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商河县做无痛人流多少钱济南阳光医院怀孕检测好吗章丘市人民医院无痛人流要多少钱 In his first public speech of his state visit to Britain, Chinese President Xi Jinping reviewed the historic relationship between the two countries and painted a picture of a promising future in which they become ;a community of shared interests;. He also showed his familiarity with British popular culture and literature by making reference to Harry Potter, James Bond,and the television costume drama Downton Abbey.国家主席习近平在伦敦金融城市政厅发表题为《共倡开放包容 共促和平发展》的重要演讲,演讲中多次回顾了两国关系,谈到了英国文化历史,点名《猫》、007系列电影、《哈利波特》、《神探夏洛克》、《唐顿庄园》等现当代英国文艺作品。The Chinese people are enchanted by British literary classics, including the works of William Shakespeare, William Wordsworth, Jane Austen and Charles Dickens. And they love pieces of modern British art, such as Cats, James Bond movies, Harry Potter, Sherlock and Downton Abbey.“莎士比亚、华兹华斯、简·奥斯汀、狄更斯等人的作品让中国人感受到英国传统文学的魅力,《猫》、007系列电影、《哈利·波特》、《神探夏洛克》、《唐顿庄园》等当代英国文艺作品也受到中国观众喜爱。”James Bond邦德系列电影James Bond is a fictional character created by the novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. One of the reasons why the Bond franchise is popular with Chinese movie goers is that the special agent has travelled to, and had many adventures on the mainland.詹姆斯·邦德是《007》系列小说、电影的主角。小说原作者伊恩·弗雷明1953年以自己的间谍经验创作了詹姆斯·邦德系列第一作:《007大战皇家》。截止到2012年,詹姆斯·邦德系列电影共有24部,其中涵盖了不少中国元素。A scene from ;You Only Live Twice; (1967) filmed in Shantung Street, around 611-620, Nathan Road, Mong Kok, Kowloon in Hong Kong. Bond found himself in Hong Kong to investigate a missing space shuttle in the fifthfilm in the series ;You Only Live Twice;.1967年上映的第五部007系列电影《雷霆谷》曾取景于香港,邦德的扮演者肖恩·康纳利也曾多次到访香港,实地考察。In ;The Man with the Golden Gun;, the final scene takes place on an island off the coast of China, where James Bond and the villain of the title duel to the death.《007:金人》是第9部詹姆斯·邦德系列影片,这部影片在著名的半岛酒店(Peninsula Hotel)取景,影片的最后一幕邦德与对手克里斯托弗·李决战也取景于中国海域。And in the most recent Bond film ;Skyfall;, Bond also manages to enter Shanghai and travel across to Macau.在2012年《007:大破天幕杀机》中,邦德泛舟夜游的戏份正是在中国取景。Harry Potter哈利·波特Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher#39;s Stone, on 30 June 1997, the books have gained immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide. As of May 2015, the books have sold more than 450 million copies worldwide, making the series thebest-selling book series in history, and have beentranslated into 73 languages.第一部小说《哈利·波特与魔法石》在1997年6月出版,据统计,截止到2015年5月,《哈利·波特》系列7本小说被翻译成73种文字在全球发行超过4亿5千万册。Downton Abbey唐顿庄园The costume drama about the Earl of Grantham and life above and below stairs on an Edwardian country estate has been a big attraction to the middle classes in China. After Downton Abbey gained its popularity in China, it has been importing British culture to feed its society#39;s desire for ;social status; and ;elegance;.《唐顿庄园》情节跌宕起伏、令人上瘾,吸引了大量年轻中国观众,在中国大约拥有1.6亿名观众。去年中国国务院总理李克强到访英国时,英国首相卡梅伦将带有费罗斯亲笔签名的《唐顿庄园》第一季第一集剧本作为礼物赠送给了中国总理。此次习大大点名《唐顿庄园》,势必掀起重温热潮,英伦古风再次来袭! /201510/405535When I was first asked to write an article on odd ways the fairer sex has an advantage over men, I hesitated because the subject of gender differences is often rather explosive online, and I#39;m not exactly the most serious person out there anyway. I changed my mind though when I began to research the topic. Keep in mind as you#39;re ing this, that none of these things are meant as generalizations towards either gender. I understand that everyone is different and that not all of the things written here apply to everyone.