明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月24日 11:18:38
It is not unusual to feel homesick while working abroad but when Jér#244;me Spitzer began to pine for the classic bistro fare he loved as a boy in Paris, he resisted hopping on to the next flight to Charles de Gaulle airport and took action.在国外工作时想念家乡并不罕见,但当杰罗姆#8226;斯皮策(Jér#244;me Spitzer)开始想念他小时候在巴黎钟爱的那种经典小馆菜肴时,他顶住了诱惑,没有登上下一班飞往戴高乐机场的航班,而是行动了起来。The 25-year-old, who had arrived in Hong Kong 18 months earlier to work for a Spanish importer, found a kindred spirit in another French expatriate. Undaunted by the unfolding global financial crisis, the pair trawled the streets of Central, Hong Kong’s glitzy entertainment district, searching for small premises suitable for a traditional French-style bistro.18个月前,这位25岁的年轻人来到香港为一家西班牙进口商工作,他发现一位与他志趣相投的法国同胞。二人不惧全球金融危机蔓延的影响,在香港华丽耀眼的区中环地区的街道上,寻找适合开设传统法式小馆的小店面。The result was Pastis, which opened in 2009.结果是Pastis在2009年开门迎宾。Five years later they have six establishments dotted around Hong Kong Island, each styled to evoke a particular type of French brasserie. Step into Saint-Germain and you could be in an elegant café on Paris’s Left Bank, while Metropolitain in the upcoming Sai Ying Pun neighbourhood evokes an artsy Montmartre atmosphere.5年后,他们已在香港岛上拥了有6家门店,每家都透露出独特的法国小馆风格。步入Saint-Germain,仿佛置身于巴黎左岸一个优雅的咖啡馆,而西营盘高街地区的Metropolitain则焕发出一种蒙马特艺术气息。Today Mr Spitzer reflects on his decision to go into business, describing it as “a very selfish move, as much as for us as for the French community”.如今,斯皮策在回想他从商的决定时,把它称为“一种非常利己的举动,既为了我们自己,也为了法国人群体”。Hong Kong has long been home to French bankers and civil engineers, but Mr Spitzer exemplifies a new breed of French expatriate that has emerged in the territory in recent years: the petit entrepreneur.长期以来,很多法国家和土木工程师不断来到香港,但斯皮策是最近几年在香港新出现的一类典型法国人:小企业主。Five years ago small- and medium-sized businesses made up about 40 per cent of the businesses registered with the French chamber of commerce in Hong Kong; today this proportion has risen to 50 per cent.5年前,中小型企业占香港法国工商总会注册企业总数的40%左右:如今这一比例已升至50%。“French businesses in the city are really a snapshot of Hong Kong’s gross domestic product”, says Orianne Chenain, executive director of the French chamber of commerce. Expatriates have started businesses in all sorts of sectors, including retail, construction and hospitality.法国工商总会执行董事奥里亚纳#8226;舍南(Orianne Chenain)表示:“在港法国企业确实为香港的地区生产总值(GDP)做出了广泛贡献”。在香港的法国人在零售、建筑和餐饮等各行各业开办了企业。There are a number of factors propelling this trend: the perceived ease of doing business compared to France, the appeal of French products to native Hong Kongers and expatriates alike as well as the growing French community itself, which reinforces the demand for homegrown goods and services.推动这一趋势的因素很多:据认为香港具备比法国更明显的经商便利性,同时法国产品吸引着香港本地人和外籍人士以及不断壮大的法国人群体,这些促进了对法国国产商品和务的需求。More than 11,100 French citizens registered at the French Consulate in Hong Kong last year, almost double the 6,236 who did so in 2007, fuelled by the desire to seek opportunities away from their homeland. However officials estimate the real number is far higher – around 17,000.去年,在法国驻香港总领事馆注册的法国公民超过了1.11万,几乎是2007年(6236人)的两倍,这得益于法国人希望在本国以外寻找机会。然而,官员们估计,实际数字要高的多,大约为1.7万人。The French entrepreneurs believe setting up a business in Hong Kong is easier than it would be back home, given the relative lack of bureaucracy and low start-up costs. “The legal environment in France is perceived by French entrepreneurs as being more constrained,” says Ms Chenain.法国创业者认为,香港官僚作风相对较少且创业成本较低,因而在香港创业要比在法国容易。舍南表示:“法国创业者认为,法国的法律环境限制更多。”