明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月17日 13:05:02
Moody people are often baffling to those of us with steadier emotions.喜怒无常的人常常令情绪稳定的人感到困惑。But scientists argue that changing moods – as seen in sulking teenagers, grumpy spouses, or bad-tempered parents - serve an important purpose.但科学家认为情绪多变——多见于阴郁的青少年,爱发牢骚的配偶,或者暴脾气的父母——其实有它的重要目的。Rather than being a weakness, they are nature#39;s way to of helping us adapt to an ever changing world. So when times are good and spirits are high, we take more risks at a time they are likely to be rewarded.这不是缺点,而是帮助我们适应瞬息万变的世界的自然方式。And when times are tough, sulking can help us conserve our energy.当万事顺意、志得意满时,我们更倾向于去冒风险,因为我们觉得自己很可能会得到回报。当时局艰难时,阴郁的情绪可以帮我们保存能量。To take a human example, a stock market trader who makes a successful deal becomes more optimistic about the outcome of his next transaction.举人类为例,股市交易者大赚一笔时,他对下一笔交易将会信心满满。He is then likely to take more risks – as he becomes more optimistic things will go in his or her favour.他会倾向于冒更多险,因为他乐观地期待事情会顺遂心意。The increase in risk taking allows him to make maximum gains at a time when risk taking is most likely to pay off.在风险投资回报率高时,冒更大风险让他可以获得最大化的利益。This holds true when a variety of different events have an underlying connection, the authors argue.作者论说,当多个不同事件之间存在潜在联系时,这个结果是成立的。To take an example from the natural world, the authors suggest an animal#39;s mood improves on finding a number of fruits in a tree.作者又举了一个自然界的例子,他指出动物在一株树上发现许多果实时情绪会改善。Rather than assessing each tree individually, this good mood helps the animal to look at the big picture – and optimistically make it think fruits are in abundance.情绪大好的动物不会挨个打量每株树,而是会乐观地认为这一片树的果实都很丰硕。This encourages the animal to climb up the neighbouring branch – where good conditions make it more likely that there will be a tasty fruit available.这会鼓励它爬上旁边那棵树,由于这片树生长环境良好,所以那颗树的枝头上很可能挂着一个好吃的果子。It may be increased rainfall or sunshine has caused fruit to become more abundant, the authors suggest.作者指出,也许是降雨和日照增多让果实更丰饶。#39;In this situation, it makes little sense to update expectations for each tree independently,#39; the authors write, and makes the animal expect #39;a general increase in reward and update expectations for all related trees accordingly.#39;作者写道:“在这种情况下,动物不会对每棵树都抱有不同的期望,而是会整体地期待‘周边的树都能有更多回报’。”Eran Eldar, of University College London said: #39;This effect of mood should be useful whenever different sources of reward are interconnected or possess an underlying momentum.英国伦敦大学学院伊然·艾尔达说:“当不同回报的来源相互间都有联系或拥有潜在动力,这种情绪效应将会很有用。#39;That may often be the case in the natural as well as in the modern world, as successes in acquiring skills, material resources, social status, and even mating partners may all affect one another.#39;“不仅在自然界,在现代社会,获取技能的成功与获得物质资源、社会地位,甚至和找对象都是环环相扣的。”When rewards are starting to thin out – for example if winter is coming – then a negative mood will result in an individual event, such as finding a fruit, being #39;downgraded#39;– allowing behaviour and expectations to be quickly adjusted downwards.当回报减少——比如冬天来临——消极的情绪就会致使动物对找到果实的期望降低,从而调整自己的行为。The authors suggest that this could lead to behaviours such as an animal deciding to save energy and hibernate instead of rushing around.作者说,这会导致动物决定节省体力或冬眠,而不是到处乱跑。 /201511/408130

Is something rotten in the state of fashion?时尚界是不是有什么东西在溃烂?On Wednesday — six days after it was announced that the designer Raf Simons was leaving Christian Dior, and weeks after Alexander Wang’s last show for the house of Balenciaga — Lanvin, the oldest surviving French fashion house, announced that its creative director, Alber Elbaz, is also leaving the company, “on the decision of the company’s majority shareholder,” according to a statement from Mr. Elbaz.周三(10月28日),现存的历史最悠久的法国时装公司浪凡(Lanvin)宣布,其创意总监阿尔贝·埃尔巴兹(Alber Elbaz)将离开这家公司。埃尔巴兹在声明中说,“这是公司控股股东的决定。”六天前,设计师拉夫·西蒙斯(Raf Simons)宣布将离开迪奥(Christian Dior)。几周前,王大仁完成了在巴黎世家(Balenciaga)的最后一场时装秀。“Feels like the industry is shedding its skin right now,” Linda Fargo, the women’s fashion director of Bergdorf Goodman, wrote in an email.“感觉这个行业正在蜕皮,”波道夫·古德曼百货公司(Bergdorf Goodman)的女装总监琳达·法戈(Linda Fargo)在接受邮件采访时说。But unlike Mr. Simons and Mr. Wang, both of whom lasted approximately three years at Dior and Balenciaga respectively, Mr. Elbaz has been at Lanvin since 2001. He single-handedly revived the brand, making it a favorite of regular women and celebrities like Meryl Streep and Natalie Portman, in the process becoming one of fashion’s most beloved figures.西蒙斯和王大仁分别在迪奥和巴黎世家待了大约三年,而埃尔巴兹从2001年起就为浪凡效力。他凭一己之力复兴了这个品牌,让它成为受到普通女性和名人(比如梅丽尔·斯特里普[Meryl Streep]和纳塔莉·波特曼[Natalie Portman])青睐的品牌。在此过程中,他也成为时尚界最受喜爱的人物之一。He is known not only for his talent, but also for his generosity (he regularly sends flowers to other designers before their shows) and his self-questioning. Last week, receiving his award at the Fashion Group International Night of Stars, the Roger Vivier designer Bruno Frisoni noted that the event was especially important to him because Mr. Elbaz was also being honored. “I love you, Bruno,” Mr. Elbaz called out.他的名声不仅在于才华,而且在于慷慨(他经常在其他设计师的时装秀之前给他们送花)和自我反省。上周,Roger Vivier的设计师布鲁诺·弗里索尼(Bruno Frisoni)在国际时尚组织(Fashion Group International)的群星之夜(Night of Stars)领奖时说,这场活动对他来说尤为重要,因为埃尔巴兹也获奖了。