明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年02月22日 17:49:50
Imagine being on a flight where, in place of windows, screens lining the cabin project images of the sky outside. New technology that could help reduce the weight of an aircraft could soon see windowless planes take to the air.想象一下,你坐在一架飞机上,原本舷窗的位置,现在却嵌着一排屏幕,屏幕上显示的是窗外天空的景色。一种用来减轻飞机重量的新技术,或许将很快让这种“无窗飞机”成为现实。Plastic display screens for use in aircraft cabins are one of several applications of printable electronics that are being developed at the Centre for Process Innovation in Sedgefield in northeast England, part of the government’s network of technology centres known as “catapults”.位于英国东北部塞奇菲尔德的工艺流程创新中心(Centre of Process Innovation,简称CPI)正在研发数种基于“印刷电子”技术的应用,其中就包括用在飞机机舱里的塑料显示屏。这一中心是英国政府牵头的、由多个研发中心组成的被称为“弹射器”网络的一部分。By using conductive inks, printed electronics – technology that has long promised to enliven products from perfume bottles to food packaging – can incorporate electrical circuits in cardboard and plastic for just a few pence per unit. In pharmaceuticals, smart packaging could tell a patient when to take their medication, for example.通过使用导电墨水,印刷电子技术能将电路集成到纸板和塑料上,每个部件所需成本只要几便士。人们一直以来都认为这种技术能让从香水瓶到食品包装袋的各种产品“活”起来。比如,在制药领域,智能化包装能够告诉患者何时吃药。But it is the technology’s potential to help aircraft manufacturers create a windowless plane that is causing most excitement at the CPI for now. By replacing windows with an interactive plastic display screen, the weight of the aircraft would be reduced, helping to lower fuel costs.然而目前在CPI,最让人兴奋的是,这种技术有可能帮助飞机制造商制造一种无窗飞机。用互动式塑料显示屏代替窗户,能减少飞机重量,从而有助于降低燃油成本。“Getting weight out of a plane is a key [goal] for the industry,” says Tom Taylor, who is part of the management team at CPI.CPI管理团队成员汤姆#8226;泰勒(Tom Taylor)表示:“对航空业来说,减轻飞机重量是一个关键(目标)。”While the windowless plane is not a new concept – freight aircraft and military jets tend not to have windows – commercial aircraft manufacturers have put off the idea until now because of concerns it would be unpopular with passengers.尽管无窗飞机并不是新概念——货运飞机和军用飞机就倾向于不要窗户,但商用飞机制造商却一直没有接纳这个概念,因为担心不受乘客欢迎。One US aerospace company has announced plans, though. This year Spike Aerospace said it would include a windowless cabin in its Spike S-512 Supersonic Jet, which is due to launch in 2018.不过,有一家名为Spike Aerospace的美国航空航天公司今年表示,其2018年将会推出的Spike S-512超音速客机,就将配备无窗式机舱。Vik Kachoria, president of Spike Aerospace, believes the benefits of what he calls the “multiplex digital cabin” will help win over passengers. “They will soon be able to experience a wonderful panoramic view of the outside world,” he says.Spike Aerospace首席执行官维克#8226;凯乔里亚(Vik Kachoria)相信,他所谓的“多重数字化机舱”会因为好处众多而赢得乘客。他表示:“他们很快就能体验到对舱外世界的绝佳全景式观感。”However, he says the company plans to include several windows for emergency purposes, which passengers will be able to use for a “quick look” outside.不过,他也表示该公司计划在机舱上加上几个用于紧急状况的窗户,乘客能用这些窗户“快速扫一眼”外部世界。 /201408/324407

Peekaboo is a game played over the world, crossing language and cultural barriers. Why is it so universal? Perhaps because it’s such a powerful learning tool.躲猫猫游戏风行世界各地,跨越语言和文化障碍,为何它如此普遍?也许因为它是一种强大的学习工具。One of us hides our eyes and then slowly reveals them. This causes peals of laughter from a baby, which causes us to laugh in turn. Then we do it again. And again.遮住双眼,手再缓缓移开。这样的动作会把婴儿逗得咯咯笑,我们也就跟着这一连串笑声笑了起来。接着就开始一直玩躲猫猫,一直玩。Peekaboo never gets old. Not only does my own infant daughter seem happy to do it for hours, but when I was young I played it with my mum (;you chuckled a lot!; she confirms by text message) and so on back through the generations. We are all born with unique personalities, in unique situations and with unique genes. So why is it that babies across the world are constantly rediscovering peekaboo for themselves?躲猫猫永远不会过时。现在我女儿还很小,我们玩几个小时,她看上去都很开心;在我小的时候,妈妈也和我玩躲猫猫(“你总是咯咯大笑!”她在短信中确认道。),再回溯数代,均是如此。我们生来都具不同个性,生于不同背景,也有着不同基因。那么,为什么全世界的婴幼儿还是对躲猫猫乐此不疲呢?Babies don#39;t books, and they don#39;t know that many people, so thesurprising durability and cultural universality of peekaboo is perhaps a clue that it taps into something fundamental in their minds. No mere habit or fashion, the game can help show us the foundations on which adult human thought is built.宝宝不懂看书,也不认识那么多人,而躲猫猫游戏惊人的耐玩性,跨越文化的普遍性也许就是一种引导,它能接近孩子们心中最根本的想法。这不仅仅只是一种习惯或流行,它能帮助我们认清成人想法建立的基础。