原标题: 宁夏省做纹眼线多少钱飞度云口碑
France’s economy法国经济The performance gap绩效差距The French government seems to realise at last that urgent action is needed to restore the country’s competitiveness法国政府终觉悟,恢复国家竞争力迫在眉睫THE end of the early shift, and workers at the Peugeot car factory at Aulnay-sous-Bois, near Paris, are streaming out through the turnstiles. The anger is raw; the disappointment crushing. In July, when the company announced that the plant, which employs 3,000 workers, was to close, President Francois Hollande loudly branded the decision “unacceptable”. Two months and an official report later, his government has now accepted its fate. “Hollande said that he would look after us,” says Samir Lasri, who has worked on the production line for 12 years: “Now we regret voting for him.”早班结束,位于巴黎边上的欧奈苏布瓦市的标致汽车厂的工人们从十字转门里蜂涌而出。他们异常愤怒,失望至极。七月份,该公司宣布将关闭这个拥有3000名员工的工厂时,法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德大声疾呼该决是“不可接受的”。然而,两个月后,一则官方报道称政府已经接受了它关闭的命运。“奥朗德之前说他会照顾我们的活,”已经在生产线工作了12年的萨米尔·拉斯利说,“现在我们后悔给他投票了”。The decision by Peugeot-PSA, a loss-making carmaker, to shut its factory at Aulnay, the first closure of a French car plant for 20 years, and to shed 8,000 jobs across the country has rocked France. It has become an emblem both of the country’s competitiveness problem and of the new Socialist government’s relative powerlessness, despite its promises, to stop private-sector restructuring. Tough as it is for the workers concerned, the planned closure may have had at least one beneficial effect: to jolt the country into recognising that France is losing competitiveness and that the government needs to do something about it.标致雪铁龙集团一直处于亏损之中,他们决定关闭在欧奈的工厂,同时裁掉8000名员工,这是二十年来第一个关闭的法国工厂。他们的决定震惊了整个法国这也象征着法国的竞争力问题和社会主义政府的无能为力,虽然他们一直承诺停止私营企业的重组。对于工人来说,他们的生活非常艰难,但是这个计划中的关闭可能至少会有一个有利影响,迫使法国政府认识到国家正在失去竞争力,并采取相关措施。Over the past 12 years, a competitiveness gap has opened up between France and Germany, its biggest trading partner. This shows both in manufacturing unit-labour costs, which have risen by 28% in France since 2000, but only 8% in Germany, and in France’s declining share of extra-EU exports. A cross-border study of two chemicals firms by Henri Lagarde, a French businessman, points to part of the problem: the German company pays only 17% of its employees’ gross salaries in social charges, next to 38% for its French counterpart. A recent study of competitiveness ranked Germany in sixth place; France came 21st.在过去的12年里,法国和他的最大的贸易伙伴德国的竞争力出现了差距。2000年至今,法国的制造业单位劳动成本上升了28%,而德国只上升了8%,同时法国对非欧盟地区的出口也在下降。德国商人亨利·拉加德做了一项有关两个化学品公司的跨境研究,指出了问题的一部分:德国公司仅用员工薪资总额的17%来交社会负担费用,而他们的法国竞争者却用了38%之多。最新的竞争力排名德国居第六位,法国仅排在第21位。During the presidential election campaign earlier this year, competitiveness scarcely featured—either on the right or the left. Once elected, Mr Hollande gave Arnaud Montebourg, who wrote a best-seller calling for “deglobalisation”, a ministerial job designed to stop industrial closures. Mr Montebourg has duly toured the country promising the impossible.在前些日子本年度的总统大选期间,无论是右派还是左派都没有对竞争力问题足够重视。奥朗德先生在当选后给了阿诺德·蒙特伯格一份部长级的重任以防止工厂倒闭。蒙特伯格曾写了一本畅销书来呼吁“去全球化”,他会按期在全国巡游许诺“工厂关闭”是不可能的。This autumn, however, as factory closures mount, a creeping sense of reality seems to be setting in. Mr Hollande may still be bent on his new 75% top tax rate, yet on other matters the tone has changed. Not only has the Aulnay closure been accepted, but Mr Hollande has talked of “painful” efforts ahead. He warned about 10 billion ( billion) of spending cuts, as well as 20 billion of tax increases, in the 2013 budget. Above all, he called for a “reform of the labour market”—traditionally a taboo for the left.