“我爱你,布鲁诺,”埃尔巴兹大声回应道。In his statement Wednesday, he also expressed “gratitude and warm thoughts” and “affection” for all his colleagues. (When contacted for comment for this article, he texted a heart emoji to me, but no words).在周三(10月28日)的声明中,埃尔巴兹也向全体同事表达了自己的“感激之情、温暖的感受”和“喜爱之情”(我请他就本文做出时,他回复了一个心形表情符号,没说别的)。As a result, and though Lanvin itself is privately held (it is owned by the Taiwanese publishing magnate Shaw-Lan Wang, and Mr. Elbaz reportedly has a 10 percent stake) and relatively small, with 2014 revenues of 250 million euros, Mr. Elbaz was regularly on the shortlist for every major fashion appointment in the last five years.虽然浪凡本身为私人所有(它属于台湾出版大亨王效兰,据说埃尔巴兹有10%的股份),规模相对较小,2014年的总收入仅为2.5亿欧元,但是在过去五年里,埃尔巴兹经常出现在所有大型时装公司的终选名单上。But he regularly denied any impulse to leave. In 2011, when asked if he would consider moving to another brand from Lanvin, he told The Financial Times: ‘“How could I do that? The people who work there enable me to do what I do. They are my orchestra. I can’t say to them, ‘Oh, bye, Mummy’s leaving now.’ ” In the end, it was not his decision, though a pointed line in his statement — that he hoped the brand found “the business vision it needs to engage in the right way forward” — suggests disagreement between himself and his corporate colleagues.不过,他拒绝了所有离开的机会。2011年,《金融时报》(The Financial Times)问他是否考虑跳去别的品牌,他回答说:“我怎么可能那样做呢?在这里工作的人帮我实现了愿望。他们是我的管弦乐队。我不能对他们说,‘哦,再见啦,妈妈要走了。’”最后也不是他决定要离开。不过他在声明中说,希望这个品牌找到“它需要向前推进的正确商业目标”,这句尖锐的话表明他和公司同事之间存在不同想法。Still, Mr. Elbaz has also long expressed a certain discomfort with the direction the industry at large is taking. Receiving his Fashion Group International award, he said, “We designers, we started as couturiers, with dreams, with intuition, with feeling.” Then, he said: “We became ‘creative directors,’ so we have to create, but mostly direct. And now we have to become image-makers, creating a buzz, making sure that it looks good in the pictures. The screen has to scream, baby.”不过,很久以来,埃尔巴兹也表达了自己对这个行业总体发展方向的某种不适。在领取国际时尚组织的大奖时,他说,“我们设计师本来是裁缝,有着梦想、直觉和感受”,后来“我们成了‘创意总监’,所以我们必须去创造,不过大多是进行指导。现在,我们必须变成形象创造者,要引起轰动,确保照片拍出来很棒。屏幕必须尖叫,宝贝”。But, he said, “I prefer whispering.” Combined with Mr. Simons’s departure for “personal reasons,” and Mr. Wang’s, this is sure to exacerbate the storm of existential self-questioning currently roiling the fashion world and focused on “the system.” Whether the constant cycle of collection after collection, far-flung store opening after far-flung store opening, Instagram after YouTube, demands too much of its creative talent. Whether, as Mr. Elbaz said at FGI, “everyone in fashion just needs a little more time.”他说,但“我更喜欢低语”。再加上西蒙斯“因个人原因”离职和王大仁的离职,这无疑加剧了目前搅动时尚界的风暴,人们纷纷在质疑自我存在感,并把目光聚焦到“体制”上。一个又一个系列,一个又一个遥远的店铺开幕,发完Instagram又要发YouTube,这些是不是对创意人才的要求太高了。或者是否就像埃尔巴兹在国际时尚组织颁奖礼上说的,“时尚界的每个人都需要多一点时间。”That is part of the problem, no question. But I also think it’s actually time to look a little harder at what is going on. Because, while “the system” is a disembodied, nonspecific entity that may be the most obvious culprit for our dissatisfaction, it seems to me that all these departures are also a very powerful reflection of an insidious, and potentially more destructive, trend.毋庸置疑,这是一个问题。不过我也觉得,现在应该更仔细地研究一下到底是什么情况。因为,虽然“体制”这种空洞的东西可能是我们不满的最明显的罪魁祸首,但是在我看来,这些设计师离职也有力地反应出一股潜在的、可能更具破坏力的潮流。That is, the current situation in which brands treat designers as “work for hire” — stewards that set a course for a style ship for a time, but who can be replaced as necessary while the ship itself sails on — and its inevitable corollary: that designers start to see themselves the same way. The result transforms the relationship from that of a marriage, where you pledge to love and care for each other through sickness and in health, into a dispassionate contract-to-contract arrangement.目前的情况是,品牌认为设计师是“雇佣工”,是在一段时间内为一艘时尚大船导航的舵手,但是在向前行进的过程中,如果需要,他可以被取代;这种态度带来的必然结果是,设计师们也开始这样看待自己。结果,设计师和品牌的关系从原本类似婚姻的关系——发誓相互关爱,同甘共苦——变成了冷漠的合同关系。While on the one hand this makes for a cleaner and more professional pairing — one less fraught with the highs and lows (and mood-altering drugs and rehab stints) of the generation before, like Mr. Galliano and Alexander McQueen, one where expectations between the parties are theoretically aligned — it also means that creative directors are more willing to weigh the costs and benefits of an employment situation and make a conscious judgment that it may no longer be working for them.这样虽然能结成更简单、更职业的合作关系——不像上一代,合作过程中充满起伏(以及令人心情动荡的吸毒和戒毒事件),比如加利亚诺(Galliano)和亚历山大·麦昆(Alexander McQueen)——双方对彼此的期待从理论上讲是一致的,但它也意味着,创意总监们更容易去权衡一个职位的代价和利益,会有意识地考虑这个职位是否还适合自己。Put another way: They can leave. And increasingly, it seems, they do.换句话说:他们可以离开。而且他们似乎正在越来越多地这样做。Fashion is now on a slippery slope of its own making that began with Tom Ford’s departure from Gucci Group in 2003. It was a rupture caused by disagreements over the scope of his power that was first seen as a dire event (How would Gucci survive without its superstar designer?) and latterly introduced the ascension of the brand: the idea that it was the house that mattered, and the designer served that master.如今,时尚界正沿着自己开创的滑坡下滑。这始于2003年汤姆·福特(Tom Ford)离开古驰集团(Gucci Group)。他们关系的破裂源于对福特权限范围的不同意见。