An early theory of why babies enjoy peekaboo is that they are surprised when things come back after being out of sight. This may not sound like a good basis for laughs to you or I, with our adult brains, but to appreciate the joke you have to realise that for a baby, nothing is given. They are born into a buzzing confusion, and gradually have to learn to make sense of what is happening around them. You know that when you hear my voice, I#39;m usually not far behind, or that when a ball rolls behind a sofa it still exists, but think for a moment how you came by this certainty.早期,人们认为婴幼儿喜欢玩躲猫猫的原因是他们惊讶于一些东西消失后又神奇重现。这对于你我这样,因为有着成人思维,也许并不会觉得好笑,但是要理解这个笑声背后的原因,我们必须意识到,对于孩子,他们简单、单纯。他们降生于满腹疑惑的世界,慢慢地才学着搞懂周围发生的一切。你知道当你听到我的声音,我就在你不远处,或是当球滚到沙发背后,球其实还在,并没有消失,但是想想看,你是怎样建立起这样的肯定。The Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget called this principle#39;object permanence#39; and suggested that babies spent the first two years of their lives working it out. And of course those two years are prime peekaboo time. Looked at this way, the game isn#39;t just a joke, but helps babies test and re-test a fundamental principle of existence: that things stick around even when you can#39;t see them.瑞士发展心理学家让·皮亚杰(Jean Piaget)把这种规律称为“物体恒存性”,并表示婴幼儿在出生头两年,都在学习这一规律。当然这两年就是玩躲猫猫的最佳时间。这么看吧,躲猫猫并不仅仅是玩笑,还帮会孩子试验及重新试验存在规律这一根本原理:即使你没看到物体,他仍旧在你周围。Maybe evolution fixed it so that babies enjoy peekaboo for its own sake, since it proved useful in cognitive development, but I doubt it. Something deeper than mere education is going on.也许进化把躲猫猫固化成游戏,所以婴幼儿玩躲猫猫纯粹为了好玩,据实,躲猫猫在人类认知发展过程中起着重要作用,但我仍持怀疑态度。我认为,起作用的是一些比单纯的教育更深层的因素。Surprise element惊奇元素Peekaboo uses the fundamental structure of all good jokes - surprise, balanced with expectation. Researchers Gerrod Parrott and Henry Gleitman showed this in tests involving a group of six-, seven- and eight-month-olds which sound like more fun than a psychology experiment should be. Most of the time the peekaboo game proceeded normally, however on occasion the adult hid and reappeared as a different adult, or hid and reappeared in a different location. Videos of the infants were rated by independent observers for how much the babies smiled and laughed.躲猫猫有着玩笑共同的基本元素--惊奇与期望并存。研究人员谢拉德·帕洛特(Gerrod Parrott )及亨利· 格雷特曼(Henry Gleitman)对一组婴儿进行一系列测试,有六个月、七个月大的,也有八个月大的,结果看起来比心理学实验更有趣。大多数时候,躲猫猫按部就班地玩,然而有时,一个人躲起来,而一个人出现;或者藏起来后,这个人出现在另一地点。这些视频由一些独立的员评级,看看孩子们笑得开心程度。On these “trick trials” the babies smiled and laughed less, even though the outcome was more surprising. What#39;s more, the difference between their enjoyment of normal peekaboo and trick-peekaboo increased with age (with the eight-month-olds enjoying the trick trials least). The researchers#39; interpretation for this is that the game relies on being able to predict the outcome. As the babies get older their prediction gets stronger, so the discrepancy with what actually happens gets larger - they find it less and less funny.在这些“花样测试”中,婴幼儿笑得更少,尽管结果更令人惊奇。另外,婴幼儿在普通躲猫猫及花样躲猫猫中的享受程度差异,随着年纪增大而增加(其中八个月大的最不喜欢花样测试)。研究人员对此解释说,这个游戏依赖于对结果的预测能力。婴幼儿越大,预测力就越强,所以他们做的预判与实际情况出入越大,他们就觉得越不好玩。The final secret to the enduring popularity of peekaboo is that it isn#39;t actually a single game. As the baby gets older their carer lets the game adapt to the babies#39; new abilities, allowing both adult and infant to enjoy a similar game but done in different ways. The earliest version of peekaboo is simple looming, where the carer announces they are coming with their voice before bringing their face into close focus for the baby. As the baby gets older they can enjoy the adult hiding and reappearing, but after a year or so they can graduate to take control by hiding and reappearing themselves.躲猫猫经久不衰的最终秘密就是,其实它并不是一款游戏。随着宝宝一天天地长大,带孩子的人会调整游戏以适合孩子新掌握的能力,使得孩子与大人都喜欢玩躲猫猫,纵然游戏相似,玩法却不一。最早的版本很简单,在孩子看到大人前,大人告诉孩子自己要来了。孩子长大后,他们懂得从大人的躲藏及反复出现找乐趣,但大概一岁多,他们逐渐学会自己躲起来,然后再出现。In this way peekaboo can keep giving, allowing a perfect balance of what a developing baby knows about the world, what they are able to control and what they are still surprised by. Thankfully we adults enjoy their laughter so much that the repetition does nothing to stop us enjoying endless rounds of the game ourselves.这样一来,躲猫猫能够不断提供及保持一种完美平衡,介于发育中的婴儿对世界的认知、他们能控制什么及他们仍然什么感到惊讶。谢天谢地,我们大人还是很喜欢他们的笑声,不断的重复游戏并没有妨碍我们喜欢这个可以无限循环的游戏。 /201404/292967

