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探索世界奥秘之Supermassive Black Holes(超大质量黑洞) 14It means that Silk and Ree's theory may be right and if it is also right that supermassive black holes helped trigger star formation, then it must mean that all giant black holes and their galaxies are connected from birth. It means the answer to the mystery of galaxy formation may lie in the creation of the supermassive black holes at their heart.The real implication of the relation is that whatever controlled the formation of the galaxy and whatever controlled the formation of the supermassive black hole is basically the same thing. There is only one thing behind everything.So a supermassive black hole, a force of terrible destruction, could also be fundamental in the creation of our galaxy. Nevertheless, its latent destructive power should not be underestimated.Back in Hawaii, Andrea Ghez has made a new discovery. She's discovered a new source of light in the center of our galaxy. The black hole may be starting to feed again. All of a sudden, we saw something that looks like a star, but maybe it isn't a star, but it's definitely a new object in our map and the interesting thing is that it located where we think the black hole is.Ghez thinks this spot of light could be something amazing. One idea that I'm particularly intrigued by at the moment is the idea that perhaps the black hole is, is feeding more right now.Andrea thinks that the light she sees is coming from hot gas being sucked into the vortex of the black hole. So if our black hole has started feeding again, could this affect the Earth, even though we're 24,000 light years away?We're in absolutely no danger of being eaten by the supermassive black hole. And in fact if we do think the black hole is going through a slightly large feeding at the moment, it's tiny, it's tiny compared to what other galaxy, galaxies are doing, so in fact still this is a very quiet black hole. In spite of the fact that there might be new emission from it, it's still extremely low.Our black hole is merely having the equivalent of a small snack feeding on a wisp of gas that's strayed too close. The black hole stopped growing billions of years ago. Only a major catastrophe could make it fire up again, something violent enough to hurl stars from the safety of our galaxy's edge into its deadly heart. And we now know that one day this catastrophe could happen.200808/46261Cheetahs are sprinters, not made for a long-distance chase. So they must get close. But springbok have keen senses. True to their name, springbok can leap two meters high. It's jumping with a purpose. It signals a warning to the others and confuses the attackers.After such a burst of activity, springbok need to cool down fast. Here in the Kalahari, temperatures can be unbearable. But large animals can at least find a shady haven under the broad canopies of camelthorn trees.For ground squirrels, it's also time to seek shade. The sand is much cooler just beneath the surface. So each squirrel digs its own special trench.For most Kalahari mammals, mid-day is siesta time, a chance to unwind. Even the meerkat sentry takes his eye off the job.But a sociable weaver's work is never done. They're busy constructing their own unique shelter. These giant haystacks can accommodate up to three hundred individuals and can weigh over a ton. Because they're occupied year round, thatching is an endless task. The nests are a miracle of home-made air conditioning. Air trapped in the pockets of the thatch acts as a buffer against extremes of temperature. In summer, it can be ten degree Celsius cooler inside.words:1.cheetach:a long-legged, swift-running wild cat of Africa and southwest Asia, having black-spotted, tawny fur and nonretractile claws. The cheetah, the fastest animal on land, can run for short distances at about 96 kilometers (60 miles) per hour非洲的一种猎豹2.sprinter:competitors in the short-distance racing competition短跑者3.siesta:a rest or nap after the midday meal中午的小休息4.unwind: stretch and relax伸直休息5.sentry:a guard, especially a soldier posted at a given spot to prevent the passage of unauthorized persons岗哨200807/44763China in Delicate Balance on Iran Nuclear Talks中国主持上海会谈讨论伊朗核问题  China is for the first time hosting talks on Iran's nuclear programs. China wants to show it is a responsible power while balancing its need for oil from Iran. 