Mr Spitzer estimates that, had he set up a similar bistro in France, the cost would have been two to three times as great in Hong Kong.斯皮策估计,如果他在法国开一家类似的小餐馆,成本将是香港的两到三倍。“Hong Kong gave us the will to start as entrepreneurs and also the idea to set up our own company,” he says. “When we first came to Hong Kong we were not expecting to do something so fast.”“香港让我们有了创业的意愿,还赋予了我们创建自己公司的想法,”他表示,“当我们初到香港时,我们没有料到事情会进展这么快。”Rents are higher in Hong Kong, he notes, but the costs of doing business are mitigated by lower tax and longer opening hours.他指出,香港的租金较高,但较低的税率以及较长的营业时间,都降低了经商成本。Anthony Rendall, a French expatriate, swapped a life penning travel guides for French publisher Gallimard to launch a business importing French wine for the Hong Kong market. He says that the time and paperwork needed to register a business is far less.法国人安东尼#8226;伦德尔(Anthony Rendall)原来的工作是为法国出版社Gallimard撰写旅行指南,如今他开设了一家公司,为香港市场进口法国红酒。他表示,注册企业所需时间和填表申请工作比法国要少得多。“Within two days and for HK0 (#163;12) I had a limited company, a bank account and was set for business,” he says. “Everything was made so simple from the first day.”“我用两天不到的时间花150港元(合12英镑)就拥有了一家有限公司、一个账户,可以开业了,”他表示,“从第一天起,一切都是如此简单。”The perception of the French lifestyle as the epitome of style by Hong Kong Chinese and tourists from mainland China is a large part of the reason why French consumer and leisure businesses are proliferating in Hong Kong.香港华人和来自中国内地的游客将法国生活方式视为风尚的典范,这是法国消费和休闲企业在香港不断增多的一个很重要的原因。Mr Rendall, who retained a deep affection for Hong Kong after being brought up there, spotted a gap in the market for selling good quality, affordable French wine.伦德尔在香港长大,对香港有着很深的感情,他发现香港在质量上乘的平价法国红酒销售市场存在一个空白。“Most of the upper tier wines are very expensive and of the middle range wines very little is available, and they are mostly New World wines,” he says. “If you want to buy something good the price is HK0, in France the prices are a third of that.”“多数高档红酒价格非常昂贵,而市场上中档红酒非常少,多数是新世界葡萄酒(New World,指除欧洲以外产区的葡萄酒),”他表示,“如果你想买一些不错的红酒,价格在300港元,而在法国,价格只有香港的三分之一。”In May, together with his sister, a wine critic, he launched the business and also began hosting wine-tasting sessions aboard a traditional junk boat, a type of outing perennially popular with expats.今年5月,他与身为酒评家的开了这家公司,还开始在一艘传统的仿古船上开设品酒会,这种出游方式在香港外籍人士中一直很受欢迎。“A junk is part of the Hong Kong lifestyle and part of the French lifestyle was missing,” he says.他表示:“仿古船是香港生活方式的一部分,法国的部分生活方式正在消失。”Contrasting his childhood memories of a virtually empty French school during the seventies to the present day, he believes the swelling community in itself encourages more to follow in their footsteps.在他儿时的回忆中,上世纪70年代的法国学校几乎空无一人,这与现在形成对比,他认为,这个不断壮大的群体正鼓励更多人追随他们的步伐。Arnault Castel, who owns several stores selling brands including French fashion houses Carven and Kenzo, says he is “happily the victim of a stereotype.”阿尔诺#8226;卡斯特尔(Arnault Castel)拥有几家门店,销售包括法国时装品牌Carven和Kenzo在内的品牌,他表示,他“很高兴成为了老一套模式的牺牲品。”The former banker moved to Hong Kong in 1996 but was struck by the absence of European-style boutiques as opposed to the brash luxury malls that had sprung up across the city. “It was not really planned [but] it is really very easy to start a business here; the initial investment is quite low,” he says.卡斯特尔之前是一位人士,1996年移居香港,他注意到,尽管香港的豪华商厦拔地而起,但缺少欧洲风格的精品店。他表示:“实际上我没有什么计划(但)在这里创业确实非常容易,初始投资非常低。”The chain, named Kapok, was founded in 2006 and targets Hong Kong’s young, affluent and style-conscious crowd. There are now thirteen stores across Singapore, Tokyo and Taipei with half of them in Hong Kong.