  A Japanese online retailer is branching out into bras, knickers and even silky nighties that, despite looking exactly like something you#39;d usually find in a woman#39;s lingerie drawer, are actually intended for men.一家日本在线零售店正将产品发展到文胸、内裤、甚至丝绸睡衣,尽管看起来像是你常在女性内衣抽屉里找到的东西,它们实际上是为男性设计的。The lingerie is specifically designed with men#39;s larger frames in mind and, although they still feature the lace, florals and underwiring you might expect to find in a woman#39;s underwear collection, the bra cups lack padding, allowing men to slip them on without feeling #39;unnatural#39;.内衣为男性的身体结构专门设计,尽管文胸仍有女性内衣的蕾丝、花边和钢圈,却没有海绵垫,让男性穿上时不会觉得“不自然”。Wish Room#39;s say the line is designed to allow men the chance to #39;enjoy the same kind of soft, luxurious undergarments that women are used to#39;.店家说这条产品线是为了让男性有机会“享受女性早已习惯穿的柔软和奢华的内衣”。(The underwear features all the lace and underwiring you might expect to find in a woman#39;s collection)(男性内衣有女性内衣有的蕾丝和钢圈)In response, thousands debated the merits of men wearing bras on Mixi, Japan#39;s top social network website.上千人在日本最火的社交网站上讨论男性穿文胸的好处。Executive Director Akiko Okunomiya said she was surprised at the number of men who were interested in embracing their feminine side in this way.执行董事奥宫明子说她很惊讶愿意以这种方式拥抱自己女性一面的男性人数。#39;I think more and more men are becoming interested in bras.Since we launched the men#39;s bra, we#39;ve been getting feedback from customers saying, ;Wow, we#39;d been waiting for this for such a long time;,#39; she said.“我觉得越来越多的人对文胸感兴趣了。自从我们推出了男士文胸,我们一直得到客户的反馈说‘哇,我们等这个等的太久了。’”她说。(The cup sections lack padding, allowing men to slip them on without feeling #39;unnatural#39;)(文胸没有填充物,让男性穿上时不会觉得“不自然”)The bras and knickers come in pink and mint green sets, and retail for the surprisingly low price of #163;11.50 (1,995 yen). Prices go up to around #163;18.粉色胸罩和薄荷绿内裤套餐以11.50英镑(1995日元)的惊人低价出售。价格现上涨至约18英镑。#39;I like this tight feeling. It feels good,#39; Wish Room representative Masayuki Tsuchiya told Reuters.“我喜欢这种紧致的感觉。感觉非常不错。”店方代表告诉路透记者。The company spokesman himself wears the bra, which can be worn discreetly under clothing.这位公司发言人自己也穿文胸,它可以在衣里不着痕迹的穿上。 /201401/274344


  With its notoriously smoggy skies, Beijing seems to launch a new initiative to reduce air pollution almost every week.在北京灰蒙蒙的天空已经“闻名遐迩”之际,该城市似乎每周都要推出一项减少空气污染的新措施。Last week, local authorities said they wanted to build wind tunnels to funnel wind through the streets and blow away the bad air. This week, the state-run People#39;s Daily reported plans to spend .7 billion in the next five years to reduce air pollution. That spending will go toward measures that reduce air pollution from coal-fired power plants, vehicles, and industrial facilities. Such measures include building waste-gas treatment facilities, installing emissions-reduction technology at factories and power plants and using cleaner alternative fuels, it said.当地有关部门上周称,他们想建立风道,引导风从大街小巷通过并吹散雾霾。官方媒体《人民日报》本周则报道称,北京市计划5年内斥资77亿美元以减少大气污染;这些资金将用于燃煤、机动车排放、工业等方面的污染防治措施,具体包括建设废气处理设施、对工厂和电厂进行低排放术改造和采用清洁燃料替代燃煤。It#39;s an uphill battle, with some scientists concluding that China#39;s air quality is continuing to get worse despite such efforts. Environmental authorities recently said Beijing#39;s air quality won#39;t drop to healthy levels until 2030. Other cities across the country face similar challenges.这是一场苦战,一些科学家得出结论称,尽管采取了这类措施,但中国的空气质量将继续恶化。环保部门最近称,北京的空气质量达标要等到2030年。中国其他城市也面临着类似的挑战。That#39;s grim news. But if you can#39;t avoid the air pollution, at least you can try and avoid the times when it#39;s at its worst. Last week, China Real Time did the math to figure out the best months for air quality in Beijing and Shanghai. This week, we#39;ve crunched more numbers to determine the worst (and best) hours for residents to be outdoors in both cities.这是个不幸的消息。但如果你无法避免空气污染,至少你可以尝试躲开污染最严重的时期。上周,《中国实时报》栏目(China Real Time)算出了北京和上海空气质量最佳的月份。本周,我们调用了更多数据,确定了两个城市居民户外活动的最糟(以及最好)的时段。The results show that Beijing#39;s air improves during the day, but gets worse at night. In Beijing, air quality is at its best between noon and 4 p.m., when the average concentration of PM2.5 -- particles measuring less than 2.5 microns in length -- falls to around 87 micrograms per cubic meter. By contrast, between 7 p.m. and 3 a.m., PM2.5 levels rise to as high as 113 micrograms per cubic meter.计算结果显示,北京的空气质量在白天会好转,晚上会恶化。在北京,空气质量最好的时间是中午到下午4点,平均PM2.5(直径小于2.5微米的颗粒物)浓度降至每立方米87微克。与之相比的是,下午7点到凌晨3点,PM2.5水平升至每立方米113微克之高。Shanghai#39;s air gets worse after rush hour. The city#39;s air is cleanest during the early morning and late afternoon, when PM2.5 levels fall to 53 micrograms per cubic meter or lower. After the morning and evening rush hour, PM2.5 levels rise to as high as 59 micrograms per cubic meter.