最初,人们觉得福特的离开非常可怕(没有这位超级明星设计师,古驰怎么生存下去呢?),后来,这个事件反倒拔高了这个品牌的地位:人们开始认为,重要的是这个公司,设计师只是为主人务。Gucci tested the theory by hiring three unknown creative directors after Mr. Ford (for women’s wear, men’s wear and accessories), a situation that lasted only until 2006, when one of them, Frida Giannini, became the sole creative director. Ms. Giannini remained at her post for nine years, before being replaced earlier this year by Alessandro Michele, also an unknown.古驰验了这个理论的正确性。在福特离开后,古驰聘用了三位不出名的创意总监(分别负责女装、男装和配饰)。这种状态只持续到2006年,那一年,三位总监中的弗丽达·詹尼尼(Frida Giannini)成了唯一的创意总监。詹尼尼在这个职位上待了九年,今年年初,她被同样不出名的亚历山德罗·米歇尔(Alessandro Michele)取代。Meanwhile, other brands began to go through creative directors at a notable rate, for a variety of different reasons. Alessandra Facchinetti, Gucci’s head of women’s wear post-Ford, was let go from the brand in 2005, and joined Moncler Gamme Rouge, before jumping to Valentino, only to be replaced after two collections and hop to Pinko, where she introduced a new collection called Uniqueness in 2011, leaving in 2013 to become creative director of Tod’s following the American designer Derek Lam, who had been there for six years. (Phew.)与此同时,其他品牌开始以惊人的速度更换创意总监,原因各不相同。取代福特负责古驰女装的亚历山德拉·法基内蒂(Alessandra Facchinetti)在2005年离开该品牌,加入Moncler Gamme Rouge,后来又跳到华伦天奴(Valentino)。她在华伦天奴只设计了两个系列就跳到了Pinko。2011年,她在Pinko推出了一个名叫Uniqueness的新系列,但是2013年就离开Pinko去Tod’s做创意总监。她在Tod’s的前任是美国设计师林达克(Derek Lam),后者在Tod’s做了六年(哇!)。At Nina Ricci, Lars Nilsson was creative director from 2003 to 2006 before being replaced by Olivier Theyskens (2006 to 2009), who in turn was replaced by Peter Copping (2009 to 2014), who was replaced by Guillaume Henry. Mr. Theyskens resurfaced at Theory in New York in 2011, where he lasted for just over three years.丽娜蕙姿(Nina Ricci)的创意总监也是不停地换,2003年至2006年是拉斯·尼尔森(Lars Nilsson),2006年至2009年是奥利维耶·泽斯肯斯(Olivier Theyskens),2009年至2014年是彼得·科平(Peter Copping),之后是纪尧姆·亨利(Guillaume Henry)。2011年,泽斯肯斯复出,就职于纽约的Theory,他在那里待了三年多。(In case you were wondering, the standard term for most creative director contracts is at least three years.)(你可能会想怎么都是三年,这是因为大部分创意总监的合同期限都是至少三年)。At Céline, Michael Kors left in 2004, and was replaced by Roberto Menichetti, who after two seasons was replaced by Ivana Omazic, who in 2008 was replaced by Phoebe Philo, who famously insisted (after leading Chloé from 2001 to 2006, when she resigned — shades of Mr. Simons — for personal reasons) that she be allowed to stay in London with her family, and work from there.思琳(Céline)的情况是这样的:2004年迈克尔·高仕(Michael Kors)离开后由罗伯托·梅尼凯蒂(Roberto Menichetti)接任;两季之后,他被伊万娜·奥马齐克(Ivana Omazic)取代;2008年,菲比·菲洛(Phoebe Philo)又取代了奥马齐克(2001年至2006年菲洛执掌Chloé,后来因个人原因辞职,跟西蒙斯的说法一样)。菲洛坚持要求允许自己在伦敦工作,可以和家人待在一起。It’s a decision that has been cited often in the last week as an example of the way the current generation of designers has made an effort to prioritize their own needs along with their brands’ needs for better balance, as was Alexander Wang’s decision, made mutually with the brand, not to renew his contract with Balenciaga, in part to concentrate on his own company.在过去一周里,这个决定经常被拿来作为一个例,明这一代设计师们会权衡自己和自己品牌的需要,更追求平衡。王大仁不再和巴黎世家续签合同的决定是和这个品牌共同做出的,部分原因也是为了专注于自己的公司。Whether or not Balenciaga actually wanted him to stay (as Dior did with Mr. Simons), or it aly thought things weren’t working out — and it has since appointed Demna Gvasalia of the French label Vetements to the post — Mr. Wang didn’t go quietly into that good night. He went running and jumping and practically celebrating, as all of us who were at his final Balenciaga show could see, suggesting that he was more than happy to be free of the grind.不管巴黎世家是真的想挽留他(就像迪奥挽留西蒙斯那样)还是已经认为这样不可行——巴黎世家后来任命法国品牌Vetements的设计师戴姆娜·吉瓦萨利亚(Demna Gvasalia)接任此职——王大仁都不是悄悄地消失在美好的夜色里。在他巴黎世家的最后一场时装秀上,我们看到他又跑又跳,简直就是在庆祝,表明自己为摆脱束缚感到万分开心。We have reached the point where designers feel as justified in leaving a brand as the brand does in leaving them — and after it has happened once, for whatever reason (as it did when Mr. Simons left Jil Sander in 2012 under cloudy circumstances), it gets easier to do.如今,就像品牌觉得解雇某个设计师完全合乎情理,设计师们也觉得自己离开某个品牌完全合乎情理。这样的事情一旦发生过——不管因为什么原因(比如2012年,西蒙斯不太愉快地离开Jil Sander)——以后就更容易发生了。Indeed, Ms. Philo has publicly mused about her desire to spend more time in nature, and that, combined with the fact she left Chloé at the height of her success, has made rumors of a potential departure from Céline almost impossible to squash. It’s simply too believable that she could just walk away, not because she had a different job offer or a falling out with management, but because she simply wanted a different life. Like Mr. Simons.的确,菲洛已经公开提到想更多接触大自然,再加上她是在非常成功的时候离开Chloé的,所以关于她想离开思琳的传言几乎很难粉碎。人们太容易相信,她可以一走了之,不是因为有了其他工作机会或者和管理层不和,而仅仅是因为她想过不一样的生活。就像西蒙斯那样。The problem is, if we divorce emotion from the creative process, if designers don’t care as much about their brand, and brands are not as wed to their designers as they were when the same name shaped a sartorial identity over decades, then the risk is that consumers will feel the same way. It’s the part of this equation that doesn’t add up.问题是,如果创作过程中没有感情,设计师不像从前那么在乎品牌,品牌和设计师的联系也不像从前那么紧密(以前,一种独特的裁剪风格来自同一位设计师数十年的塑造。),就会出现这样的风险:消费者也会有同样的感觉。这才是这种关系不平衡的地方。