他经营的连锁店名为Kapok,创建于2006年,瞄准香港那些年轻富有且关注格调的人群。如今,他在新加坡、东京和台北等地开设了13家店面,其中有一半位于香港。The designer clothing and quirky jewellery are especially popular with Japanese tourists and, increasingly, those from mainland China who come to Hong Kong to shop.设计师装以及新奇古怪的珠宝特别受日本游客的欢迎,而且越来越受到来香港扫货的中国内地游客的欢迎。“We focus on really small, really emerging brands,” Mr Castel says. “People are looking for something a bit different.”“我们关注的是非常小、非常新的品牌,”卡斯特尔表示,“人们在寻找一些有点不同的东西。”For a new generation of Asian Francophiles seduced by the fantasy of la vie Fran#231;aise, that something different often means seeking a dash of French style. “The expatriate community is acting as an opinion leader,” Mr. Rendall says. “People from every walk of life come to Hong Kong, and we’ve reached cultural and critical mass.”对于被法国生活吸引、憧憬法国的新一代亚洲人而言,与众不同通常意味着寻求一抹法国风格。“这些在香港的外籍群体正成为舆论领袖,”伦德尔表示,“各行各业的人们来到香港,我们实现了文化的大融合。” /201412/350217Sitting halfway around the world in the lobby of an upscale hotel sipping tea, I felt my face turning beet red。坐在一家高档酒店的大厅里喝着茶,我感觉到自己满脸通红。Only moments before, I had been formally introduced to the person facing me by a longtime colleague who then left so we could become acquainted。几分钟之前,同事刚刚把对面这位女士介绍给我认识,之后同事离开了,只留下还不太相熟的我俩。However, from this newcomer#39;s initial line of questioning, instead of being courted I felt like I was being grilled。随后,这位刚认识不久的女士开始问了一连串的问题,让我觉得我像是在接受审问。My new Shanghainese contact -- looking very demure and innocent -- sat there cool and collected as she dove into a one-sided conversation, asking personal question after personal question:眼前这位上海女士看起来非常端庄秀丽、单纯无辜,她酷酷地坐在那里,问着一个接一个的私人问题,像是在进行一场单方面的谈话。;How old are you?;“你多大了?”;What kind of salary does your job pay?;“你的工作能拿多少工资?”;What does your husband do for a living?;“你丈夫是做什么的?”;Do you enjoy hanging out in bars?;“你喜欢泡吧么?”She even went so far as to bring up the subject of my weight, wanting to know, ;Is it because of your work that you are a large woman?;她甚至还问到了关于我体重的问题,“你这么胖是因为工作的原因吗?”I mentally punched the woman in her thin stomach for that one. In real life, I rode out the inquisition with a fake smile pasted on my face while I delivered my answers as tersely as possible。听到这个问题时,我在心里狠狠地揍了这位苗条的女士一拳。可表面上,我却面带微笑、泰然自若地、尽可能简洁地回答了这个问题。It#39;s not as if I hold any of this information near and dear to my heart (I am pretty much an open book), but I remember thinking the question/answer session seemed a bit premature given that we had just met。这并不是说我不愿告诉别人这些有关我个人的信息(实际上我是个相当坦白的人),我只是觉得作为刚刚认识的两个人谈论这些私人问题有些为时过早。But then the queries subsided and the tables turned。谈话的后半部分,我从回答问题的人变成了提出问题的人。Not wanting to be so brazen, I started tentatively by asking if my inquisitive conversation partner was married with children。因为不想过于失礼,我只是尝试问了对方有关家庭、孩子方面的问题。She lit up, telling me all about her family and her job and her lack of time for after-work fun. She even told me she was too skinny because she was working so hard she hardly had time to eat。这位女士立刻兴奋起来,滔滔不绝地跟我讲起她的家庭、她的工作,以及她在工作之余如何没有时间玩乐。她甚至还跟我说她这么瘦是因为工作太忙而几乎没有时间吃饭。We ended the hour feeling close. Then, as I went about my day, I thought about that conversation. I realized that the way my new friend held court was simply the Chinese way for finding common ground。大概一个小时之后,我们结束了“亲密的交谈”。那天晚上我想到这段谈话时,突然意识到我的这位新朋友拉近陌生人距离的这种方式在中国其实是很常见的。That said, following are some other ways in which things are done in China that might be surprising to the uninitiated American business traveler:下面是其他一些让外国人感到奇怪的、但中国人却觉得很平常的事:#8226;When standing up while conducting a one-on-one conversation, don#39;t back away simply because your Chinese counterpart seems a little too close for your comfort。