上海空气质量在交通高峰期过后会下降。这个城市的空气是在大早上和临近傍晚最干净,PM2.5水平降至不超过每立方53微克。在早晚高峰过后,PM2.5水平会升至每立方米59微克。Why does Beijing#39;s air quality get worse at night? Antony Chen, an associate research professor at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada, notes that Beijing#39;s air quality is mainly influenced by the difference in temperature between night and day.北京的空气质量为什么会在夜间变差?内华达州沙漠研究所(Desert Research Institute)的副教授Antony Chen指出,北京的空气质量主要受到昼夜温差的影响。Mr. Chen says PM2.5 gets trapped in the cooler air near the surface in the evenings, which accounts for the higher concentrations at night. When the sun comes out, the air heats up and rises, which leads to lower concentrations in the day, he says.Chen说,傍晚的时候,接近地表的空气温度较低,PM2.5在这样的空气里无法扩散,这就是为什么在夜里PM2.5的浓度会更高。他说,等到太阳一出来,空气温度上升后上行,所以白天PM2.5的浓度较低。#39;The warm layer of air wants to go up, and the cold air wants to go down, and there basically becomes circulation, movement and turbulence,#39; Mr. Chen says.Chen说,暖空气会往上走,冷空气会向下走,由此形成对流、空气运动和湍流。By contrast, Shanghai#39;s temperature is more constant, thanks to its proximity to the ocean, says Mr. Chen. With fewer temperature swings during the day, he says, Shanghai#39;s air pollution patterns are more impacted by factors such as vehicle emissions.Chen说,相比之下,上海的昼夜温差因为近海的缘故变化较小。他说,由于白天上海的温度变化更小,所以当地空气污染模式受机动车尾气排放等因素的影响更大。Based on data from the U.S. State Department, the average PM2.5 concentration over a 24-hour period is about 99 micrograms per cubic meter in Beijing and 56 micrograms per cubic meter in Shanghai. That means Shanghai#39;s air is on average about 40% better than Beijing#39;s. (The U.S. State Department cautions that such data is not complete, as the ings come from a single monitoring station that was installed in Beijing in 2008 and in Shanghai in 2011.)根据美国国务院的数据,北京24小时PM2.5平均浓度大约为每立方米99微克,上海是56微克。这表明上海的空气质量平均而言比北京好40%。(美国国务院称,上述数据并不全面,因为数据只来自2008年在北京设立、2011年在上海设立的单一监测站。)But no matter the time of day, neither city has anything approaching clean air. Air quality in both Beijing and Shanghai falls far short of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency#39;s recommended PM2.5 limit of 35 micrograms per cubic meter for a 24-hour period. High concentrations of PM2.5 increases risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, according to the World Health Organization.但无论是一天中的哪个时段,这两个城市的空气都算不上干净。美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)建议的24小时PM2.5均值上限为每立方米35微克,北京和上海的空气质量都差得远。根据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的说法,高浓度PM2.5会增加罹患心血管、呼吸系统疾病以及肺癌的风险。 /201407/310820

  A woman got a dent in her car and took it in to the repair shop.The repairman decided to have a wee bit of fun. So he told her all she had to do was to take it home and blow in the tailpipe until the dent popped itself out.一位女士把车撞了一个坑,于是就去修车。修理工决定幽她一默。他告诉她,她只需把车开回家,然后从排气管里往车里吹气,直到凹陷处自己鼓起来。After 15 minutes of this, a lady - one of the woman#39;s friends came over and asked what she was doing.;I#39;m trying to pop out this dent, but it#39;s not really working.;;Duh you have to roll up the windows first!;这位女士如法操作了15分钟。这时,她的一位女性朋友来拜访她,并问她在做什么。“我正在试着让那个坑鼓起来,但这个办法似乎并不管用。”“嗯……你必须先把车窗摇上去!” /201309/255805Christmas is a time for stealing kisses under the mistletoe. In Shanghai this weekend, the city#39;s increasingly visible gay and lesbian community seized the festive season to use their lips to make their own holiday statement.站在槲寄生下亲密热吻是圣诞节的传统。而周末在上海,这座城市的同性恋社群抓住了这个机遇,在节日里用唇间热吻向世人传达着自己的爱情宣言。More than one hundred supporters of China#39;s fledgling gay and lesbian community braved the cold to cheer on young Chinese gay men and women as they stole kisses under a Christmas tree Saturday night.上周六晚,一对对年轻的男女同性恋者在一棵圣诞树下亲吻爱人,一百多位持者不畏严寒,在台下为他们热烈喝。#39;I think it#39;s good we can gather together like this,#39; said Otto Zhu, 22 years old, a participant at the event at fashionable pedestrian shopping and dining area Xintiandi. #39;It makes us feel we have the power to do whatever we want.#39;活动举办地点位于潮流汇聚的上海新天地,此处是一个集购物、餐饮于一体的综合步行商业区。22岁的Otto Zhu参与了此次活动,他说,我觉得能有机会让大家这样聚在一起挺好的,这让我们感觉自己有力量去做想做的事情。While attitudes are slowly changing, many Chinese still take a conservative view of homosexuality. Even many among the younger generation feel compelled to keep their sexual orientation secret. The pressure to remain in the closet, marry and have a family can be enormous.