然而,这个秋天,随着关闭的工厂越来越多,人们正开始慢慢地感受到这种现实感。奥朗德先生可能还在一心致力于他的新的75%最高税率,但是其他问题的基调却已经悄然改变。不仅欧奈的关闭已经被接受,而且奥朗德先生已经事先谈到了“痛苦”的努力。他提醒大家在2013年的预算中开将会缩减100亿欧元(约合130亿美元),同时税收将增加200欧元。最后,他呼吁“劳动力市场改革”,这在传统上却是左派的禁忌。Mr Montebourg may still denounce the “greed of the financial system”, but other ministers, notably Pierre Moscovici, the finance minister, and Michel Sapin, the labour minister, sound more reasonable. “We want to be sensibly pro-business,” says Mr Moscovici. “We are very conscious that our economy won’t perform without our companies.” Advisers recognise that labour costs too much and that the level of public spending—at 56% of GDP the second-highest in the European Union—is a problem for France.蒙特伯格先生可能还在指责“贪婪的金融体系”,但是以财政部长皮埃尔·莫斯科维奇和劳工部长米歇尔·萨潘为代表的其他部长的话听起来却更加合理。“我们要让企业感受到我们持他们”,莫斯科维奇先生说,“我们深刻地认识到企业对于经济的重要性,没有企业经济就表现不好。”法国的财政顾问也认识到国家面临着这样一个问题,劳动力花费太高,公共事业出水平占国内生产总值的56%,这在欧盟是第二高的。If there is a new mood, it is partly because of the stagnating economy, and partly because business chiefs have been pressing ministers to stop bashing them. France still has plenty of competitive industrial firms. This summer, Mr Hollande spent three hours visiting a research facility near Paris belonging to Valeo, a successful high-tech car-components supplier with 10.9 billion in annual sales.如果出现什么新情况,那么一部分是因为经济停滞不前,还有一部分是因为商界领袖一直在给部长们施压,让他们停止痛击,法国依然拥有许多有竞争力的工业企业。这个夏天,奥朗德先生花了三个小时参观了位于巴黎附近的法雷奥集团的研究实验室,该集团是一个非常成功的高科技汽车零部件供应商,每年的销售额达到109亿欧元。How far the new realism will translate into bold decisions, however, is another matter. One immediate test will be the 2013 budget, due on September 28th. The French now face the shock of cuts. Mr Moscovici insists that, however difficult, France’s promise to reduce its budget deficit to 3% by 2013 will be respected.然而,他们还面临着另外一个问题,何时才能将这个新的现实主义转化为大胆的决策。一个迫在眉睫的考验就是9月28日就将出台的2013年的预算。法国人民现在正面临着财政缩减的打击。尽管非常困难,但是莫斯科维奇先生还是坚持尊重法国在2013年将预算赤字减少到3%的承诺。Equally hard will be a test of the new team’s resolve to improve competitiveness. Louis Gallois, a former businessman, is due to produce a report next month. He is likely to argue for a “competitiveness shock”, including the transfer of a chunk of payroll charges to other forms of taxation, such as green taxes or the contribution sociale generalisee(CSG), which is levied on not only the payroll but financial returns, pensions and unemployment benefit.同样严峻的考研还有新队伍提高竞争力的决心。路易斯曾是一位商人,他将在下个月做一个报告。他很可能会极力赞成“竞争力冲击”,包括将一大部分的工资费用转变为其他形式的税收,比如环境税和社会保障公款,它不仅针对工资征税,还有金融回报,退休金和失业救济金。Most critical of all, Mr Hollande has given union leaders and bosses until December to negotiate labour-market changes. On the table are various options, including making it possible for firms to reduce hours and salaries in a downturn against a guarantee of job security, along the lines introduced by Gerhard Schrader in Germany in 2003. The CFDT union’s incoming leader, Laurent Berger, also accepts the case for more suppleness in the labour market.最关键的是,奥朗德先生还将工会领导人和老板们关于改变劳动力市场的谈判定在12月。谈判桌上有多种选择,包括通过减少工作时间和降低薪水使公司能在低迷期以保障工作的稳固,根据格哈特·施罗德在2003年提出的方案。即将上任的法国民主联盟领导人洛朗·杰也接受劳动力市场更有弹性的方案。All of which is at least encouraging. Yet it is one thing to recognise a problem, and quite another to do something about it. Much will depend on the attitude of union leaders, who do not enjoy a reputation for co-operation and compromise. But in the end, it will come down to Mr Hollande’s resolve. He promises to pass a labour-reform law anyway, even if no deal is reached. His Socialist Party controls power at all levels across France; he is at the start of a five-year term; and his popularity is aly dropping fast. If he cannot do what is needed this autumn, it is unlikely that he ever will.