站着进行面对面谈话时,不要因为对方(中国人)和你靠太近就往后退,这是不礼貌的。#8226;If you are lining up to wait for, say, a train or a bus, don#39;t be surprised if you are shoved or pushed -- and don#39;t get into a confrontation because of this。在火车站或汽车站排队的时候,如果被人推到或挤到也不要大惊小怪,更不要因为这个和别人吵起来。#8226;If you want to point to something, use an open hand instead of using your index finger。如果你要指东西,要伸开整个手去指,而不要用食指。#8226;Be on time (or a little early) for a meeting. In China, punctuality is a must。开会或会面时要准时或是早到,在中国守时是必须的。#8226;Finally, keep your hands to yourself, even if you are just trying to make a simple gesture to accompany what you have to say. In China, use your words instead of acting them out or you might be considered overly dramatic。最后,即使你只是想在说话时做个简单的手势,也请不要这样做。在中国,尽量用语言而不是手势来表达自己,否则会被人觉得过于夸张。 /201507/385622

;Some men are born great,some achieve greatness,and some have greatness thrust upon them by a good public relations firm.;有些人生来伟大,有些人获得伟大,有些人被一些公共关系很好的公司相信是伟大的. /201507/387317



  Every day we are bombarded with images, s, music and news. In this age of visual and aural hyper-stimulation, the medium of radio is making a phenomenal comeback.每天大量的图片,视频,音乐和新闻扑面而来、令我们应接不暇。在这个视觉和听觉高度刺激的时代,广播也正以惊人之势卷土重来。“We’re at the dawn of a golden age of audio,”said US-based podcaster Alex Blumberg in an article in The Sydney Morning Herald. In the last month alone, 15 percent of US adults listened to a radio podcast. These statistics, released by Edison Research, reveal the successful evolution of traditional radio broadcasts to the present day’s digital podcast format. The term “podcast,” was coined in 2004, but the trend only started gaining mainstream popularity in recent years. Since the leap in consumer demand for smartphones and tablets, podcast subscription rates have only accelerated.“我们已迎来了广播的黄金时代,” 美国播主亚历克斯#8226;布隆伯格在《悉尼先驱晨报》上发表的一篇文章中如是写道。仅上一个月,就有 15%的美国成人在收听播客。爱迪生研究所发布的这些数据表明,传统广播已成功转型,变成了如今数字播客的形式。“播客”一词早在2004年就已出现,但直到近些年它才受到主流群体的青睐。由于消费者对智能手机和平板的需求激增,播客的订阅率也大幅上涨。The appeal of the podcast partially resides in its multiplatform delivery and on-demand capabilities. You can tune in during those extra minutes of the day when you’re walking to the shops, waiting in a queue or riding the subway. Similar to television shows, podcasts are generally free to download and most offer new content every week.能在多平台按需播放是播客的一大吸引力。不论是在去商店的路上,还是排队等地铁或是坐地铁时,你都可以收听几分钟的播客。播客和电视节目一样,大都可以免费下载,而且每周更新。Donna Jackson, 22, Sydney university media graduate, listens to podcasts two or three times a week, via iTunes. “I listen while I’m pottering around the house doing something else. It makes completing a boring task a lot more enjoyable… And it’s an easy way of keeping in touch with what’s going on in the rest of the world,” she said.22岁的唐娜#8226;杰克逊是悉尼大学媒体专业的毕业生。她每周使用iTunes收听播客两到三次,她说,“我在家里晃荡时就会听(播客),它让我做枯燥工作时更享受……它还可以让我轻松了解国际时事。 ”“I mainly listen to B podcasts, but recently I’ve also been tuning into This American Life and Serial. They have a knack for really drawing you in.”“我主要听B播客,不过,最近我也在听《美国生活》及《连环杀手》。它们真的会让人一听就欲罢不能。”Unlike television and music, the audio format has the potential to create a deep impression on ers. Blumberg says this comes down to the podcast’s ability “[to create] intimacy and emotional connection.” Sydney University undergraduate Hazel Proust, major in social work and arts, agrees. “When you’re tuned in, it feels as if the voice of the [podcast’s] narrator is talking directly to you. It’s comforting,” said Proust.播客与电视和音乐不同,它能给听众留下深刻印象。布隆伯格认为这是由于播客能“制造出一种亲密感、能建立起(与听众的)精神纽带”。 在悉尼大学主修社工及艺术专业的本科生黑兹尔普鲁斯特也赞同布隆伯格的说法,他说,“ 当你听播客时,你会感觉播主在直接与你交流。 这让人感觉很舒心。”It seems the age-old tradition of verbal storytelling is very much alive and well.看来,这种口头讲故事的传统仍充满活力,经久不衰。 /201501/355005