当我第一次被要求来写一篇关于女性比男性更有优势的文章时,我犹豫了,因为网上关于性别差异的话题吵得非常热,我不是在那个方面最有权威的发言人,但是当我开始研究这个话题的时候我改变了自己的想法,当你在读这篇文章时请把以下观点铭记在心。以下的事情并不意味着只发生在男人或者女人身上。我知道每个人都是不一样的,我们这里所写的并不适用于每一个人。10.Women Almost Never Get Struck by Lightning10.女性几乎不会遭闪电的袭击Though being struck by lightning is probably lower on most people#39;s list of fears and worries than cloning eventually leading to dinosaurs roaming the Earth like in Jurassic Park, it#39;s still something that happens with alarming regularity. To men anyway. According to all known statistics about getting to third base with Zeus, women are struck by lightning an average of six times less than men. Just so we#39;re all clear here, lightning only kills 79 people in the US every year, and maybe a dozen of them are women. Them#39;s some good odds.在人们所畏惧的各种事情当中,遭闪电的袭击比侏罗纪公园中漫游于地球的克隆恐龙发生的概率还要低,但它还是以令人吃惊的规律发生。对于男人来说,根据所有的统计信息可知,女人遭闪电袭击的概率是男人的六分之一,我们都知道,闪电在美国每年夺走79个人的生命,女人可能只占到十二分之一,这就是奇怪的地方。Lightning may not make much of a blip on the national death chart, but if someone told you you could increase your chances of not being electrocuted by 600%, we#39;re guessing you#39;d take them up on it. Sadly, there#39;s no surefire way to do that. The only real way to be safe from the Lightning Menace is to own a matching set of X chromosomes.在国家每年的死亡统计表中,死于闪电袭击并不引人注目,但是如果一个人告诉你,在现在的情况下,能够帮你提高6倍不被闪电袭击死亡的概率,我们猜测此举会引起你们的注意,但是很遗憾的是,目前还没有绝对的把握这样做。目前远离闪电袭击的唯一方法就是配备一套X光设备。9.Women are Better at Noticing They#39;re Unhealthy During Middle-Age9.女性在中年时更加注重自己身体的不健康情况Being unhealthy or overweight is an issue that affects both genders. However, according to statistics, it#39;s females who are better at noticing that they#39;re unhealthy and actually doing something about it when they reach middle-age. In a UK study involving 10,000 participants born in the 1970#39;s, it was found that males, along with being more likely to be overweight, were also less likely to do anything about it. In fact, a good deal of the men were unable to notice that they were unhealthy at all, and thus could not realize that they needed to make an effort to improve their health.不管是男人还是女人,身体的不健康和肥胖都是困扰着他们的问题。然而,一系列的数据表明当人到中年时,女人更擅长于观察她们处于不健康时的状态,并采取一系列的措施来应对相关问题。英国对一万名出生于20世纪70年代的人的研究表明,男人随着自己慢慢的发胖,他们对此几乎并不采取任何措施。事实上,他们根本就没有注意到自己的不健康状态,因此他们就没有意识到应采取一些措施来提升自己的健康。Dr. Alice Sullivan noted that this result was probably due to a disparity between how acceptable it is seen to be for men and women to be overweight, adding that it is commonly more ;socially acceptable for men to be overweight.; The sad side-effect of this acceptance is that it ultimately leaves men way more open for a heart attack, or other weight-related condition. In fact, it#39;s noted that women kick all kinds of ass when it comes to health.艾丽丝·沙利文士指出导致这个结果的原因是当人们看到男人和女人变胖后的反应的不同。人们普遍更容易接受男人的肥胖,这样导致的消极影响就是使男人更容易患心脑血管方面的疾病,或者是患由于肥胖而导致的疾病。事实上,当谈到健康方面的话题时,女人更在行。8.Women are Way More Likely to Hit Age 100 Than Men8.女性比男性更可能活到100岁Living to age 100 is no longer the realm of fantasy, a feat managed by more and more people every single year. However, if you look at the numbers, there is a clear gender divide in favor of women. Statistics (in the US anyways) show that there are around five times more female centenarians than male ones. An old joke about the subject states that this is ;so women can always get the last word,; a joke we#39;re sure has brought many men comfort while being lowered into the grave, survived by women who went on to enjoy another 20 years of their sweet, Breaking Bad-filled life.