As a retailer who asked to remain anonymous because she sells many of the brands said on hearing the Lanvin news: “Why do people covet Chanel or Comme des The brands send a consistent message about what they are and what they stand for. If you are going to invest, you invest in that. Even if you don’t like a collection or a season, you can’t deny the purity of the message. All these changes means fashion doesn’t feel pure any more. What do you say to the women?”一位零售商(她要求匿名,因为她销售很多品牌)听到浪凡的新闻后说:“人们为什么渴望香奈儿(Chanel)或Comme des Gar 因为关于这些品牌是什么以及它们所代表的东西,它们传递的信息是连贯一致的。你要是投资的话,你投资的是这个。即使你不喜欢某个系列或某一季的装,你也不能否认这个信息的纯粹性。而现在这些变化表明,时尚界不再那么纯粹了。你该跟女顾客们说什么呢?”When designers leave, by choice or not, the value proposition becomes broken. No one needs a new bag, or a fancy dress; they desire them because of what they represent. Once upon a time, Mr. Elbaz said in his Fashion Group speech, he used to ask himself: “What do women want? What do women need? What can I do for a woman to make her life better and easier?”设计师们不管是主动离开还是被动离开,品牌的价值定位都会被打破。没有人需要一个新包或者一件漂亮的新裙子。她们想要的是这些东西所代表的价值。埃尔巴兹在国际时尚组织的获奖致辞中说,他过去常常问自己:“女人们想要什么?女人们需要什么?我能做些什么,让她们的生活变得更好、更轻松?” Without that — the seduction and sentiment, the promise of transformation — it’s just stuff. And really, who wants that?如果没有那些——诱惑和情感,能带来变化的承诺——那就是只是些东西而已。真的,谁需要那些呢? /201511/407455



  When work became too much for Will Meyerhofer’s client, a twenty-something associate at a big law firm, she slipped into a quiet room in the office. Then she shut the door, pulled down the blinds and started to weep. Through her tears she became dimly aware of a noise coming through the wall: it was a colleague sobbing in the next room. 威尔迈耶霍弗(Will Meyerhofer)有一名二十多岁的客户,是一家大型律师事务所的的助理,当工作让她感到难以承受的时候,她会在办公室里找一个安静的房间悄悄溜入去,关上门,放下窗帘,开始哭泣。泪眼朦胧中,她隐约听到声音从墙的另一边透过来:那是一名同事在隔壁房间里抽泣。 Mr Meyerhofer tells this story to underline the misery that lurks beneath the successful of some lawyers. “There is something unique about the law partnership structure, billable hours and the brutal competition of a law firm,” he says. 迈耶霍弗用这个故事来表明潜藏在一些律师光鲜表象下的辛酸。“律师事务所的合伙制结构、计费小时制和残酷的竞争在某种程度是独一无二的,”他说。 Based in Tribeca, New York, the former lawyer is a psychotherapist who has carved out a niche seeing clients from the legal profession; some who he counsels over Skype are in Britain, Japan and India. There is a steady stream of anxious, burnt out and depressed lawyers coming to see him, he says. While the banking sector has attracted attention for its punishing work conditions, he argues that lawyers can have it worse. In banking, there is an expectation that working life can improve as bankers scale the greasy pole, but this is not the case for lawyers. 这位曾担任律师的心理治疗师在纽约翠贝卡区(Tribeca)工作,他开拓了一个专门针对法律人士的利基市场;一些他通过Skype提供咨询的客户远在英国、日本和印度。迈耶霍弗表示,不断有焦虑不安、心力交瘁和抑郁消沉的律师前来找他。尽管业因为严苛的工作条件而受到关注,但他认为,律师们的情况可能有过之而无不及。在业,升职不容易,不过人们可以寄望于工作状态或许会随着级别攀升而改善,而律师们的情况就不是这样了。 “You’re the equivalent of a banking analyst for all your life. It’s brutal, it follows you home.” This familiarity with legal roles and culture means he is empathetic to lawyers. In therapy sessions with clients, some tyrannical bosses’ names keep coming up. “你一辈子都在做相当于分析师的工作。工作很辛苦,即使你回家了它也如影随形。”这种对律师工作和文化的熟悉意味着迈耶霍弗能和律师产生共鸣。在客户的治疗疗程中,一些专横的老板的名字被不断提起。 Chicago-based Alan Levin is a co-founder of a practice of lawyers turned therapists who cater to the legal profession. He says that while it is clearly not a pre-requisite to have been a lawyer to understand one, it certainly helps. “A client can refer to something in their experience and they don’t need to explain it,” Mr Levin says. 在芝加哥工作的艾伦莱文(Alan Levin)是这个由律师转行的心理治疗师组成、专门针对法律人士的心理治疗所的联合创始人之一。他表示,虽然曾经担任律师显然不是理解律师处境的先决条件,但这样的经历肯定是有帮助的。“客户在提及他们经历的一些事情时,不用费力对其进行解释,”莱文说。 The former employment lawyer says that there can be a divide between the corporate and caring professions. A therapist without a corporate background might suggest a client could decline to work on a Saturday. “They don’t understand how impossible it can sometimes feel to turn down work.” 这位前劳工法律师表示,在公司里工作跟在心理治疗所工作可能迥然不同。没在公司里工作过的治疗师可能会建议客户,可以拒绝在周六工作。“他们不理解拒绝工作有时候会让人感觉多么不可能。” Mr Meyerhofer, who attended Harvard and New York University School of Law before going to work at Sullivan amp; Cromwell, in its securities and capital markets divisions, says he did not fit in. 上过哈佛大学(Harvard University)和纽约大学法学院(New York University School of Law)之后,迈耶霍弗进入了苏利文与克伦威尔律师事务所(Sullivan amp; Cromwell),在那里的券和资本市场部门工作。他说,自己那时感觉格格不入。 “I hated it. I wasn’t cut out to be a corporate lawyer. It was very competitive, long hours, doing detailed work.” In the end, he was “delicately shown the door”. “我讨厌这份工作。我不适合当公司法律师——竞争非常激烈、加班时间很长、做一些非常具体的工作。”最后,他被“委婉地请走了”。 Today, he looks back and realises he was depressed and anxious. As well as becoming an insomniac, he gained 45lbs as a result of his legal stint. After retraining as a psychotherapist and writing blogs on the emotional fallout of working in the legal profession, he discovered former colleagues who had always seemed happy confessing to anxiety and self-doubt. “I didn’t realise so many colleagues were so miserable.” 今天,他回顾过去,意识到他当时既焦虑又抑郁。在律所工作的那段时间,他经常失眠,还增重了45磅。在重新接受培训成为一名心理治疗师,并撰写客讲述法律职业对情绪造成的影响后,他发现了一些看起来总是非常快乐的前同事坦陈自己感到焦虑和自我怀疑。