  Writing is valuable. It doesn’t just transfer insights, it creates them. And since “good words are worth much and cost little,” choosing the right words is worth the price you pay in time (and sanity).会写作能给你增值。它并非简单地将你的见解从内心转移到纸面,同时也是新想法产生的过程。所谓“好话不花钱,一句值千金”,你值得在遣词造句上费心推敲。At Help Scout we look at the quality of writing through the same demanding lens we use to evaluate the quality of code.在我的公司Help Scout,我们会用评估编码质量的严苛标准,来评价商业写作的质量。I certainly don’t have this writing thing figured out—not even close—but thanks to the gracious feedback from ers, here are a few common signs that your writing is heading in the right direction:虽然我本人离写作高手还有一定距离,但基于无数热心读者的反馈所赐,在此我们总结出了一些要诀,可以指引你的写作走向正确的方向:1. Brevity. Soul. Wit.1. 简洁、言之有物、措辞巧妙。Few things drag down writing more than sping good ideas over too many words.用长篇大论展现好的想法,最容易毁掉一篇文章。2. Writing is not flaunting your vocabulary.2. 写作不是炫耀你的词汇量。“When you write you should pretend that you, the writer, see something in the world that’s interesting, that you are directing the attention of your er to that thing in the world, and that you are doing so by means of conversation,” says Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker. Writing is not meant to prove ownership of a thesaurus—it is the selective transcribing of thoughts.哈佛大学心理学家史蒂芬o平克表示:“你在写作时应该设想自己看到了一些有趣的事情,你要通过对话的方式,引导读者关注这些事情。”写作不是明你拥有丰富的词汇,而是选择性地把你的思想记录下来。3. On having your cake and eating it, too.3.既要让文章好看,也要让读者有所得The best writing is that which pleases at a glance but further rewards careful study. “A thoughtful list post” may seem like an oxymoron , but like a movie you can re-watch a dozen times, good writing hooks easily yet hides gifts for a discerning mind.最好的文章既能让人一见钟情,更能让读者在细心研读之后有所收获。就像一部百看不厌的电影一样,好的写作可以轻松抓住有辨识力的读者,并且能不断给他们带来意外的收获。4. Don’t bury the lede.4. 不要浪费导语的作用。Before pen to page or fingers to keyboard, you must begin with knowing what you are trying to say. Every piece of writing should have the thesis, the value proposition, be entirely clear from the outset. The journey to the end of your essay should be rewarding for reasons other than figuring out what point you’re trying to make.下笔之前,你首先要清楚自己想要说什么。每一篇文章都应该有一个主题,有一个从一开始就明确阐述的价值主张。 读完你的文章,应该是对你缜密推理的回报,而不是想搞清楚你究竟想表达什么观点。5. To write more ‘Damn Good Sentences,’ them.5. 要想写出更多“佳句”,多多阅读。In the book How To Write a Sentence, New York Times columnist Stanley Fish laments that “many educators approach teaching the craft of writing a memorable sentence the wrong way — by relying on rules rather than examples.” Garbage in, garbage out; you’ll produce better sentences if you dedicate time to ing them.在《如何写出好句子》一书中,《纽约时报》专栏作家斯坦利o菲什不无惋惜地表示,“在教人们如何写出令人难忘的句子时,许多教育工作者都使用了错误的方式——依靠规则而不是例子。”所谓进来的是垃圾,出去的也是垃圾;只要你能花时间读一些佳句,你肯定也能写出更好的句子来。6. “In other words,” you should have used other words.6. “换言之,”你应该用其他的词。Insight is memorable when it can be embraced directly—don’t pad it with “essentially,” “basically,” or “in other words.” Use the right words the first time.只有能被人直接领悟的见解,才会令人记忆深刻——不要通篇都是“本质上”、“基本上”或“换言之”这样的词。在初次写作时就要使用正确的词汇。7. Don’t tell people how to travel; show them your vacation photos.7. 不要告诉人们如何旅行;让他们看你的度假照片。Grandstanding on topics you know little about makes you disingenuous—your deception oozes from every paragraph to an informed er. Instead, hop off your soap box and don’t preach, be the Sherpa; share what you’ve learned in an honest way. People love following a journey.