活到100岁不再是幻想,越来越多的人可以做到这一点。但是如果你仔细观察这些数字的话,就会发现明显的性别差异——女性多于男性。统计显示(美国),女性中的百岁老人比男性超出五倍之多。有个与之相关的老笑话;女人们总是最后说了算的;,我们确信这个笑话使得男人们延长了自己的寿命,让他们与自己的爱人一同再享受20年甜蜜与痛苦交织的生活。Interestingly enough, males are statistically more likely to reach the age while living at home, while females are more likely to do so while living in a nursing home.相当有意思的是,统计中居家男性更可能达到100岁,而居住在养老院的女性才更有可能活到100岁。7.Women are Less Likely to Compromise Their Views at Work7.在工作中女性不易违背他们的准则In a 2013 joint study conducted by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of California, it was discovered that women, on average, were far less likely to compromise their ethics or ;sell out; to get ahead in the workplace. Such tactics include snitching on co-workers and sucking up to superiors, all in the name of winning bonuses and promotions. The research, though relatively new, has been presented as a potential explanation for why so few females are found at the very top of big companies. They#39;re simply not as willing to become something the#39;re not for the sake of getting ahead.在2013年加利福尼亚大学与宾夕法尼亚州大学的研究员们进行了一项联合研究,研究发现,在工作中女性普遍很少会为了取得成功而违背或背叛他们的行为准则。这种违背他们行为守则的手段包括告发同事和巴结上级。一切手段都是以赢得红利和晋升为名义。这项研究即使时间上离现在相对近一些,但仍展现出可能性的解释——对于为什么很少有女性位居大公司的高层。他们不愿意仅仅为了取得成功而变成某种他们不喜欢的类型。In fact, the experiments, which involved posing ethical, workplace quandaries to both and men and women, found that on average, along with being morally outraged at unethical business practices, women were more likely to work for a company that favored ethics over money.事实上,研究发现,一般来说这些研究包括行为标准的提出,男女性工作中的困境,以及对于违背行为准则事件而引起群众道德上的愤慨。女性更可能在工作中坚守原则而不受金钱诱惑。6.Women are More Likely to Stray (and Flourish) Outside of Their Career Comfort Zone6.跨越职业舒适区后,女性更容易迷路(或更活跃)For those of you ing who are currently on the career ladder, the stats say that you ladies are more likely to pursue options outside of your chosen career path. In other words, you#39;re more likely to take a risk by changing careers.有统计表明,在目前还处于事业攀登期的人群中,女性更趋于难以当初的职业路径为基准来按部就班。换句话说,女性更趋于冒换职业的险。Interestingly, despite the fact women are 10% more likely than men to be in a different career than they envisioned at college, and 11% more likely to work in a totally different area after 10 years of work, they#39;re equally as likely to feel like they#39;ve accomplished their personal goals. In short, while women#39;s lives are like running a marathon, men much prefer the 40-yard dash.有趣的是,尽管在大学也没预想到会换不同职业的女性可能比男性多出10%,工作10年后换一个全然不同的地方工作的女性可能比男性高出11%,但她们认为她们也已经完成了她们的个人目标。简而言之,女性的生活像是跑一场马拉松,而男性的生活则像是40码冲刺。翻译:小懒 来源:前十网 /201511/406952济南山东省立医院是不是有主任

山东中医药大学附属医院咨询电话5.The Detonation Tenderizer: A Literal Flavor Explosion5.利用爆炸冲击改变肉质Over the years, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has rounded up herds of ideas for tenderizing meat, from the familiar (spiky hammers, enzymatic tenderizers) to the outlandish (using pressure pulses or acoustic waves on submerged meat). But none packed quite the punch of U.S. Patent No. 3,492,688 A, understatedly titled ;Apparatus for tenderizing food.; Submitted by Charles S. Godfrey in 1966, the method called for breaking up tough fibers in subprime cuts via high explosives. Bomb and beef would bathe in the same water-filled tank to maximize the effect多年来,美国专利及商标局搜集了各种使肉质鲜嫩的技术,从传统手艺(敲击,酶嫩化剂)到创新技术(使用压力脉冲或声波让肉均匀变化)应有尽有。但却没有技术能比得上序号为3492688 A的美国专利,它被低调地命名为“柔化食品设备”。1966年,查尔斯·戈弗雷提出申请这项专利,宣传通过烈性炸药打破动物的硬质纤维肉,并把炸药和牛肉放在同一个水罐中来达到最佳效果。