尽管中国社会对于同性恋的态度正缓慢地发生着改变,但许多中国人对此仍持十分保守的观点。甚至在年轻一代中,仍有许多人被迫隐瞒自己的性取向。他们往往承受着巨大的压力,不得不深藏“柜”中,结婚成家。Yet few of the revelers dwelled on this Saturday as the mainly young crowd of onlookers shouted encouragement to couples gay and straight to kiss under the mistletoe. Part of the Kiss lighting installation by British artist Paul Cocksedge, couples step up on a stage to hold on to the leaves of a mistletoe that hangs from an 18-meter tall Christmas tree decorated with golden lights. When they kiss, their lips complete an electric circuit that transforms the tree into a sea of red lights.不过,周六这场活动的参与者没有顾虑这么多。围观群众多为年轻人,每当有情侣走到槲寄生下献出热吻,无论其“直弯”,台下都会爆发出热烈的欢呼声。该活动使用了英国艺术家考克斯基(Paul Cocksedge)设计的接吻灯光装置。情侣走上台,手中握住一棵18米高、金光闪闪的圣诞树上垂下的槲寄生叶子,当他们接吻时,他们的嘴唇会连起一个电子环路,使圣诞树闪亮起璀璨的红色光芒。Each lip lock generates a 100 yuan (around ) donation to the Smile Angel Foundation, a Beijing-based charity for Chinese children with cleft palates founded by singer Faye Wong and her former husband, retired actor Li Yapeng.每有一对情侣上台,活动组办方就会拿出人民币100元(约合16美元)捐赠给嫣然天使基金(Smile Angel Foundation)。这家总部位于北京的基金会由歌手王菲及其前夫、演员李亚鹏共同创立,致力于帮助患有口裂的儿童。Juju Xu, 19, who came with her girlfriend to support the event, said acceptance levels of gay people in China varied depending on age groups.19岁的Juju Xu与她的女朋友一同前来持这项活动,她说中国社会不同年龄层对同性恋群体有着不同的接受度。#39;Older generations may not discriminate but they cannot accept if their own children are gay,#39; said Ms. Xu, adding that more events like Kissmas could help build awareness.她说,老一代人也许不会歧视同性恋,但是他们不能接受自己的孩子是同性恋。她补充说,多举办一些像Kissmas这样的活动能够增进人们对这一群体的认识。It wasn#39;t clear whether everyone in the crowd-that included families with children -was fully aware of what was going on. Some straight couples on pre-Christmas dates who stumbled on the event looked on confused. Some laughed awkwardly when they realized what was taking place. Others took photos on their smartphones before wandering off.很难说当天的围观人群(其中有些是带着孩子的家长)是否都能完全意识到这一活动的内涵。一些前来此地约会的异性恋情侣撞见这一活动,一脸茫然地看着台上。当他们意识到发生了什么后,有些人露出尴尬的笑容,有些人在走开前用智能手机拍下照片。Such public events are rare in China. Gay couples kissed on the streets of Beijing in to celebrate qixi, or Chinese Valentine#39;s Day, in August, according to state media reports.此类公开活动在中国十分罕见。据官方媒体报道,今年8月份一群同志情侣在北京街头热吻,以庆祝中国情人节七夕的到来。Similarly, in April 2012, same-sex couples embraced on the streets of Guangzhou in what the Nanfang Insider website described as performance art designed to raise awareness of gay rights.类似地,2012年4月一群同志情侣在广州街头紧紧相拥。《Nanfang Insider》网站将此形容为一场行为艺术表演,其意在增强公众对同性恋权利的意识。Shanghai is considered the gay capital of China and city prides itself on being China#39;s most open and cosmopolitan. Even so, the handful of bars and nightclubs catering to the gay community pales in comparison in terms of numbers to other mainly ethnic Chinese cities in Asia including Taipei, Hong Kong and Singapore.上海被认为是中国的“同志之都”,这座城市亦以其在中国最为开放、最都会化而感到自豪。然而尽管上海有一些务于同志群体的酒吧和夜店,其数量与台北、香港和新加坡等亚洲其他华人都市相比还是太稀少。Finance company worker Kelvin Li, 31, who looked on at the kissing couples with his young son perched on his shoulders, said homosexuality was a #39;hot topic#39; all over the world. #39;I think it#39;s fine. But I would prefer my son or daughter to be straight. It#39;s just a gut feeling,#39; he said.31岁的金融公司员工Kelvin Li与坐在他肩上的儿子一起围观了这次情侣接吻活动,他说,同性恋是全世界的“热点话题”。我认为这没什么不好,但我还是希望我儿子或者女儿是异性恋,这是一份出自本能的情绪。Mr. Zhu, the student, was there to kiss his boyfriend of six months, Harry, also 22. He said a friend invited him to support the event. #39;I think it should be ok for gay people to kiss anywhere, not just on stage,#39; he said.还是学生的Otto Zhu与他同为22岁的男友Harry参加了接吻活动。他说,他在一位朋友的邀请下前来助阵。他说,我觉得同志应该在任何场合都可以接吻,而不仅仅在台上。Four Shanghai organizations helped promote Saturday#39;s event mainly through social media and word of mouth. One volunteer, an American who goes by the name Sean Chen, 29, said around 10 same-sex couples kissed on stage during the two-hour #39;window#39; the event organizers secured from mall management. Seven of the couples were female and three male.上海的四家组织一同帮助推广了这项活动,其方式主要是通过社交媒体及口口相传。29岁的美国人Sean Chen是此次活动的志愿者之一,他说活动组织者确保了两个小时的“窗口期”,使活动免受商场管理方的干涉,在此期间共有10对同性情侣上台接吻。其中七对是女生,三对是男生。Mr. Chen said he encountered one negative reaction from a man who told his child to return a rainbow flag to Mr. Chen on learning of its significance. Mr. Chen said the event was not just about gay and lesbian issues. #39;We want to show we#39;re happy to live among everyone else, that we can be happy together.