“我之前没有意识到有这么多同事如此痛苦。” As a therapist, Mr Meyerhofer encounters many clients who, he believes, are subconsciously sabotaging their careers: for example, by talking back to their boss in the hope that they might be paid off. He asks clients: if you were fired tomorrow how would you feel? Relief is a common response. 作为一名治疗师,迈耶霍弗遇到了很多在他看来在潜意识地破坏自己职业前途的客户:比如,顶撞老板,暗地里希望老板或许会给他们一笔遣散费让他们走人。他问客户:如果你明天就被解雇了,你会有什么感觉?许多人的回答都是:解脱。 Some of his female clients express frustration about being sidelined, sexually harassed and given the office “housework”, such as looking after junior colleagues. 一些女性客户说自己被边缘化、受到性骚扰或者被交付照看级别较低的同事等琐事,因而感到沮丧。 Therapists’ clients are a self-selecting group. They are in therapy because they want help. In any case, not all of Mr Meyerhofer’s lawyer clients feel miserable about work. “Some love law,” he says. Nor would he always advise those feeling trapped by their job to hand in their notice. Tweaks to their role, or a sideways move, might be better. 治疗师的客户是一个自我选择的群体。他们之所以接受治疗是因为他们需要帮助。无论如何,迈耶霍弗的律师客户并非都感觉工作令他们痛苦。“有些人热爱法律,”他说。他也不会总是劝告那些感觉被工作困住的客户递交辞呈。调整岗位角色,或者平级调动,可能会更好。 A common problem Mr Levin, 68, sees among his lawyer clients is what he labels the “curse of unlimited potential”. These are people who have been told they are bright and feel they must live up to their potential. “The curse is it’s unlimited and it can never be fulfilled.” 现年68岁的莱文认为,他的律师客户存在一个共同问题,他将其称之为“无限潜力的诅咒”。这些人一直被告知他们很聪明,他们感到必须实现自己的潜力。“这之所以是个诅咒,是因为潜力是无限的,永远不可能完全实现。” A former partner at a “magic circle” firm in the City, who is retraining as a psychoanalyst at the Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, says lawyers can become divorced from their emotions. “On the one hand you have everything and feel nothing.” In the end, she felt the job was inessential yet “vastly overpaid”. 一位伦敦金融城(City of London)“魔法圈”律所(Magic Circle,指英国五大律所——译注)的前合伙人经过重新培训成为了塔维斯托克和波特曼NHS基金会信托(Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust)的心理分析师。她表示,律师可能会自我麻痹,把自己的感觉搁到一边。“你应有尽有,却没有任何感觉。”最后,她感觉这份工作并不重要,却“挣得太多”。 Anxiety can run high on the topic of compensation, particularly when it comes to bonuses, says Mr Levin. “It’s not about the money,” he insists. “Most would feel better if they were earning half a million dollars and everyone around them earned the same or less, than if they had m and everyone else was on .6m.” 在薪酬的话题上,尤其是奖金方面,律师的焦虑情绪可能会非常严重,莱文说。“这不是钱的问题,”他坚称,“如果他们挣50万美元,周围所有人也或多或少是这个数字,他们会比自己挣100万美元,而其他所有人都挣160万美元感觉更好。” The money, he says, is about validation, particularly important in a workplace where few people receive thanks from clients, colleagues or their superiors. 他说,收入是一种明,在一个少有人从客户、同事或者上级那里获得感谢的工作场所尤为重要。 Money and prestige become a trap, observes Mr Meyerhofer. A well-paid senior lawyer frequently expresses anxiety that if she left her job she would be out on the street. Such catastrophising, he says, is far from atypical. 迈耶霍弗指出,金钱和身份地位成为了陷阱。一位收入丰厚的高级律师常常表达她的焦虑情绪,担忧她如果不再当律师了就会露宿街头。他表示,这种杞人忧天的情绪远非个案。 Sarah Weinstein is based in California and has been a psychotherapist for more than a year, after working as a lawyer for 12 years. The 44-year-old says her clients appreciate the chance to let their guard down. “Lawyers pretend they are fine all the time.” Putting on a confident exterior can be exhausting. 住在加利福利亚的萨拉温斯坦(Sarah Weinstein)担任心理治疗师已经1年多了,此前她当了12年的律师。现年44岁的温斯坦表示,能够放下防备让她的客户感觉很好。“律师们要时刻假装自己状态良好。”以自信的姿态示人可能会让人精疲力竭。 Today, Mr Meyerhofer has mixed feelings about going to law school. “I spent a huge amount of money on law school and got depressed. But I have developed a practice out of it.” While having lawyers as clients is more lucrative than janitors, he says he earns the same now as he did when he was a junior lawyer. 现在,对于上法学院,迈耶霍弗感觉复杂。“我当年上法学院花了一笔巨资,结果还抑郁了。但这段经历又让我开办了一家心理治疗所。”虽然为律师做心理治疗师挣的钱比下有余,但迈耶霍弗说自己现在挣得也就和他当初任初级律师时一样多。 He is critical of law schools, which he sees as “big cash cows”, believing too many students are admitted who are ill-equipped to become lawyers. 他批评法学院,认为它们只顾赚钱,太多被法学院录取的学生其实并不具备当律师的条件。 He advises many law student clients to quit. “A lot of kids are so unhappy.” 他建议很多法学院学生退学。“很多学生非常不开心。” On occasion, a client will tell Mr Meyerhofer that he is a fraud, whiner or loser: that he is only a therapist because he could not make it in law. He freely admits he was not a great lawyer: “I’m not a complete blithering idiot … I didn’t want to do it.” Moreover, he says, his job allows him weekends off and evenings to himself. 有时也会有客户说迈耶霍弗是个骗子、抱怨者或者失败者:他成为治疗师的唯一原因是因为他在律师界混不下去。迈耶霍弗坦率地承认他不是一个好律师:“我不是一个彻头彻尾的傻瓜……我不想当律师。”另外,他表示,治疗师的工作让他周末能够正常休息,晚上也不用加班。 /201603/429554