Godfrey thought that the high explosive approach would blow past the shortcomings of other pressure techniques by creating a much more dramatic and sudden pressure change at the shock front. He might have been onto something, since several other patents have since built on the idea, and at least one company has put it into practice. A pioneer of early nuclear weapons research, Godfrey was also a seasoned veteran of explosive technologies. In addition to helping design the diminutive test nukes set off on Eniwetok Atoll in the 1950s, he held patents in high velocity explosives and shaped explosives and the use of explosives in rock fracturing and excavation.戈佛雷认为,高爆方法能在激振前沿创造出更显著的突变,从而弥补过去其他压力技术的缺点。也许他这项发明真的很厉害,因为他的设计理念已经在其他几项专利中得到体现,而且至少有一家公司已经把这项技术付诸实践。作为早期核武器研究的先驱,戈佛雷还是一名经验丰富的爆破技术老兵。20世纪50年代,他在埃尼威托克的环礁协助设计微型核武器爆破试验,此外他还持有高速炸药、变形炸药、爆破和开挖岩石炸药的专利。4.Pica: So Many Words, So Many Food Fixations4.异食癖:吃任何东西,什么都可以吃We all have our share of unusual cravings, but few are as startling as the wide range of materials consumed by people with the disorder pica, the repeated eating of largely non-nutritive substances like wood, soil or paint chips. The word pica derives from the medieval Latin name for magpie, a bird reputed to eat just about anything任何人都可能有一些奇特的欲望,但是却很少有像那些异食癖患者一样有着令人咋舌的欲望,他们吃各种东西,比如木头、泥土或者油漆木片这种没有营养的物质。异食癖这个单词来源于中世纪的拉丁语,意思是喜鹊,因为喜鹊普遍被认为是吃任何东西的鸟类。Thanks to Greek and Latin, there#39;s a name for every neurosis, and the many flavors of pica are no different. Xylophagia describes the consumption of paper, pencils, tree bark or other woody items. Chewing and eating glass is the habit of those with hyalophagia, and of course there#39;s also urophagia (urine), coprophagia (feces), geophagia(dirt), autosarcophagy (eating bits of oneself) and, yes, anthropophagy (human flesh). People with trichophagia chew and/or swallow their own hair, which can result in a dangerous trichobezoar (hairball) that blocks the intestines and requires surgery. In 2007, surgeons removed a 10-pound (4.5-kilogram) trichobezoar that had completely filled the stomach of an 18-year-old woman. Such compulsions are frequently associated with a psychological condition or learning disorder. The prevalence of pica varies from 4 to 26 percent among the institutionalized, and the condition can co-occur with Kleine-Levin syndrome, mental retardation and schizophrenia. But it also can crop up among otherwise healthy children and in men and women of all ages and cultures, sometimes in response to a dietary deficiency.借助拉丁语和希腊语,使得每一种神经病症都有学名,不过异食癖也有许多不同的类型。食木癖患者是来形容那些喜欢吃纸,铅笔,树皮或者是其他木质品的人,而习惯吃玻璃的人则被称为食玻璃癖患者,此外还有喝尿癖、食粪癖、食土癖,食己癖,自然也有食人癖(喜欢吃人肉)患者。而有食毛癖的人则喜欢咀嚼或者吞咽自己的毛发,这样会导致肠子被危险的毛团堵塞,需要动手术来疏通。2007年,曾有一个18岁的食毛癖女性,通过手术移除了塞满其腹腔的近10英镑重(4.5千克)的毛发团。不过这些强迫症主要和心理状况以及学习障碍有关。在那些缺乏自理能力的人身上,这种异食癖的发病率大约在4%到26%之间,这种病症还可能引起克莱恩莱文综合征、智力缺陷以及精神分裂症等并发症。但是健康的孩子,不同文化背景不同年龄层次的成人也会突发异食癖,有时只是因为他们的饮食不均衡导致缺乏营养物质。3.The Pickle-ice-cream-flavored Mystery of Pregnancy Cravings3.咸菜冰激凌味儿的料理——揭秘妇的奇葩口味The scene depicting a pregnant woman dispatching her mate for pickles and ice cream in the wee small hours is so trite as to qualify as a stereotype, but it#39;s rooted in a familiar phenomenon. Being pregnant can cause unusual cravings, drive a desire to double down on old habits or bring on new and strong aversions. Yet researchers still don#39;t fully understand the biological and behavioral mechanisms behind these hankerings.在生活中,我们总是能看到这样的情景——一个妇催着丈夫去买咸菜和冰激凌,让他快去快回。这个情景着实老套,也再平常不过。