#39;Sean Chen说,他遭遇了一个男子的消极回应,该名男子在了解了虹旗的含义后,让自己的孩子把手中的虹旗还给了他。Sean Chen说,这次活动不光是为了让人们了解同志群体的问题。他说,我们要让人们知道我们乐于生活在他人中间,我们可以和谐共处。Gay people have been kissing under the tree since Kissmas kicked off Nov. 21. But Saturday marked the first time there was such a concentration of same-sex couples.自11月21日该活动开展以来,不断有同志情侣上台热吻。但上周六是头一次有如此多的同性爱侣一同参加。Variations of the Kiss installation were displayed in Milan in 2009 and London in 2010.2009年的米兰、2010年的伦敦也曾展示过不同的接吻装置。Artist Mr. Cocksedge told China Real Time that he was not aware of Saturday night#39;s gay-themed event. #39;But it#39;s a wonderful thing,#39; he said by phone from London. #39;A kiss is something beautiful to capture.#39;艺术家考克斯基告诉《中国实时报》(China Real Time)说,他先前并不知道于上周六举行的这场同志主题活动。不过他在电话中表示,这是件美好的事;一个吻是一个值得捕捉的美丽瞬间。 /201312/270229

  DELHI, India — When the Ambassador car was born in 1957 to a newly independent India, it was the height of style and status. It was standard issue to senior civil servants and government officials; its possession implied status, and its ubiquity was a sign of an earlier, seemingly simpler India.印度德里——当1957年大使牌(Ambassador)轿车在新独立的印度诞生时,它代表着极致的风尚与地位。高级公务员和政府官员都统一配了这款车;它曾是身份的象征,而它的无所不在则让人想起往昔的那个似乎更简单的印度。The country’s highly protectionist economy also made it one of the few cars on the road, with a singular design that has often been compared to a bowler hat.印度严重的保护主义经济也让大使牌汽车成为路上少数的汽车品牌之一,这款车的单一设计常常被比作圆顶礼帽。But that icon of the Indian road may have reached the end of the line, pushed from its dominance by changing consumer tastes, an opening marketplace for automobiles and fierce competition. In May, the car’s manufacturer, Hindustan Motors announced that it would suspend production of its Ambassador, the final stage in a long decline.但这个印度马路上的标志性车型可能已经走到了尽头,由于消费者品味的不断变化、汽车市场日益开放,以及激烈的竞争,它的主导地位已不复存在。今年5月,大使牌汽车的制造商印度斯坦汽车公司(Hindustan Motors)宣布,将停止生产这种车型,其漫长的衰落过程进入了最后阶段。As far back as 1999, Hindustan Motors reported a .5 million loss from the lone plant in West Bengal, partly because of an outsized work force. In the year ending March 2014, just 2,200 Ambassadors were sold, according to Reuters. In the year ending September 2013, the company reported losses exceeding its net worth.早在1999年,印度斯坦汽车公司单从西孟加拉邦的一家工厂就录得了950万美元的亏损,这一定程度上是因为工人过多。据路透社(Reuters)报道,在2014年3月结束的财年,公司仅售出了2200辆大使牌汽车。在2013年9月结束的财年,公司录得的亏损超过了公司净值。In their statement announcing the shutdown, Hindustan Motors cited a “lack of demand” for the Ambassador and a shortage of funds, as well as “growing indiscipline” among factory workers at the West Bengal plant.在宣布停产的声明中,印度斯坦汽车公司给出的理由是需求不足和资金短缺,以及西孟加拉邦工厂的工人“越来越缺乏纪律性”。In the 1980s, Maruti introduced the Alto 800, an underpowered but inexpensive hatchback that brought car ownership to the masses. In the 1990s when the economy was liberalized, the Indian car market slowly opened up to faster, more convenient options.上世纪80年代,Maruti推出了Alto800车型,这款动力不足但价格低廉的掀背式轿车让普通人拥有了私家车。上世纪90年代的经济自由化之后,印度汽车市场慢慢向更快、更便捷的车型敞开了怀抱。“The death of the Ambassador may have formally been announced earlier last month, but in reality the Ambassador vanished from Indian roads 10 years ago,” said Siddharth Varadarajan, a journalist who owns three Ambassadors.“大使牌汽车的死讯可能是上个月早些时候正式宣布的,但事实上这款车10年前就从印度的马路上消失了,”印度记者西哈斯·瓦拉德拉简(Siddharth Varadarajan)说。他自己有三辆大使牌汽车。The virtual monopoly that Hindustan Motors possessed for decades, he said, was the car’s undoing.他说,印度斯坦汽车公司几十年来的垄断,是这款汽车遭到淘汰的原因。“There was never any incentive for Hindustan Motors to improve the product,” Mr. Varadarajan said. “They were a highly myopic company.”“印度斯坦汽车公司一直没有任何动力来改进产品,”瓦拉德拉简说,“这是一家极其短视的公司。”The company, however, has maintained that the halting of its production is temporary, and that the plant in West Bengal will eventually reopen.然而这家公司宣称,停产是暂时的,西孟加拉的工厂终将重新运转。It is the car of Nehruvian India, its white, be-curtained iteration the conveyance of dignitaries including, at times, the president.它是尼赫鲁时期印度的标志性车型,其车窗配有窗帘的白色款型曾是许多权贵的座驾,包括印度总统。In this sense, the Ambassador holds the singular distinction of being one of the few vehicles whose mention evokes power, elegance and something pleasingly retro, even as its manifestation, in the form of taxis and government vehicles in Kolkata and Delhi, often borders on disrepair.从这种意义上说,大使牌汽车的非凡之处在于,提起它来就让人联想起权力、优雅和赏心悦目的复古,而这样的汽车并不多。