中国首次主持有关伊朗核计划的谈判。中国希望能展现自己是一个负责任的大国,但同时也不会影响对伊朗石油的需求。 The meeting Wednesday in Shanghai brings together the five permanent members of the ed Nations Security Council plus Germany and the European Union. The delegates will discuss increasing incentives for Iran to stop enriching uranium and to cooperate fully with the U.N.'s International Atomic Energy Agency. 参加星期三在上海举行的会议包括联合国安理会的5个常任理事国以及德国与欧盟的代表。代表们将讨论如何对伊朗提供更多的刺激,以使其停止提炼铀的计划并与联合国国际原子能机构进行全面合作。The ed States, France, Britain, Germany and the EU are concerned Iran wants to use enriched uranium to build nuclear weapons and have been pushing for stronger sanctions against Tehran. 美国、法国、英国、德国和欧盟对于伊朗打算提炼釉来建造核武器感到关注,并且一直推动对德黑兰采取更严厉的制裁措施。Iran denies the allegations and rejects the U.N. demands despite three rounds of limited sanctions. 伊朗否认上述指控,并且不顾3次的有限制裁,依旧拒绝联合国的要求。Russia and China, both permanent Security Council members, do a lot of business with Iran and have been reluctant to support tougher sanctions.  安理会常任理事国俄罗斯和中国都与伊朗有著密切的贸易关系,它们一直不愿意持对伊朗实施更严厉的制裁。Shen Dingli is an expert on nuclear politics at Shanghai's Fudan University. He says China is in a delicate balancing act, trying to please both sides in the dispute.  沈丁力是上海复旦大学核政治专家。他说,中国表现得非常谨慎,试图让争执双方都感到高兴:"We have to care [about] Iran's legitimate right for civilian nuclear energy and Western countries legitimate demand for Iran to clarify its nuclear past. So, China is caught," he said. "We need to do both, but this might not reconcile." “我们必须考虑伊朗发展民用核能的权力,也要顾及西方国家提出的伊朗必须澄清其过去核项目的合理要求。所以中国进退两难。我们需要两者兼顾,但或许无法让双方都称心如意。”Iran is China's third largest source of imported oil.  伊朗是中国第三大石油供应国。Shen says Beijing will not likely support tougher sanctions unless more evidence emerges of a nuclear weapons program. 沈丁力说,除非有更多据显示伊朗的确有发展核武器计划,否则北京将不会持对伊朗采取更严厉的制裁措施。International pressure against Iran eased somewhat when a U.S. intelligence report said Iran had halted plans on developing nuclear weapons several years ago.Shen says a breakthrough at the Shanghai talks is not likely. Iran has refused offers of economic, diplomatic, and security incentives as well as cooperation on civilian nuclear power. But, in a possible sign of flexibility, Iranian officials this week said compensation for economic damage caused by the sanctions should be a part of the negotiations.  沈丁力说,上海会谈不太可能取得突破。伊朗已经拒绝接受经济、外交以及安全方面的刺激方案,并且拒绝在民用核能上的合作。但是伊朗官员这个星期曾经表示,对于制裁造成的经济损失的补偿问题,应该列入谈判的内容。这显示,伊朗可能在谈判中表现一定的灵活性。Iran's foreign minister also said Tehran would soon offer a proposal to resolve the dispute. He gave no details but said any agreement would have to respect Iran's rights and not limit them, an apparent reference to its nuclear programs. 伊朗外长也曾表示,德黑兰将尽快提出解决争议的方案。但是他并未提供细节,他只是说,任何协议都应该尊重而不是限制伊朗的权益。这显然指的是伊朗的核计划。200804/35297IMF: Credit Squeeze in US Could Get Worse报告:全球信贷市场动荡或恶化  The International Monetary Fund Tuesday said the turmoil in world credit markets that began with rising home loan defaults in the ed States is not over and losses could hit 5 billion as the impact sps into the global economy. The Bloomberg financial news services estimates that banks and securities firms have so far written off only a fraction of that total, 2 billion.  国际货币基金组织星期二报告说,美国次贷危机引起的全球信贷市场动荡并没有结束,而且有可能恶化。 IMF specialists say the overall risks to global financial stability have increased sharply in recent months. Jaime Caruana is the principal author of the IMF report on financial stability. 国际货币基金组织的专家指出,最近几个月来,全球金融市场面临的风险急剧增加,直接威胁到金融市场的稳定。"The credit shock emanating from the US subprime crisis is set to broaden amid a significant economic slowdown," he said. "The deterioration in credit has moved up and across the credit spectrum." 杰米.卡鲁那(Jaime Caruana)是国际货币基金组织货币与资本市场部主任,也是国际货币基金组织关于全球金融稳定状况报告的主要作者。他说:“从美国次级房贷危机放射出来的信贷市场震荡随着经济的大幅度走缓将会进一步扩大。信贷市场的恶化已经加剧,而且扩散到了整个信贷领域。”As bank losses have soared, lenders have tightened standards and, despite lower interest rates, many commercial and consumer loans are still hard to come by. Caruana says more than six months into the crisis, credit markets are still not functioning normally. 亏损与日俱增,信贷机构纷纷收紧放贷标准,尽管利率不断降低,但很多商业和消费者贷款却还是难以落实。卡鲁那指出,次贷危机发生至今已经六个多月了,信贷市场依然没有恢复正常运作。"