在自己知之甚少的话题上哗众取宠,会让读者感觉你不诚实——在有见地的读者眼中,你的每一段文字都透露着欺骗。相反,离开你的临时讲台,停止说教,像夏尔巴人一样;用诚实的方式告诉读者你所知道的。人们喜欢效仿别人的旅程。8. An idea is nothing without a reaction.8. 得不到反馈的想法一无是处。Reactions are oxygen for writing. Until you get feedback on what you’ve said, your analysis can only reveal so much. Be prepared for critiques and criticism; great work is contingent on a willingness to be judged.反馈是决定一篇文章成败的关键。在你所写的内容得到任何反馈之前,你的分析并不会带来更多启示。做好面对批评的准备;一篇文章成功与否,取决于作者愿意接受评判的程度。9. “Just write” is tired advice, but still needed.9. “坚持写下去就行”虽是一条老套的建议,但依旧很有必要。If you’re looking for a way to make hard work easy, you won’t find it in writing. You’ll struggle with the blank page until your butt falls off the chair—but until that day, keep sitting down and do the work.如果你想找一种化繁为简的方式,别考虑写作。你会在空白页面前苦苦挣扎,直到从椅子上摔下去——一定要坚持下去,完成写作。10. Meandering endings can sour good writing; approach them quickly.10. 曲折的结尾会让一篇好文章失分;结尾要干脆利落。I’ll let Paul Graham handle this one: “Learn to recognize the approach of an ending, and when one appears, grab it.”我将用保罗o格拉汉姆的话作为本文的结尾:“学会辨认结尾的方法。遇到好的结尾,把它记下来。”(财富中文网) /201502/358746Dear miss know-it-all, how can it go out for an evening of drinking and not tick getting a DUI?亲爱的百事通,你知道怎么在晚上喝酒还不属于酒后驾车吗?Go to a ballpark.去棒球场。 /201504/371661

  It#39;s long been thought that chillies can help us lose weight。很长时间以来大多数人都觉的辣椒能帮助减肥。Now, new research has proved the fiery food can aid weight loss by speeding upmetabolism。目前一项最新研究确实实了这种说法:辛辣类食物确实能通过加快新陈代谢来帮助减肥。A study found capsaicin – the ingredient that gives chilli peppers their heat - could help burn off fat in the body。该研究发现,辣椒中所含的辣椒素能够帮助燃烧体内脂肪。The temptation to eat fatty foods is often so strong that, for many, they can#39;t resist eating fatty or sugary foods even if they are trying to cut down on calories。脂肪含量高的食物通常都很有诱惑力,这让正在减肥的人非常苦恼,因为总会忍不住吃那些含糖量高或含脂肪量高的食物。Now, researchers believe capsaicin could provide a solution to this problem; speeding up the metabolism without the need to restrict the diet。现在,研究者们认为辣椒素可以解决这苦恼:让人在无需限制饮食的情况下加速体内新陈代谢过程。University of Wyoming researchers found capsaicin may stimulate the body to burn energy and create heat (a process known as thermogenesis) – burning off calories in the process。美国怀俄明州大学的研究人员发现,辣椒素能够刺激身体消耗能量并产生热量(这个过程叫做生热作用),以此来燃烧卡路里。It does this by activating receptors in the body which set off the process of energy burning。这个过程是通过激活体内的感受器来完成的。These receptors are found in white and brown fat cells。这些感受器在人体的白色脂肪和棕色脂肪中都存在。In the body, white fat cells soak up calories and store them as fat – the ded type visible in pot bellies, love handles and wobbly thighs that is the enemy of dieters。人体中的白色脂肪负责吸收卡路里并将其储存为脂肪,这些脂肪在我们的小肚子上、手臂上、大腿上等等地方都能看到,它们堪称减肥者的天敌。It is known as ‘bad’ fat for this reason。所以,白色脂肪又被称为“坏”脂肪。Brown fat, found in small amounts on the shoulders and neck, actually burns fat to heat the body – and is therefore known as ‘good’ fat。而棕色脂肪,少量地存在于人的肩膀和颈部,功能是燃烧脂肪为身体提供热量,因此被称为“好”脂肪。The researchers found that capsaicin in the diet was able to stimulate a receptor called potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel protein。研究者们发现饮食中增加辣椒素的摄入能够刺激一种叫做TRPV1的感受器。Activating this receptor suppresses obesity associated with a high-fat diet, the researchers found。这种感受器的激活能够抑制因摄入过多脂肪而导致的肥胖。They believe this is because it induces ‘bad’ white fat cells to become energy-burning ‘good’ brown fat cells。研究者们认为,这是因为感受器的激活能够诱导“坏”脂肪变成能够燃烧热量的“好”脂肪。The researchers carried out the study on one group of wild mice, and another group of mice who had been genetically engineered to lack the TRPV1 Receptor。