与此同时,目前仍在行使的大使牌汽车,主要是加尔各答和德里的出租车和政府车辆,经常破烂不堪。Drivers complain that pedals break off after a few thousand miles, that the air-conditioners malfunction. Some use turmeric to stop up holes in the radiator — anything to avoid servicing with expensive and increasingly rare parts. Many carry water bottles to cool off radiators that frequently overheat.司机们抱怨大使牌车的踏板在行驶了几千英里后会折断,以及车内的空调失灵。一些人用姜黄粉来堵住散热器上的窟窿——使用一切方法来避免使用昂贵和越发稀少的零件来维修汽车。许多人携带着水瓶,为经常过热的散热器降温。But the fondness for some drivers, whose cars took them through decades of India’s history, seems to overpower any inconvenience.但是一些司机已经驾驶着他们的车见了几十年的印度历史,他们对这款车的钟爱似乎战胜了任何不便。V. P. Verma, a retired engineer, parks his mint green Ambassador proudly outside his south Delhi home. He said the waiting list for the car when his father, a district administrative officer in Bihar, bought it in 1962 was five years.退休工程师V·P·维尔马(V. P. Verma)把他薄荷绿色的大使车骄傲地停在德里南部的家门外。他说,他的父亲,一名区政府官员,1962年购买了这辆车,当时的等待时间长达五年。“To possess an Ambassador in 1962 was like possessing an Audi in India now,” said Mr. Verma. “It was status, prestige.”“在1962年拥有一辆大使牌汽车,就像如今在印度拥有一辆奥迪一样,”维尔马说,“那是地位,是威望。”He recalled how they packed the entire family — 14 people — into the car on road trips between Darbhanga, a town in north Bihar, to Patna, its capital. Twenty years ago, the car took him and his wife on a 1,000-kilometer trip from Ranchi in present-day Jharkhand State, through Uttar Pradesh, up to the hills of Almora at the foot of the Himalayas, and did not break down once. Though friends have pressed him to replace it, it remains his only car.他回忆了他们全家——14个人——如何挤在车里,在比哈尔邦北部城镇达尔邦格阿和首府巴特那之间的公路上旅行。20年前,这辆车带着他和妻子完成了一次1000公里的旅行,从今天的贾坎德邦的兰契出发,途经北方邦,直到喜马拉雅山脚的阿尔莫拉山区,全程车子一次也没坏过。尽管朋友们催他换一辆车,但这仍然是他唯一的汽车。“It needs a face-lift now and then,” said his wife, Sabine Verma. “But its heart is still strong.”他的妻子萨比娜·维尔马(Sabine Verma)说,“它需要时不时整个容,但它的心脏仍然强壮。” /201407/309002




  If cellphone calling comes to airplanes, it is likely to be the last call for manners.倘若飞机上能用手机打电话,这可能会宣告机舱彬彬有礼氛围的终结。The prospect is still down the road a bit, and a good percentage of the population can be counted on to be polite. But etiquette experts who aly are fuming over the proliferation of digital rudeness aren#39;t optimistic.这一愿景尚需时日才能成真,而且预计多数人都是能够遵守礼节的。不过,已经被四处泛滥的与数码产品相关的粗鲁行为惹恼的礼仪专家对此却并不乐观。Jodi R.R. Smith, owner of Mannersmith Etiquette Consulting in Massachusetts, says the biggest problem is forced proximity. It is hard to be discreet when just inches separate passengers. And it isn#39;t possible to escape.马萨诸塞州礼仪咨询公司Mannersmith Etiquette Consulting的老板约迪#12539;R.R.史密斯(Jodi R.R. Smith)称,最大的问题是飞机上大家不得不紧挨着坐。如果乘客之间的间隔只有几英寸,那就很难做到言行周全,而且其他人还无法逃离。#39;If I#39;m on an airplane, and my seatmate starts making a phone call, there#39;s not a lot of places I can go,#39; she says.她说:“假如我坐在飞机上,我的同座开始打电话,我能够躲的地方可不多。”Should the Federal Communications Commission allow cellphone calls on airplanes above 10,000 feet, and if the airlines get on board, one solution would be to create yakking and non-yakking sections of aircraft, or designate flights for either the chatty or the taciturn, as airlines used to do for smoking.如果美国联邦通讯委员会(Federal Communications Commission,简称“FCC”)准许乘客在飞机飞行到10,000英尺(约合3,050米)以上的高度时打电话,而且航空公司也予以实施,应对方案之一就是在飞机上设立聊天区和非聊天区,或者为喜好聊天和沉默寡言之人安排不同的航班,就如航空公司过去对吸烟采取的做法一样。Barring such plans, there are four things you should consider before placing a phone call on an airplane, Ms. Smith says:史密斯说,撇开这些举措不谈,有四件事情是你在飞机上打电话之前应该考虑的:-- Will you disturb those around you?──你会打扰到身边的人吗?-- Will you be ignoring companions you should be paying attention to?──你会忽视你应该关注的同伴吗?-- Will you be discussing confidential topics?──你谈论的是机密话题吗?-- Is it an emergency?──电话是否紧急?The answer to the last question needs to be #39;Yes,#39; she says, and even then, make the call brief.史密斯指出,最后一个问题的必须是“是”,而且即使紧急,通话也要简短。#39;I find that the vast majority of people will get it,#39; she says. #39;It#39;s just the few that don#39;t who will make life uncomfortable for the rest of us.#39;她说:“我发现绝大多数人都明白这一点,只有少数不明白的人才会让其他人感觉不舒。”FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler said last week that there is no technical reason to maintain what has been a long-standing ban.FCC主席汤姆#12539;惠勒(Tom Wheeler)不久前表示,维持这样一个长期禁令不是出于技术方面的原因。Airlines are approaching the issue cautiously because many customers have expressed strong feelings against cellphone use.航空公司在处理这个问题时非常谨慎,因为许多乘客都强烈反对在飞机上使用手机。