We have seen confidence quickly evaporate, ending in liquidity driven solvency events that threaten the core financial system," he added. 他说:“我们看到,人们的信心在快速蒸发,结果,流动性减少,违约率增加,这一切都威胁着我们的核心金融系统。”He is referring to the US central bank-orchestrated rescue of the Bear Stearns investment bank, which teetered on the brink of bankruptcy because of loan losses.  卡鲁那指的是上个月美国中央美联储合力帮助挽救华尔街投资贝尔斯登公司。贝尔斯登公司由于受到信贷亏损的打击而濒临破产。美联储认为,如果不对贝尔斯登公司伸出援手,美国的整个金融系统都将受到威胁。The IMF is not alone in its worry that the credit crisis could worsen. Morris Goldstein, a financial specialist at Washington's Peterson Institute, says if home prices continue to fall in the ed States, defaults on mortgage loans could grow beyond the two million predicted for this year. 担心信贷危机恶化的并不仅仅是国际货币基金组织。华盛顿智囊团彼得森国际经济研究所的金融专家莫里斯.戈尔茨坦也认为,假如美国的房屋价格继续下滑,今年的房贷违约数量有可能超过先前预期的两百万。"It's been estimated that if US housing prices fall by an additional 15 percent or so, approximately a third of US homeowners will have negative equity in their homes," he explained. "This raises the question of whether willingness to pay will have to be addressed along with ability to pay." 他说:“据估计,假如美国的房屋价格进一步下跌15%,那么,大约三分之一的美国房主就将面临资不抵债的困境,(也就是说,他们的房屋贷款额超过了房屋的市场价格)。由此引起的问题就不光是他们是否有能力偿还贷款了,而会还牵涉到他们愿不愿意偿还。”US home prices on average declined by 10 percent in 2007, a factor IMF economists say contributed to the global credit crisis. Many US mortgage loans were bundled into securities and sold to financial institutions worldwide. 美国的房屋价格在2007年平均下滑了10%,国际货币基金组织的经济学家认为,这个因素对全球信贷危机起了推波助澜的作用。美国的很多房屋抵押贷款被塞进有价券卖给了世界各地的金融机构。Caruana says if the situation worsens, it may be necessary for governments to spend taxpayer money to stabilize markets. 卡鲁那说,假如形势进一步恶化,各国政府也许有必要动用纳税人的钱来稳定市场。"I think we have to be careful on that," he cautioned. "And the question is to what extent the situation continues to deteriorate." 他说:“我认为,在这方面我们必须谨慎小心。关键问题是,形势会继续恶化到什么程度。”The IMF says lax regulation and a failure to recognize the risks of highly leveraged loans contributed to the credit crisis. Financial markets, it says, will come under increased strain as world economic growth decelerates. 国际货币基金组织说,管理松弛和对高度杠杆借贷的风险缺乏认识导致了目前的信贷危机。伴随着全球经济增长减速,金融市场势必受到越来越大的压力。 200804/34004firebrand ------ 1.煽动者(名词); 2.燃烧的木柴(名词) 英文释义1. (noun) Someone with strong political opinions who speaks publicly in a way to encourage anger, radical change, or revolt.2. (noun) A burning piece of wood. 例句As a young man, the countrys founder was an outspoken firebrand who angered the authorities.该国的创建者年轻时是个直言不讳的煽动者,惹恼了当局。2.The cave was illuminated by firebrands set into its walls.安在墙上的火把照亮了这个洞穴。 /201610/466505

JP Morgan Chase Buys Troubled Washington Mutual Bank美国“华盛顿互惠”宣布破产 As U.S. lawmakers grappled over a 0 billion dollar bank bailout plan, one of the nation's largest banks - Washington Mutual Incorporated - collapsed under the weight of its enormous bad bets on the U.S. mortgage market. What is seen as the largest bank failure in U.S. history.正当美国国会仍然就政府提出的七千亿美元拯救金融市场计划争吵不休的时候,美国规模最大的之一--华盛顿互惠--却由于无法承受其巨大的房贷坏帐而破产。这是美国历史上破产倒闭的规模最大的一家。With financial markets reeling over the recent crisis on Wall Street, the collapse of Seattle-based Washington Mutual could not have come at a worse time.当金融市场由于华尔街最新的危机而苦苦挣扎之际,总部设在西雅图的华盛顿互惠的倒闭,的确是雪上加霜。Federal regulators moved quickly, seizing the troubled mortgage lender late Thursday and selling the thrift's banking assets to U.S. investment bank J.P. Morgan for nearly billion. 联邦监管人员行动迅速,于星期四傍晚冻结了这家身陷困境的房贷发放机构的资产,然后以将近二十亿美元的价格转售给美国投资根大通公司。The Federal Deposit Insurance Company, FDIC, insures Americans' bank deposits of up to 0,000. But it says because of the deal it will not have to use its assets to cover Washington Mutual's deposits. 美国联邦储蓄保险公司为储户十万美元以下的储蓄投了保,但是表示,由于转售交易的达成,联邦储蓄保险公司不必利用自身的资产向华盛顿互惠的储户付赔偿。The FDIC had aly spent billions of dollars in its takeover of IndyMac, which collapsed in July. Some analysts say a Washington Mutual failure could have used up half the money in the government insurance fund.今年七月抵押贷款公司IndyMac破产的时候,联邦储蓄保险公司已经付出了几十亿美元。一些分析人士表示,假如华盛顿互惠破产,联邦储蓄保险公司将不得不动用一半的政府保险资金。J.P. Morgan Chase said it plans to close less than 10 percent of the two companies' branches. The bank has not yet decided which to close. Kelsey Wesley, a Washington Mutual employee says employees are nervous. But adds the company, commonly known as WaMu, has been good to them in the past. 