怀能让你的口味变得奇特,原来的饮食习惯会加倍凸显,还可能发生从来没有过的激烈反应。。然而,研究者们仍然不了解这些奇特口味背后的生物学和行为学原理。A few patterns have emerged over the years. For example, an expecting mother#39;s cravings tend to fall within culturally available fare; in Tanzania, women crave (in order) meat, mangoes, yogurt, oranges, plantains and soft drinks, whereas American women crave dairy and sweet foods. Connections have also emerged between pregnancy-linked hormone shifts and an increase in neuropeptide Y, a hypothalamus-born chemical messenger associated with appetite in general. So what inspires specific cravings? It#39;s possible that some yens are meant to counter the odd smells, strange tastes, phantom odors and food aversions that can crop up during pregnancy. But this is only one possibility and requires further study.近年来出现了很多不同的妇饮食偏好模式。例如,在一些饮食文化中,准妈妈们的口味会变淡;在坦桑尼亚,妇变得爱吃肉、芒果、酸奶酪、橙子、大蕉等食物以及爱喝软饮料;而在美国,妇的日常饮食则偏重奶制品和甜品。研究者还发现,激素的变化能导致神经肽Y增多,而神经肽Y是下丘脑产生的一种与食欲有关的信号激素。那么到底是什么导致了这种奇特的口味呢?可能是为了抑制怀期间闻到的、吃到的或只是假想的怪味,以及突发的妊娠反应。但是这只是一种可能性,具体情况如何,还需要进一步探究。2.The Nose Knows Numminess2.鼻子熟识美味We all recognize the role of smell in whetting our appetites, conjuring emotions and stirring memories, yet those little buds on our tongues still get most of the credit for detecting taste. According to researchers in the field of neurogastronomy, however, we have it backward.我们都知道嗅觉能引起我们的食欲、激发我们的情绪、勾起我们的回忆,但我们不知道的是察辨味道主要还是归功于我们舌尖上小小的味蕾。在神经美食学领域的研究者看来,我们早已落后。Taste buds evolved to detect basic notes of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami (the savory flavor of mushroom or soy sauce) to help us distinguish energy-rich carbohydrates, find essential salts, test foods for ripeness, detect toxins and identify proteins . But it#39;s the sensation of smell -- specifically, the retronasal smells that waft into the nasal cavity from the mouth as we savor food -- that forms the fuller picture of flavor in our brains. Smell is so nuanced that scientists have compared it to sight for the way it forms ;pictures; of millions of flavor combinations and determines resemblances among them. Research has further linked the sense of smell to psychological well-being and neuroplasticity. Molecular gastronomists, who try to understand the physics and chemistry of food for artistic and culinary effects, make careful use of odorants and aromatics in their creations, but the interactions between saliva and food make isolating the key smell-ecular elements difficult. Oh, well. There#39;s always marketing.味蕾进化是为了分辨基本的甜、咸、酸、苦及鲜(蘑菇或酱油的咸味香精),以此来帮助我们区分高热量的碳水化合物、发现人体所需盐分、检验食物是否成熟、探测毒素以及识别蛋白质。但嗅觉,尤其是余味,在我们品尝食物时从嘴里飘进鼻腔,如此便在我们的大脑中形成一幅更完整的图片。嗅觉是如此微妙,科学家们将它与视觉做对比,来找出数百万种味道混合成“图片”的形成方式以及其相似性的判定方式。研究进一步认为嗅觉与心理健康和神经可塑性相关联。而所谓的分子美食家,就是那些为了艺术效果和食用效果去研究食物的物理、化学特性并在食物的再创造过程中悉心运用气味和芳香剂的人。但是唾液和食物之间的相互作用加大了隔离关键性“味道因子”的难度。噢!对了,市场总是以此为促销噱头。1.A Food by Any Other Name1.食物的其他名字Foods are known by many names. Some refer to subtle distinctions, as coriander and cilantro refer to the seeds and the vegetative pieces, respectively, of the Coriandrum sativum plant. Others might reveal cases of mistaken identity, as when many Americans each Thanksgiving mislabel sweet potatoes as yams, when in fact they are two separate plants.食物通常有许多名字。有些是有着细微差别的,比如胡荽叶和芫荽叶分别指芫荽植物的种子和叶子。但也有一些认错食物名称的事例,比如每到感恩节,大多数美国人会错把番薯称为薯蓣,其实它们是两种截然不同的植物。