#39;I believe fistfights at 39,000 feet would become common place,#39; says Alan Smith, a frequent flier from El Dorado Hills, Calif. #39;I would be terrified that some very large fellow, after a few drinks, would beat up a passenger annoying him by using the phone.#39;家住加州埃尔多拉多山(El Dorado Hills)的艾伦#12539;史密斯(Alan Smith)经常乘飞机出行。他说:“我觉得在39,000英尺高空的打斗会变成常见之事,比如有个大个子,喝了几杯之后就痛揍那个用手机打电话把他惹恼的乘客,这会让我很害怕。”Minneapolis etiquette consultant Gretchen Ditto says cellphone use likely will become commonplace on planes since our expectations have changed about when people should be reachable.明尼阿波利斯礼仪顾问格雷琴#12539;迪托(Gretchen Ditto)称,在飞机上使用手机可能会成为常事,因为我们对何时能联系到他人的期许已经发生了改变。Passengers will feel obliged to answer calls, she says. #39;It#39;s going to become more prevalent for returning phone calls, and it#39;s going to be more annoying to everybody.#39;迪托说,乘客会觉得有必要接听电话,“回电话变得更普遍,这让每个人感觉更烦”。Electronic devices are taking over our lives, says Arden Clise, an etiquette expert in Seattle. We text during romantic dinners, answer email during meetings and shop online during Thanksgiving. Making a call on a plane is only marginally more rude.西雅图礼仪专家阿登#12539;克莱斯(Arden Clise)称,电子设备逐渐主宰了我们的生活。我们在浪漫晚餐上发短信,在开会时回电子邮件,感恩节期间在网上购物,与这些相比,在飞机上打电话只是略微粗鲁了一些。#39;Are we saying that our tools are more important than the people in front of us?#39; she asks. Even if you don#39;t know your in-flight neighbor, ask yourself, #39;Do I want to be that annoying person,#39; Ms. Clise says.她问道:“这么做是表示我们的工具比我们眼前的人更重要吗?”即使你不认识飞机上的邻座,你也要自问:“我想成为一个让人讨厌的家伙吗?”If airlines decide to allow calls, punching someone#39;s lights out clearly wouldn#39;t be the best way to get some peace, says New Jersey etiquette consultant Mary Harris. But tensions often run high during flights, and fights could happen.新泽西礼仪顾问玛丽#12539;哈里斯(Mary Harris)说,如果航空公司决定允许乘客打电话,暴打别人一顿显然不是获得清静的最佳方法。然而,飞行期间机舱气氛往往会变得高度紧张,所以打斗是有可能会发生的。If someone is bothering you with a phone call, Ms. Harris advises asking politely for the person to end the conversation. If that doesn#39;t work, you#39;re stuck.哈里斯建议,如果别人打电话打扰到了你,你可以礼貌地要求他结束通话。如果此举不起作用,那你就难办了。In-flight cellphone calls have been possible in Europe for several years. But U.K. etiquette expert William Hanson says they haven#39;t caught on.在欧洲,早在好几年前就可以在飞机上打电话了,但英国礼仪专家威廉#12539;汉森(William Hanson)称这并没有普及。If you need to make a call, he advises leaving your seat for the area near the lavatory or door. If it is night and the lights are dimmed, #39;you should not make a call at your seat,#39; he says.汉森建议,如果你需要打电话,可离开座位走到洗手间或门口附近的区域。他说,如果当时是晚上且灯光昏暗,“那你就不应该在座位上打电话了”。Calls used to be possible on U.S. flights using Airfone units installed on the planes, but the technology never became popular. When people made calls, they were usually brief, in part because they cost a minute, says Tony Lent, a telecommunication consultant in Detroit who worked on Airfone products in the 1980s.过去旅客搭乘美国航班时可使用飞机上安装的Airfone通话,但这项技术从未流行开来。曾在上世纪80年代参与开发Airfone的底特律电信顾问托尼#12539;伦特(Tony Lent)说,旅客用它打电话时,时间通常都很简短,部分原因是电话费要两美元一分钟。The situation might be different today. #39;People were much more prudent about using their mobile phones,#39; Mr. Lent says. #39;Nowadays, those social mores are gone.#39;现在的情况或许有所不同。伦特说:“过去大家在使用手机时要谨慎得多,现如今这些社会道德观念都消失了。”Several years ago, when the government considered lifting its cellphone ban, U.S. Rep. Tom Petri co-sponsored the Halting Airplane Noise to Give Us Peace Act of 2008. The bill would have allowed texting and other data applications but banned voice calls. He was motivated by #39;a sense of courtesy,#39; he says. The bill was never brought to a vote.几年前,当美国政府考虑解除对使用手机的禁令时,众议员汤姆#12539;彼得里(Tom Petri)在2008年联合他人提出了《停止机上噪音还我们清静法案》(Halting Airplane Noise to Give Us Peace Act)。该法案允许在飞机上发短信和进行其他数据应用操作,但禁止语音通话。彼得里称,他提出该法案是出于“礼节意识”。该法案从未提交投票表决。Mr. Petri says he will try again if the FCC allows calls this time around. What if his bill doesn#39;t pass? #39;I suppose you can get earplugs,#39; he says.他说,如果这一次FCC允许机上通话,他会再次尝试提交法案。万一该法案未获通过?他的回答是:“我想你可以用耳塞。”A rude cellphone call wouldn#39;t be as bad as the in-flight faux pas witnessed by Ms. Smith, the etiquette consultant, a couple of years ago on a flight from Boston to Los Angeles. Her seatmate was #39;watching a pornographic film,#39; she says.不过,与礼仪顾问史密斯几年前在波士顿至洛杉矶的一趟航班上所目睹的机上失礼行为相比,粗鲁的电话通话还不算那么糟糕。她说,当时她的同座“在看一部色情电影”。 /201312/271044


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