  For centuries, Mid-Autumn Festival has meant Chinese family reunions, big feasts and the enjoyment of a beautiful full moon. At a traditional Mid-Autumn banquet, the mooncake, a treat shaped like a round moon, is an essential snack.几个世纪以来,中秋节意味着中国家庭团聚,盛宴,赏月。在传统中秋节盛宴上,月饼形似一轮明月,是最重要的中秋美食。In recent years, Chinese consumers have become more concerned about healthy lifestyles and innovative flavors, driving the market shift to more natural food products or new ingredients.近几年,中国消费者越来越关注健康的生活方式以及创意味道,这使得市场转向更天然食品和新型配料。Although traditional mooncake fillings like Wuren (a mixture of five different nuts), red bean paste and lotus seed paste with egg yolk still occupy an important place in Chinese market, more and more shops are launching innovative moon cakes this year to attract young consumers. Some of them focus on health concepts and some introduce novel flavors, while others make present the mooncakes in a more fashionable way.尽管像五仁(五种坚果混合馅),红豆沙,蛋黄莲蓉传统月饼馅依旧在中国市场具有重要位置,但是,今年越来越多的商店推出创意月饼来吸引年轻顾客。他们有些关注健康理念,有的引入新奇口味,但有的以一种更加时尚的方式推出自己的月饼。In a traditional Hong Kong mooncake, the filling is made with a whole egg yolk, lotus seed paste and granulated sugar. However, young people complain that it is too greasy. So Wing Wah replaced granulated sugar with maltitol, and mixed mixed egg yolk with lotus seed paste this year, to keep it tasty but with fewer calories.传统港式月饼馅一般是整个蛋黄,莲蓉和白砂糖。然而,年轻人抱怨这种太腻。所以今年香港荣华(一家香港食品公司)用麦芽糖替代白砂糖并混合蛋黄莲蓉,好吃且低卡。Xylitol has expanded its territory from chewing gum to the mooncake industry. Many mooncake suppliers in different cities in the country promote their sales of mooncakes made with xylitol.木糖醇也从口香糖领域进军了月饼业。中国各地月饼供应商在促销木糖醇月饼。The sweetness of xylitol is the same as in sucrose, but it has only 60 percent of the calories in sucrose. It can effectively reduce the accumulation of fat in the body, and is very suitable for diabetics.木糖醇的馨香和蔗糖一样,但其卡路里却只是蔗糖的60%,木糖醇还可以有效地减少体内堆积的脂肪,非常适合糖尿病患者食用。A hotel in Shenzhen sells improved Wuren mooncakes with hypoglycemic effects this year. According to local media, the chefs in the hotel made the mooncake filling according to an ancient recipe.今年,一家深圳酒店销售具有降血糖作用的改良版五仁月饼 。据当地媒体报道,该酒店的厨师根据一本古老食谱制作的这种月饼馅。They powdered balsam pear seeds, black sesame and parched soybean, then mixed them together with glutinous rice flour and honey. Throughout the whole process, they did not use sucrose.他们将苦瓜种子,黑芝麻和烘干的大豆打成粉,与糯米粉和蜂蜜混合,整个制作过程都不使用蔗糖。To please young people, some pastry shops in China#39;s large cities fashion special festival treats, such as ;courtship mooncakes;. Chefs print a ;declaration of love; on the surface of each moon cake, which are shaped like dolls.为了取悦年轻人,中国大城市的一些糕点店推出节日特供食品,如“表白月饼”。厨师在每个娃娃形状的月饼上印上“爱情宣言”。Some shops make smaller sized ;chess mooncakes;. Consumers can play chess with friends on Mid-Autumn night while eating them.有些商店制作了小型 “象棋月饼”,顾客可以在中秋夜边吃月饼边和朋友下象棋。 /201509/400488Food is the perfect metaphor for life. It can strike us as funny, as when British couples go in for some ;toad-in-the-hole,; enjoy the occasional ;bubble and squeak; or gobble down some ;spotted dick.; It can also turn tragically bizarre, as when, in 1919, a Boston storage tank burst, letting loose a destructive 2.3-million-gallon (8.7-million-liter) wave of molasses that killed 21 people and demolished several structures.完满人生历来少不了美食这个主旋律。英国素以黑暗料理闻名,他们的餐桌上常见的烤面拖牛肉、炸马铃薯和洋白菜以及受人喜爱的葡萄干布丁等都成为大家玩笑的谈资。历史上,食物也曾酿造过惨剧。1919年,美国波士顿的糖蜜储存罐突然发生爆炸,约230万加仑(870万升)糖蜜倾泻而出,造成21人死亡,损毁好几处建筑物。And, like life, food is also precious, often in surprising ways. Take the case of the Great Canadian Maple Syrup Heist of 2012, in which 6 million pounds (2.7 million kilograms) of syrup were stolen from the Global Strategic Maple Syrup Reserve (yes, that#39;s a thing). You might think that syrup stealing should be filed under funny, but there#39;s nothing laughable about a commodity that at the time of the heist was trading at ,800 per 620-pound (281-kilogram) barrel, or roughly 13 times crude oil#39;s then-going rate. For our cornucopia of kooky comestibles, we#39;ve pulled from all three categories -- and then some. We have silly food names, cheeses both bankable and burning, and fare that sounds like a dare.但是诚如生命可贵,食物也是非常珍贵的,有时甚至可以昂贵到惊人的地步。加拿大著名的枫糖浆失窃案就是一个很好的例。2012年,在加拿大一家全球战略性枫糖浆储备处(Global Strategic Maple Syrup Reserve,不要怀疑,真的有这个机构),大约有600万磅(270万公斤)枫糖浆失窃。也许你会觉得盗窃枫糖浆是很可笑的行为,但如果你知道在当时的销售市场上,1桶620磅(281公斤)的枫糖浆售价为1800美元,大约是同期原油市场价格的13倍,你就笑不出来了。我们可以将这些千奇百怪的食物趣事大致分为三类,如荒唐的食物名称、可以用来抵押和燃烧的奶酪以及需要勇气才敢挑战的食物!10.Mellified Man: It#39;s the Taste of Nuts and Honey10.蜜渍人:坚果与蜂蜜的味道While Europe was enduring the long intellectual Dark Ages that followed the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Muslim world was experiencing a flourishing golden age of intellectual and cultural achievement. But if, as philosophers have long contended, we can judge a culture#39;s character by what it eats, then here#39;s one honey of an ;Oh boy, I think I#39;m going to be sick.;伴随着罗马帝国的崩塌,欧洲经历了一段漫长蒙昧的黑暗时代,而与此同时,穆斯林世界正处于智慧与文化蓬勃发展的黄金时期。哲学家们早就主张“一种文化的品性可以通过它的饮食来评判”,那么对穆斯林文化中的“蜜渍人”我们便只能感叹一句“天哪,这太令人作呕了!”The recipe is simple: Take one elderly Arabian fellow, feed him nothing but honey, wait until he dies and then bury him ... in more honey. Allow the man to marinate for 100 years, then dig him up and sell the ;mellified man; (from the Latin ;mel; for honey) in your local grand bazaar for a substantial stack of coins. Was mellified man a real thing? It was recorded in a 16th-century Chinese pharmacopeia, Li Shizhen#39;s ;Compendium of Materia Medica,; but even the person who recorded it admitted it was hearsay at best. Like most honeyed words -- and a nice caramel -- it#39;s probably best taken with a grain of salt.“蜜渍人”的制作过程很简单:挑选一名年长的阿拉伯人,让他只以蜂蜜为食,在他过世后再用大量的蜂蜜掩埋尸体。用蜂蜜腌制100年后,人们便将“蜜渍人”挖出并在当地的大巴扎集市售卖,以换取大量金币(在拉丁语中“mel”代表蜂蜜)。“蜜渍人”是真实存在的吗?早在16世纪,中国医药学家李时珍在其药典《本草纲目》中便有相关记载,但他也明确说明这只是传闻并无实。我们看待这件事的真实性,也应当如同看待甜言蜜语和精美糖果一样,持保留态度。9.Stack That Cheese -- as Loan Collateral9.