Then there are those foods that assume new monikers for marketing purposes. Canola (a portmanteau of ;Canada ; and ;ola; for oil) is actually a specially bred rapeseed oil rebranded to avoid negative associations with the word ;rape; (rape, or Brassica napus, is a plant in the mustard family) and possibly to distance it from earlier versions of rapeseed oil, which were toxic to humans . Kiwifruit is not from New Zealand at all -- it#39;s a Chinese gooseberry rebranded by exporters to avoid negative associations in Cold War American markets. It#39;s also not a gooseberry, so it#39;s just as well that they changed its label.The Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) was renamed ;Chilean sea bass; to better whet customer appetites and was so successful that it now faces overfishing, despite not being a sea bass at all. For similar reasons, restaurant customers now know the ;slimehead; (Hoplostethus atlanticus) as the far more appealing ;orange roughy;. A rose is a rose is a rose, but cheap hake sells better as scarlet snapper.出于营销目的,还有一些食物采用了新名字。如芥花油(是从 “Canada Oil Low Acid” 四个字的首字母组合而成,意为 “低酸加拿大油”)实际上是一种经特殊培养的菜籽油,但或许是为了避免”rape”(芸苔或甘蓝型油菜,是一种十字花科植物)这个词汇带来消极影响,也或是为了区分对人体有毒害作用的早期菜籽油,它就被重新命名了。猕猴桃并不是来自新西兰——它其实是中国鹅莓,是出口商为避免冷战期间美国市场带来的消极影响而重新起的名字。它也不是醋栗,所以只是他们换了名称而已。巴塔哥尼亚齿鱼(小鳞犬牙南极鱼)被重命名为智利海鲈鱼是为了更好地刺激消费者的购买欲,而且获得了巨大的成功。尽管它不是鲈鱼,但它现在也面临过度捕捞的局面。基于类似的原因,餐厅顾客现在都知道听起来更有吸引力的“罗非鱼”其实就是“燧鲷”(大西洋胸棘鲷)。一朵玫瑰就像一朵玫瑰是一朵玫瑰一样,但廉价的鳕鱼就是要比大红鲷鱼卖得好。翻译:泯泯 审校:Freya然 来源:前十网 /201603/429451济南阳光女子医院好吗 槐荫区妇幼保健站治疗妇科炎症好吗

滨州治疗附件炎多少钱 APPLE VALLEY, Calif. — Outside her two-story tract home in this working-class town, Debbie Alberts, a part-time food service worker, has torn out most of the lawn. She has given up daily showers and cut her family’s water use nearly in half, to just 178 gallons per person each day.苹果谷——戴比縠伯茨(Debbie Alberts)是一名兼职餐饮业务人员,在她家位于工薪阶层社区的两层楼房屋之外,她已经把大部分的草皮铲掉了。艾伯茨不再每天洗澡,也将家庭成员的用水量减半,限制为每人一天178加仑。A little more than 100 miles west, a resident of the fashionable Los Angeles hills has been labeled “the Wet Prince of Bel Air” after drinking up more than 30,000 gallons of water each day — the equivalent of 400 toilet flushes each hour with two showers running constantly, with enough water left over to keep the lawn perfectly green.在她家西边100多英里处,洛杉矶周边时尚的山丘上,有一位居民被誉为“贝莱尔的水王子”,他每天使用超过3万加仑(约110立方米)的水——相当于每小时冲400次马桶、两莲蓬头不断出水,剩下的水还能让草坪保持完美翠绿。Only one of them has been fined for excessive water use: Ms. Alberts.两户人家中,只有一户因为过度用水而受罚:艾伯茨的家。Four years into the worst drought in California’s recorded history, the contrast between the strict enforcement on Californians struggling to conserve and the unchecked profligacy in places like Bel Air has unleashed anger and indignation — among both the recipients of the fines, who feel helpless to avoid them, and other Californians who see the biggest water hogs getting off scot-free.这场加州有历史纪录以来最严重的旱灾已经持续到了第四年,政府对节约水资源的加州居民严格执法、但却放纵贝莱尔(Bel Air)等地挥霍无度的人。收到罚单的人不知道如何避免受罚,因而感到无助,其他加州人则眼睁睁看着最浪费水的人免受处罚,两相对比让这些人酝酿出了怒气和愤慨。This wide disparity in enforcement is testimony to California’s vast and chaotic system for moving water from reservoirs and underground systems to homes. There are 411 separate water districts — some public, some private — and each of these local utilities has been charged with devising its own rules for saving water during the drought.这种执法不公显示出,加州将水从水库或地下水系统,输送到家庭中的供水系统不仅庞大,而且混乱。加州共有411个供水区,有些是公立的,有些是私立的,这些地方供水区都有责任在干旱时期制定自己的节水规则。All of the districts are grappling with a mandatory order from the State of California to reduce water consumption by up to 36 percent. The contrasting approaches taken by Apple Valley and Los Angeles illustrate how differently communities are enforcing the order — some with lenience, others with punishments.