这项研究是在一组野生小白鼠和一组通过基因技术去除其体内的TRPV1感受器的小白鼠身上进行的。They fed both mice a high fat diet, 0.01 per cent was made up of capsaicin。研究者给两组小白鼠喂食脂肪含量较高的食物,其中辣椒素含量为0.01%。Capsaicin prevented the weight gain associated with eating a high fat diet in the wild mice, but not the mice that lacked TRPV1.结果显示,辣椒素抑制了野生小白鼠因摄入高脂肪量而增加的体重,但对缺少TRPV1感受器的小白鼠没有效果。It did this without having any effect on how much food or water the mice consumed。而且这种结果与两组小白鼠摄入的食物或水的量多少没有关系。‘It did significantly increase the metabolic activity and energy expenditure in wild type mice fed a high-fat diet, but not for mice that genetically lack TRPV1,’ researcher Vivek Krishnan, of University of Wyoming’s School of Pharmacy said。俄明州大学药学院的研究者维韦克·克里希纳说:“野生小白鼠的新陈代谢活动及能量消耗过程明显加快,但缺少TRPV1感受器的小白鼠却没有这种变化。”This is because the fiery ingredient induces ‘bad’ white fat to become ‘good’, energy-burning brown fat and also stimulates the body to create heat, he added。他表示,这就是因为辣椒素促使“坏”的白色脂肪变成了“好”的、能够燃烧能量的棕色脂肪,同时刺激身体产生热量。These steps burn off calories and counteract obesity。这些过程燃烧了卡路里、阻碍了体重的增加。This may help to prevent and manage obesity and other related health complications such as Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases, the researchers said。研究者称,这还可以有效预防和控制肥胖及由肥胖引发的诸如二型糖尿病、高血压、心血管等疾病。However, they added this effect has not yet been demonstrated in carefully-controlled clinical trials。但是,目前这项研究还没有在严格控制的临床试验中被实。Next, the researchers want to further understand the mechanism by which capsaicin prevents obesity, and carry out more trials to further prove that it can help manage weight。下一步,研究者们会更加深入地研究辣椒素通过加速新陈代谢过程抑制肥胖的过程,并会进行更多的试验来明辣椒素确实能够控制体重。 /201506/381757




  If the human genome is the book of life, then Crispr technology is its Microsoft Word. The cut-and-paste technique, invented only three years ago, can be used on fledgling genomes to snip out bits of DNA and, if required, insert new stretches.如果说人类基因组是生命之书,那么Crispr技术就是用来编写这本书的Microsoft Word。这种基因“剪切和粘贴”技术3年前才问世,可用于从初露端倪的基因组中剪除DNA片段,如有需要,还可向基因组中插入新的片段。The amendments are permanent and can be passed down the generations. The technology works on mice and men; a team in China recently revealed they had partially succeeded in excising the gene for beta thalassaemia, an inherited blood disorder, from a human embryo. It is a wonder society is not yet spooked by what could be a defining technology for the future of humanity.这种修改是永久性的,可以代代相传。这种技术可以用于小鼠和人类;中国的一个科研小组最近透露,他们从一个人类胚胎上切除β-地中海贫血症(一种遗传性血液疾病)基因的操作取得了部分成功。奇怪的是,这种可能界定人类未来的技术还未震惊社会。Crispr — short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats — is the simplest of a suite of new gene-editing technologies, and is a trick borrowed from the bacterial immune system. Bacteria, when invaded by a virus, deploy “molecular scissors” — a DNA-cutting enzyme that chops up the invader. Pair the scissors with a guiding molecule capable of directing the blades to a specific point, and you are y to edit a genome. After the DNA is severed, cellular repair machinery kicks in to close the gap and the embryo continues to develop. This is how the Chinese scientists banished the mutant gene from their human embryo.Crispr是“规律成簇的间隔短回文重复”(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)的简称,是一套新的基因编辑技术中最简单的一种,借鉴了细菌的免疫系统。当细菌遭到病毒的入侵时,会使用“分子剪刀”——一种DNA内切酶来切掉入侵者。将分子剪刀与一个能将“刀锋”引导到特定点的分子进行配对,你就能够对基因组进行编辑了。DNA被切除后,细胞修复机制开始发挥作用,接合断裂的部分,胚胎继续发育。这就是中国科学家从人类胚胎中去除突变基因的方法。