成批奶酪可以作为抵押贷款Formaggio fans know the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy as the only place in the world legally entitled to call its hard, dry skim-milk cheese Parmigiano-Reggiano. But within the world of finance, this home to Ravenna, Bologna and Parma has also gained fame for a pecuniary peculiarity: It#39;s home to a bank that accepts the celebrated cheese as collateral.奶酪爱好者都应该知道,全世界只有意大利北部的艾米利亚 - 罗马涅大区生产的奶酪才有权利称为帕尔马地方奶酪,这种硬质干酪由牛生乳制成,被称为奶酪之王。但在世界金融领域,拉文纳,洛尼亚和帕尔马这三个意大利城市则以其奇特的财务交易而闻名——这些地方的允许用名贵奶酪做为抵押品进行贷款。Credito Emiliano SpA (aka Credem) stores and cares for around 450,000 80-pound (36-kilogram) wheels of aging Parmigiano-Reggiano at a time. That stacks up to around 160 million euros, or (very roughly) 6 million worth. By accepting the curd-based collateral, the bank provides a valuable service to local cheese producers, who must finance milk-buying and storage while their products cure. Loans from Credem can reach as high as 80 percent of the cheese#39;s market value. Each wheel bears a branded serial number, which became important in February 2009, when thieves burrowed their way into one depository and rolled off with 570 pieces before police nabbed them. That must have really grated.意大利埃米利亚诺信托曾经一度存放了约450,000轮80磅(36公斤)重的帕尔马地方奶酪,并加以照管。这些奶酪累计起来可以折价约1.6亿欧元,粗略估计合1.76亿美元市值。通过接受乳制品抵押贷款,向当地的奶酪生产商提供有价值的务,但在烤制加工产品期间,生产商必须付牛奶采购和存储的费用。从埃米利亚诺信托申请的信贷最高可达奶酪市场价值的80%。每一轮奶酪都印有品牌的序列号,这些序列号在之后起到了重要的作用。2009年2月,一些窃贼挖掘地道潜入奶酪贮藏所,在被捕之前他们运走了570份奶酪轮。当时必定相当恼火。8.Cheese: Of Fire and Flies8.芝士:火与苍蝇的结合Other countries may require the aid of spirits to set their respective cheeses aflame, but the land of fjords produces a brown cheese that burns like a tire fire all on its own. Actually, brunost is not technically a cheese because, like ricotta, it#39;s made not only of curds but also of whey, the liquid left over after milk has been curdled and strained. The result is a sweet, brown block of sticky, caramelized lactose, a brick of fat and sugar that burns like nobody#39;s business – enough so that a spilled, flaming truckload shut down a Norwegian tunnel for four days.其他国家出产的芝士可能需要加入酒精才能燃烧起来,而挪威海湾地区出产的一种褐色的芝士则不用任何添加物就可以像轮胎起火一样烧起来。事实上,杰托斯特芝士严格意义上来说并不是芝士。就像意大利乳清干酪一样,制作杰托斯特芝士不仅要使用凝乳,还要使用乳清——就是那些牛奶凝固后被过滤出来的液体。这样生产出来的就是甜甜粘粘的焦糖色乳糖。这些像砖头一样的脂肪和糖,如果自顾自地熊熊燃烧,其释放出的能量堪比一货车燃烧着的货物,能导致一个挪威隧道关闭4天之久。Of course, there are reasons you might want to set cheese on fire, and we#39;re not talking about fondues or saganakis. Take Sardinia#39;s illegal maggot-ridden cheese casu marzu. In a possible case of ;if you can#39;t beat #39;em, eat #39;em,; this putrid pecorino requires some larval love to fully come alive. With a little encouragement from cheese makers, flies lay eggs in the product, which then hatch into larvae. As the maggots crawl through the cheese using their tiny teeth, they release a putrefying enzyme essential to the product#39;s characteristic flavor and (gulp!) mouthfeel. Patrons are advised to cover their eyes, ostensibly to prevent wayward maggots from jumping into them.或许你有很多种理由想燃烧芝士,当然我们并不是在讲芝士火锅或是希腊奶酪。再来看看撒丁岛布满虫蛆的非法芝士:卡苏马苏。可谓是“假如你不能打败你的敌人那就吃了它们”的现实版写照 。这种腐烂的羊乳芝士需要添加幼虫来激活。芝士制造商给予催化,苍蝇会在上面产卵然后孵化成幼虫。这些小蛆们用自己小小的牙齿在芝士里不断爬行,他们释放出来的具有腐化作用的酶正是制作出其特色风味和口感的一种最关键的发酵剂。当你吃这个的时候最好闭上眼睛,至少可以装作不想让这些任性的蛆蛆们跳到你的眼睛里去的样子。7.Christmas Culinary Curiosities Killed the Cat7.圣诞美食是什么——好奇心害死猫In the U.S., Christmas is associated with a sort of quid pro quo: People who celebrate Christmas leave cookies and milk for Santa Claus, and he leaves edible treats in their stockings. But other holiday traditions around the world incorporate food as well.在美国,圣诞节算得上是某种等价交换:庆祝圣诞节的人们给圣诞老人留些饼干和牛奶,而圣诞老人则留下美食在人们的长筒袜里。不仅美国,世界各地的节日传统里都少不了食物。Take some of Europe#39;s historical yuletide traditions, which may or may not still hold true (leave a comment if you know). On Dec. 5 in Austria, the eve of St. Nicholas Day, good children used to receive candy in their shoes, while naughty ones got coal ... or potatoes. In Bavaria, farmers once encouraged a bountiful harvest by asking their fruit trees on a luncheon date. If the arboreal invitees didn#39;t show, the farmers brought lunch to them -- or, rather, to the spirits that they believed dwelled inside them. On New Year#39;s Eve, Spaniards have tried to court good luck (or a Heimlich) by gobbling down a dozen grapes while the clock struck midnight. In Sweden, a white-clad girl with candles in her hair would wake her family on Christmas with special wheat cakes called lussekatter, in memory of St. Lucia. Yuletide can be a tough time for cats in Europe. Icelanders bedecked their family felines in bows lest they be mistaken for the shape-shifting Christmas Cat, which reputedly gobbled up children who received only toys for Christmas. But they had it better than some cats in Switzerland, where a small number of diehards still eat the domestic variety for their Christmas meals就拿欧洲的一些具有历史意义的圣诞节传统来聊一聊,这当中有些可能仍然适用,而有些已经不适用了(如果你知道,请留下告诉我)。在奥地利,每年的12月5号,即圣尼古拉斯节前夕,乖孩子一般会在他们的鞋子里收到糖果,而淘气的小朋友则只能收到煤或是土豆。而在巴伐利亚,农民们曾一度邀请自己的果树参加午宴,以期望获得好收成。如果被邀请的果树没有赴宴,农民们就把午餐送去献给果树——或者更准确地说,献给他们认为住在树里的精灵。西班牙人在新年前夕想要获得好运(还不如说他们是想感受一下海姆立克急救法)他们就会在午夜钟声敲响时吞下十几颗葡萄。在瑞典,为了纪念圣卢西亚,庆祝圣诞节时家中的女孩会换上白色的衣,在头发上插上蜡烛,并用一种特制的小麦饼——露西亚面包来叫她的家人起床。圣诞节对欧洲的猫来说是一段艰辛的时期。