所有供水区都因为加州参议院(State of California)的一项命令而手忙脚乱,该命令要求他们减少36%的用水量。苹果谷和洛杉矶的案例显示出不同社区是如何执行命令的——有些手段宽松,有些严厉惩罚。In Apple Valley, the private utility company that supplies water to most of this town in the high desert east of Los Angeles has been ordered to cut back 28 percent. The utility, Apple Valley Ranchos, responded by applying “drought surcharges” to households that exceed a standard monthly water allotment. Nearly a third of the 20,000 customers have been assessed fines, which can run to hundreds of dollars.苹果谷位于洛杉矶东部的高地荒漠上。为该市大部分地区供水的那家私营公用事业公司接到命令,要减少28%的用水量。名为苹果谷兰乔斯(Apple Valley Ranchos)的这家公司想出的应对措施是,对每月超出了用水限额的家庭,征收“干旱附加罚款”。在该公司的2万用户中,近三分之一被罚过款。罚款可能高达数百美元。Ms. Alberts, whose husband is disabled and not working, supports them and their two children on an income of about ,000 a year. She received a surcharge of .66 on her last two-month water bill, raising the total above 0.艾伯茨的丈夫是残疾人,没有工作。她要用一年约为2.2万美元的收入,养活自己和丈夫及两个孩子。在上一张每两月寄送一次的水费单上,她收到了79.66美元的附加罚款。这使她家的罚款总金额超过了330美元。“It’s impossible to get under the line,” said Ms. Alberts, 58, whose property is about half an acre and was once surrounded by greenery. “We wash clothes once a week. We flush every third time. Sometimes we go to the laundromat because we’re afraid.”“不可能控制在标准线以下,”58岁的艾伯茨说。“我们一周洗一次衣,每用三次马桶冲一次水,有时候还会去自助洗衣店,因为害怕水用超了。”她家的房子占地约半英亩,周围一度都是绿色植物。Meanwhile, in Los Angeles, the city’s superrich have been able to keep multiple pools filled. Neighborhoods like Bel Air are verdant, as if the drought were happening somewhere else.与此同时,在洛杉矶,超级富豪能够让多个游泳池装得满满的。贝莱尔等地草木葱翠,仿佛干旱是发生在别的某个地方。The top 10 residential water users in Los Angeles collectively used more than 80 million gallons of water in the year that ended April 1. The “Wet Prince” topped the list at 11.8 million gallons during that time — enough for about 90 typical California families — at an estimated cost of ,000, as first reported by the California-based Center for Investigative Reporting.在4月1日结束的上一年里,洛杉矶排名前十的居民用水大户,合计用水量超过8000万加仑水。如总部位于加州的调查报道中心(Center for Investigative Reporting)最先报道的那样,在此期间,排在第一位的“水王子”的用水量是1180万加仑——够大约90个加州普通家庭使用——水费估计为9万美元。But none of the city’s top water hogs have been fined. Instead, they have been insulated from financial penalties: Because less-affluent residents of Los Angeles have conserved, the city is easily meeting its 16 percent mandated reduction and has had no need to force its wealthiest residents to pare back. (Districts where average use was higher were ordered to cut more.)但该市的用水大户无一被罚款。因为不那么富裕的洛杉矶居民用水节约,该市轻轻松松就能完成用水量减少16%的命令,不用强迫极富裕的居民减少用水。(平均用水量较高的地区,削减幅度也更大。)Though no names or addresses of Los Angeles water hogs have been released, it is easy to find homes where they might live: In Brentwood, one home listed for sale offers 12 bathrooms and a water slide that goes from inside the house to one of two pools. Another home under construction in Bel Air has been issued permits for five pools.虽然相关机构没有公布洛杉矶用水大户的姓名和住址,但很容易就能找到他们可能居住的住所:在布伦特伍德(Brentwood),一个挂牌出售的房屋拥有12个卫生间;有一条水滑道从屋里通往一座泳池,共有两座泳池。贝莱尔地区的一所在建房屋,获得了建造五座泳池的许可。Maureen Levinson, a Bel Air resident, winced as she pointed out homes being built in her neighborhood with water features she likened to “moats.” “Someone has to say, ‘You can’t have five pools — you can have one pool,’” she said.该地区居民莫琳·莱文森(Maureen Levinson)指着她所在社区的一些在建房屋摇头叹气,她形容那些房屋附带的水景仿佛是“护城壕”。她说,“需要有人指出,‘你不能建五座泳池,只能有一个’。”