界各地高海拔湖泊的水体中发现了微量的全氟化合物(PFC),其中包括意大利中部亚平宁山脉的皮拉托湖(Lago di Pilato)。Greenpeace said its study — released on Tuesday — proved how slowly the environment breaks down these chemicals, which outdoor clothing makers routinely use in their waterproof gear.绿色和平表示,其周二发布的研究结果明,环境分解这些化合物的速度是多么的慢。户外装生产商经常在防水装备中使用这些化合物。”It is ironic to think that companies who depend on nature for their business willingly release dangerous chemicals into the environment,” said Mirjam Kopp, toxics campaigner for Greenpeace. “They need to set short-term deadlines for completely eliminating the entire group of PFCs in production processes,” she added.绿色和平反有毒物质活动家米丽娅姆科普(Mirjam Kopp)说:“那些依靠大自然发展业务的公司,竟然愿意向环境释放危险化合物,想想这有多讽刺。”她补充称:“它们需要设定一个不远的截至日期,在那一天到来前把生产工艺中涉及到的各种PFC彻底清除掉。”Greenpeace said Puma and Adidas have aly adopted “ambitious elimination targets” for PFCs and some companies have “entire collections “of PFC-free waterproof clothing. But it took aim at The North Face, Columbia, Patagonia, Salewa and Mammut for showing “little sense of responsibility when it comes to eliminating hazardous chemicals such as PFCs”.绿色和平表示,彪马(Puma)和阿迪达斯(Adidas)已经定下了“雄心勃勃的清除(PFC的)目标”,有些公司推出了“完整系列”的无PFC防水装。但该组织把矛头指向了The North Face、哥伦比亚、巴塔哥尼亚、沙乐华(Salewa)和猛犸象(Mammut),因为这些公司“在清除PFC等危险化合物方面没有展现出什么责任意识”。Greenpeace criticism could be especially problematic since outdoor apparel companies go to great lengths to appear environmentally friendly. In their catalogues, advertisements and social media channels, they use stunning pictures of pristine landscapes and often include messages of conservation and calls for environmental action.绿色和平的批评可能会引起轩然,因为户外装公司总是竭尽全力表现得很注重环保。在产品目录、广告和社交媒体渠道中,它们会使用极具震撼力的展示原生态景观的照片,而且内容往往包含环保思想和对采取环保行动的呼吁。 /201509/397938

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