冰岛人会给自己家的猫装扮上蝴蝶结以免被别人误认为是会变形的圣诞怪猫,据说这种怪猫会把在圣诞节中只收到玩偶的孩子们吃掉。不过比起瑞士的猫,它们就幸运多了,瑞士仍有少数顽固分子至今还会把本地猫咪当作他们的圣诞大餐。6.How Hippo Nearly Became America#39;s Other Dark Meat6.美国的河马肉差点成为盘中餐The turn of the 20th century was marked by a bold optimism concerning what was possible through science and industry coupled with a willingness to explore the most outlandish options available. Faced with a problem, real or perceived, you could count on someone to offer solutions ranging from the impractical to the morally dubious.20世纪初是一个勇敢而乐观的时代,人们怀着探索精神,通过科学和技术,探索世界上的奇闻趣事。在面对真实的或假想的问题之时,你诚然可以靠别人来帮你解决,但这些解决方法要么无法实践,要么有不道德之嫌。At the time, the U.S faced a serious problem: a booming population and not enough meat with which to feed it. Proposals ranged from introducing antelope to establishing ostrich farms, but probably the most remarkable remedy lay in the proposed use of hippopotamuses as a local meat source. The advantages were several. Hippos would live and feed in areas unfit for traditional cattle, and the so-called ;lake cows; (as at least one marketing-savvy editorial called them, even if hippopotamus literally means ;river horse; in Greek) would remove a blight from Louisiana#39;s bayous to boot, an invasive water hyacinth that was clogging waterways and knocking off fish. Despite the support of such luminaries as former President Teddy Roosevelt, the idea eventually gave way to burgeoning industrial farms.当时,美国面临一个非常严峻的问题:人口爆炸式增长,而国内却缺乏足够的食物。尽管有人建议通过建立羚羊或者鸵鸟养殖场来解决肉源的问题,但最切实可行的做法,却是选择河马肉。他们的理由是,河马可以在不适合养牛的地方生存和养殖,而且这种所谓的“湖奶牛”(虽然河马一词在希腊文中表示“河流的马”,但是仍有不少营销书这样为它命名)能够清除路易斯安那州湖沼的水葫芦,解决生物入侵带来的水道堵塞、鱼类死亡问题。尽管这个想法得到了诸如前总统西奥多·罗斯福等名人的持,但最后还是被迅速发展的工业化农场淹没。翻译:泯泯 审校:Freya然 来源:前十网 /201603/429126


  Lu You (1125~1210), literary name Fangweng, courtesy name Wuguan was one of the most important and prolific Chinese writers of the Southern Song Dynasty, noted for his collection of nearly 10 000 poems as well as numerous prose pieces.陆游(1125~1210),多务观,号放翁。南宋最为重要和多产的作家之一,写了近10 000一首诗还有许多散文而著称。Primarily a poet, Lu gained renown for his simple, direct expression and for his attention to realistic detail, features that set him apart from the elevated and allusive style characteristic of the prevailing Jiangxi school of poetry.作为一名诗人,他以简朴、直接的表达和对现实细节的观注闻名。陆游的诗所具有的这些特征与当时盛行的江西诗派严肃、隐喻的特征相背离。As a conservative in matters of form, however, he wrote a number of poems in the gushi (;old poetry;) mode and excelled at the lüshi (;regulated poetry;) form, the sharply defined tonal and.grammatical patterns of which had been perfected by the great masters of the Tang Dynasty.然而陆游在形式上是保守的,写了许多占诗并且擅长写律诗:律诗的音律早在唐代就被大师们完善了。Lu has been most admired for the ardour of his patriotic poems, in which he protested the Jin invasion of Song in 1126, the year after his birth, and chided the Southern Song court for its passive attitude toward driving out the invaders and reconquering its lost northern territories.陆游还因他的爱国主义诗篇里洋溢的爱国热情而备受仰慕,在这些诗篇里,他抗议金国1126年(他出生后的那一年)对宋朝的人侵,斥责南宋朝廷对赶走金人收复失地所持的被动态度。Because of his hawkish views, expressed at a time when the displaced court was controlled by a peace faction, Lu failed to advance in his career as an imperial official. Four times demoted for his outspoken opinions, Lu finally resigned his civil-service commission and retired to his country estate.陆游的观点强硬,而南迁的朝廷由求和派控制着,所以作为朝官他的事业未能有所进展。During retirement Lu devoted most of his poetry to the appreciation and praise of rural life.陆游曾因坦率直言被降职四次,所以他最终辞职还乡。Like the poet Tao Qian, whom he took as his model, Lu depicted the rural countryside in homely detail, evoking its moods and scenes through fresh and precise imagery.辞官后,陆游的大多数诗都表达了对农村生活的欣赏和赞美,他以陶潜为榜样,以朴实的细节描述农村居民,通过清晰精确的意象再现农村的印象和景色。 /201601/423581。



  Guo Shoujing (1231~1316) was a Chinese astronomer, engineer, and mathematician. 郭守敬(1231~1316),天文学家、数学家。His grandfather was Guo Yang, a noted scholar.其祖父郭荣是著名学者。By the age of fourteen Guo Shoujing designed a water clock and at sixteen he was studying mathematics.14岁郭守敬发明了水钟,16岁学习数学,改进了日晷和圭表。在忽必烈的天文台工作,他编制了《授时历》,计算出每年有365.2425天。He worked on improving the Chinese gnomon and worked at Kublai Khan#39;s observatory. There he formulated the Shoushi calendar and calculated the year to be 365. 2425 days. 这与《格利高里历》是一样的,但是早了将近300年。This is the Same as the Gregorian calendar, but almost three centuries earlier.接下来的364年用的都是《授时历》。It would be used for the next 364 years.郭守敬还做了与球面三角有关的工作。He also did work relating to spherical trigonometry.郭守敬是中国古代著名的水利工程师和数学家。He is a famous ancient Chinese hydraulic engineer and mathematician.郭守敬改进了历法,算出每年有365天5小时36分11秒,与精确值只错了50秒。He improved the calendar and was off by only 50 seconds. He calculated a year was 365 days 5 hours 36 minutes and 11 seconds.尽管郭守敬在历法上做出很大的成绩,但是他却认为圆周率是3,而不像祖冲之的3.14159265和张衡的3. 142那么精确。Although he did a great deal on the modern calendar, he suggested pi 3, unlike Zu Chongzhi#39;s 3. 14159265 and Zhang Heng#39;s 3. 142. In engineering he is best known for constructing the artificial Kunming Lake in Beijing as a reservoir and part of a new waterway for grain transport.在工程学上,郭守敬最著名的是修建了北京昆明湖,用作水库和运粮水路的一部分。Asteroid 2012 Guo Shou-Jing was named after him.编号为2012号小行星被命名为“郭守敬星”。 /201603/431208

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