The deletion was not perfect. It was carried out in a non-viable embryo so we will never know if it would have developed into a thalassaemia-free baby. Nonetheless, the research was so controversial that both Nature and Science declined to publish it. But publication elsewhere in April ignited a debate that still burns. A group of mostly US biologists has called for a moratorium, noting that modifications to the human germ line (changes that would be passed down generations) constituted a Rubicon not to be crossed lightly. UK scientists, working in a tight regulatory regime, are loath to back this call given the risk to basic science.这一切除还不完美。由于实验是在一个不能存活的胚胎上进行的,我们永远无从得知这个胚胎能否发育成一个不会患地中海贫血症的婴儿。尽管如此,这项研究极富争议性,以至于《自然》(Nature)和《科学》(Science)都拒绝发表这项研究。但该研究今年4月发表在别处,引发了一场仍在激烈展开的辩论。以美国生物学家为主的一组科学家呼吁中止研究,指出对人类生殖细胞系的修改(这种修改会代代相传)是一条不可轻率跨过的界线。在严格的监管制度下工作的英国科学家考虑到对基础科学构成的风险,不愿呼应前者的呼吁。This reluctance to impede fundamental research is shared by Jennifer Doudna of University of California, Berkeley, who co-invented Crispr and won a m Breakthrough prize last year (she is also tipped for a Nobel). US politicians, however, are twitchy; a proposal being considered in Congress would ban the Food and Drug Administration from approving clinical applications in human embryos.美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)的珍妮弗#8226;杜德纳(Jennifer Doudna)也不太情愿阻碍基础研究,她是Crispr技术的发明者之一,去年赢得了300万美元的“突破奖”(Breakthrough Prize)(很多人认为她还将获得诺贝尔奖)。然而,美国政界人士焦虑不安;国会正在考虑一项禁止美国食品药品监督(FDA)批准人类胚胎相关临床应用的法案。The cancellation of human disease at genome level, which affects an individual and all their descendants, requires contemplation beyond the laboratory — by philosophers, lawyers, clerics and the public. This has been absent. In the UK there has been febrile discussion over the prospect of creating “three-parent babies”using donated mitochondrial DNA; but genome editing could be capable of far greater things, and affects nuclear DNA — from which we derive our genetic identity.在基因组层面消除人类疾病,将影响个人及其所有后代,这需要实验室以外的社会各界进行考量——哲学家、律师、宗教人士和公众。而这些人现在缺席。在英国,人们正在热烈讨论使用捐献的线粒体DNA生育“三亲婴儿”的前景;但基因组编辑能够做到更加伟大的事情,它会影响我们获得遗传特征的来源——核DNA。Inserting new genes, which has yet to be carried out in human embryos, raises further questions. If, in one embryo, I paste in a royal flush of genes conferring resistance to Ebola, cancer and Alzheimer’s, have I created a superhuman? Will perfect health become the preserve of the super-rich? Start-ups such as Editas Medicine of the US are aly gambling on this. We may one day have unaltered people living alongside a younger, gene-edited generation.目前新基因插入还未在人类胚胎上进行过,这种技术提出了更多问题。如果我向一个胚胎插入一套基因,使其获得对埃拉、癌症和阿尔茨海默病的抗性,我是否创造了一个超人?完美的健康会不会成为超级富豪的专属?美国的Editas Medicine等初创公司已经启动这场豪赌。有一天,未曾进行基因修改的人或许会和更年轻、进行过基因编辑的一代人共同生活在一个世界上。That the discussion has not gone fully public might be because genome- editing technology is complex — and because, un#173;like with mitochondrial disease, there are no heart-wrenching personal tales on which to hang the debate. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, a UK-based charity, is considering genome-editing; its views cannot come too soon.这场讨论还未完全公开,或许是因为基因编辑技术比较复杂,也可能是因为不像线粒体疾病的相关技术,这场辩论无法用催人泪下的个人故事大做文章。英国慈善机构纳菲尔德生命伦理委员会(Nuffield Council on Bioethics)正在考虑基因组编辑;该委员会的意见让人期待。Imagining ourselves as glorified books, penned in the language of genes, is a fitting analogy as we muddle on. At some point, society must decide whether any person deserves to be a perfect piece of prose, or whether we should each remain an unedited thriller with an unpredictable ending.在我们继续摸索之际,一个合适的类比是把我们自己想象成一本用基因语言书写的精的书。在某个时间点,社会必须决定,是不是有任何人应该成为一篇完美的散文,还是该保持现状,继续做一篇未经编辑的、结尾不可预测的惊险小说? /201507/383905


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