根大通公司表示,将关闭两家公司百分之十以下的分行,但是没有明确说明将关闭哪些分行。华盛顿互惠雇员凯尔西·韦斯利说,的雇员都感到紧张担心。但是他也表示,公司一向待雇员很好。"I'm not gonna say that is not gonna happen but no matter what WaMu has a really impressive severance package and I think that's going to be carried on even if there is a merger," he said. 韦斯利说:“我并不是说这种事情不会发生,但是不管怎么说,华盛顿互惠向员工提供非常好的解聘待遇。我认为,即使公司被兼并,这些待遇也会得到执行。”John Graybill, another Washington Mutual employee said he is optimistic.华盛顿互惠另一位名叫约翰·格雷比尔的雇员说,他感到乐观。"Of course we are going to have some uncertainties and some questioning about what's going on. Have I been nervous? Sure. That's the nature of the whole beast," he said. "When a large company gets bought out you wonder about your job. Are heads gonna roll? You just don't know but we have faith in our bosses and the people upstairs." 他说:“我们当然对眼前发生的一切感到不安,心里也会有很多问题。我是否感到紧张?当然紧张。这正是问题的根源。一家大公司被别人收买购,你自然担心你的饭碗。是否会有人被炒鱿鱼?你心里没底,但是我们对我们的老板和管理层有信心。”FDIC Chairwoman Sheila Bair says this will be a seamless transition for the bank's customers. She says there will be no interruption in services and bankers can expect business as usual.联邦储蓄保险公司主席希拉·布莱尔表示,对于华盛顿互惠的顾客来说,过渡将会非常平稳。她还说,务不会受到影响,一切都照常如故。Washington Mutual has been saddled with billions of dollars of debt because it heavily invested in selling risky subprime mortgages to customers who later defaulted on them. 华盛顿互惠把很多资产投在高风险的次级房贷上,但是由于很多贷款者无法偿还贷款而负债高达几十亿美元。This is J.P. Morgan's second purchase of a financial institution left vulnerable by the subprime mortgage crisis. It bought Bear Stearns for more than two-billion dollars earlier this year.这是根大通第二次出手购买由于次级房贷危机而摇摇欲坠的金融公司。今年早些时候,根大通以二十多亿美元的价格收购了贝尔斯登公司。200809/50736

Scripts:Felicia Padley and her youngest daughter Jenny Ella are picking up free helpings of pasta, vegetables and other essentials at a Food Bank in Brooklyn, New York . Padley holds down a fulltime government job but still finds it hard to feed her family of four. She needs the pantry’s help now more than ever as her weekly food bill soarsA year ago it's like about 50 or 60 dollars I would spend at a grocery store and that would include meats, that would include vegetables, fruits, cereals stuff like that. But now I’m spending like a hundred dollars.Rising food prices are hitting families across the ed States hard. Over the past year, egg prices have risen almost 44 percent, fresh milk 21 percent, and poultry and beef more than 6 percent. Economists say severe weather in the southern US and Australia is partly to blame for the jump in prices at food stores like this one behind me. But many are pointing to another culprit, energy, in particular the rising production of ethanol, a bio-fuel made from corn. There are some 130 ethanol plants now in operation across the US churning out billions of gallons of this stuff each year. The US hopes ethanol will slash demand for oil, but to make all that ethanol you need a lot of corn that has sent prices soaring 50 percent in the past year and a half. On top of ethanol there’s also the spike in the price of crude oil which makes it more expensive to transport and package foods. Some say demand for food and fuel are on a collision course that could have disastrous consequences.What we are looking at in a sense is direct competition between the 860 million people in the world who own automobiles and who want to maintain their mobility and the 2 billion poorest people in the world who simply want to survive. Others say demand may be outpacing supply now but the market will eventually adjust.We’ll continue to grow and really that’s a good thing. But people will also produce more. There’s an old saying at economics says the solution to high prices is high prices. What’s going to happen is that people are going to be provided an economic incentive to plant more. That should help solve the increase in prices. For now though, families struggle. 30 new families are walking into this Brooklyn pantry each day in need of help. This upcoming winter could be a bitter one indeed for many across the ed States finding it hard to afford the food basics.Maggie Lake, CNN New York.Notes:collision course: A course, such as that of moving objects or opposing philosophies, that will end in impact or conflict if permitted to continue unchanged or unabated200807/43418

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