Local newspapers have pressed the city to identify its top water users, as one San Francisco Bay Area district has done. One result: Famous residents have been shamed into using less water.当地报纸要求该市公布用水大户的身份,就像旧金山湾区一样。一个结果是:一些知名的居民因为感到羞愧而减少了用水量。Billy Beane, a minority owner and former general manager of the Oakland A’s baseball team, came third on the East Bay Municipal Utility District’s initial list of top water hogs in October, averaging 5,996 gallons a day, or nearly 25 times the district average. The top spot went to George Kirkland, a retired Chevron executive, at 12,578 gallons a day.在东湾水务局(East Bay Municipal Utility District)列出的10月份用水大户名单中,奥克兰运动家(Oakland A’s)棒球队少数股东、前总经理比利·比恩(Billy Beane)位列第三,平均每天使用5996加仑水,几乎相当于该地区平均用水量的25倍。用水最多的是雪佛龙(Chevron)公司已经退休的高管乔治·柯克兰(George Kirkland),其用水量达到每天12578加仑。Both men blamed leaky pipes, and cut back enough to stay off the subsequent list of top water users.这两人都埋怨管道漏水,为了避免登上以后的用水大户名单而大幅减少用水量。Marty Adams, a senior assistant general manager of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, said enforcing regulations in wealthy areas was more difficult than in poorer ones. “For a lot of people, accountants or landscapers pay the water bill, and they don’t even see it,” Mr. Adams added.洛杉矶供水供电局(Los Angeles Department of Water and Power)总经理高级助理马蒂·亚当斯(Marty Adams)表示,在富裕区域执行规定,比在贫穷区域更难。亚当斯还表示,“对于很多人来说,水费是会计或庭院设计师付的,他们甚至没见过水费单。”Los Angeles officials hope to start imposing fines so steep that even the wealthy who populate Bel Air will notice. Elsewhere, though, fines have aly piled up on middle-class Californians.洛杉矶的官员希望开始征收高额罚款,以便引起聚居于贝莱尔的富人们的注意。但在其他地方,加州的中产阶级已经收到大量罚款单。The Central Valley city of Clovis, faced with an order to cut back 36 percent, has meted out more than 23,000 fines since the mandatory water reductions began in June. In Santa Cruz, where water supplies have run dangerously low, the city has assessed more than .6 million in penalties for using too much water.位于中央谷地的克洛维斯市,接到了将用水量减少36%的命令,自从6月开始执行减少用水量的命令以来,该市已经开出了逾2.3万张罚单。圣克鲁兹的水供应量已经低到非常危险的水平,该市已经以用水过多为由,征收了逾160万美元的罚款。But perhaps nowhere have the fines been felt as sharply — or raised as much ire — as in Apple Valley, where the median household income is below ,000 a year, a stark contrast to Bel Air.但苹果谷或许是罚款最多——或引发最多愤怒——的地区,该市家庭收入中位数为每年不到5万美元,这与贝莱尔形成鲜明对比。“They have all this disposable income, and they’re not conserving at all,” said Barb Stanton, the mayor pro tem of Apple Valley. “We’re cutting back, and yet we’re being penalized. We have seniors on fixed incomes appealing to us — they don’t know how they’re going to pay their water bills.”“他们有可观的可配收入,却根本不节约用水,”苹果谷临时市长巴尔布·斯坦顿(Barb Stanton)说。“我们在减少用水,但我们却遭到了处罚。那些年收入固定的老年人过来向我们求助,他们不知道该怎么才能缴得起水费。”Ms. Stanton was among those paying a drought surcharge, despite replacing her lawn with rocks. “How much more can I do?” she asked. “I let my trees die.”尽管斯坦顿已经将草地改成石子地,她仍在缴纳干旱附加罚款。“我还能做什么?”她问道。“我已经让树枯死了。”Tony Penna, the general manager of Apple Valley Ranchos, said customers should be able to live comfortably within their allotments if they used water efficiently. The typical customer, he said, pays less than a month for water.苹果谷兰乔斯的总经理托尼·宾纳(Tony Penna)表示,如果用户们能够有效用水,他们可以在不超过配额的情况下舒适地生活。他表示,普通用户每月的水费不超过70美元。“The idea it can’t be done, we’re not buying that,” Mr. Penna said. “When you see someone who’s got a bill of 0 or 0, many times it’s because their dedication to conservation isn’t as good.”“有人觉得这不可能做到,我们不相信,”宾纳说。“要是看到某人的水费达到200美元或400美元,那往往是因为他们还是不够节约。” /201511/412022济南山大附属一医院周末有上班吗山东省中医医院官网专家在线咨询



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