至少这些措施还是很鼓舞人心的。然而认识到问题只是第一步,更重要的是采取应对措施。这很大程度上取决于工会领导人的态度,虽然他们在合作和妥协方面并非享有盛名。但是归根到底还是由奥朗德先生决定。他承诺无论如何也要通过一部劳动力改革法案,虽然至今还没有达成一致。他的社会党掌握了法国各个层次的权力;他五年的执政期才刚开始;同时他的受欢迎程度正在迅速下降。如果他这个秋天不能有所作为,那么接下来的日子他也不会有什么动作。翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201607/454934France, Africa and terrorism法国,非洲和恐怖主义An African journey非洲之行The French government has new African worries in the Sahel法国政府对萨赫勒地区忧心忡忡Hollande with rare new friend奥朗德和其罕见的新朋友It is a rite of passage for every new French president to head to French-speaking Africa and reaffirm faith in la Francophonie. So it was with Francois Hollande, who has just visited Senegal and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Like his predecessor, Nicolas Sarkozy, he said “francafrique”—the cosy post-colonial ties of party financing, arms, contracts and influence—was over and that human rights were paramount. He praised the shared use of French, “language of liberty”. But behind the warm words lie grimmer concerns, the biggest being the entrenchment of terror networks in the al-Qaeda-held Sahel.每个新上任的法国总统都要经历这样一个仪式:走访非洲讲法语的国家,并重申其对法语区的忠诚。法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德刚刚访问了塞内加尔和刚果民主共和国。和前任总统尼科拉·萨科奇一样,他强调“法兰西非洲”——这个包含政府融资、武器输送、契约协定、施加影响在内的”亲密“的后殖民关系——将不复存在,人权才是至高无上的。他对共同使用法语的做法大加赞赏,称之为“语言自由”。但是在这一番温暖人心的话语背后却隐藏着深切的担忧,尤其是针对萨赫勒地区的基地组织网络的防卫工事。Islamist fighters tied to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) have ruled a big swathe of northern Mali since March, dividing the country in two. In the far north extreme sharia law is being applied. Mr Hollande spoke in Senegal of “a reign of terror” in Mali, with “hands cut off, women raped and an area awash with weapons”. There are also two French hostages in Mali, whose families the president has just met in Paris, as well as four in Niger.3月份以来,伊斯兰北非基地组织的武装分子们已经控制了马里北部的大部分地区,马里被分成了两片,其遥远的北部开始施行极端伊斯兰教法。在塞内加尔,奥朗德怒斥其为“恐怖统治”马里,“人质双手被砍断,妇女被奸淫和机扫荡了整个地区。”还有2个法国人质被困在马里,奥朗德总统刚在巴黎会见了他们的家人,除此之外,尼日尔也有4名受困人质。Despite France’s reluctance to play post-colonial gendarme, Mr Hollande is starting to sound tougher on Mali. During his African trip, he tried to rally regional leaders to the cause. Manuel Valls, the interior minister, visited Algeria to narrow differences. France drafted a UN Security Council resolution, unanimously adopted on October 12th, that authorises the dispatch of an African force to retake rebel-held territory in Mali. Jean-Yves Le Drian, the French defence minister, says such a force could be y “within weeks”.尽管法国不愿意扮演后殖民宪兵的角色,但是奥朗德先生已经对马里问题发表了严正声明。在这次非洲之旅中,他试图号召地区领导人加入这项事业。法国内政部长曼纽尔·瓦尔斯拜访了阿尔及利亚以试图缩小分歧。法国起草了一份联合国安理会决议,批准派遣一驻非洲军队以重新夺回反动派在马里控制的地区,该决议受到一致通过,并于10月12日施行。法国国防部长让一伊夫·勒德里昂表示“几周之内”就能组建好一驻非队伍。Yet his enthusiasm may be overdone. The plan is that a force would be made up of troops from Mali and other countries in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). But, even if willing ones can be lined up, regional forces do not have the capacity to mount an offensive operation without logistical and intelligence support. The French are y to contribute, but have ruled out sending in ground troops. Although the European Union says it will send trainers under an EU flag, the Americans are reluctant to get involved.然而,他信誓旦旦的表态似乎有些夸张了。他们原计划由马里和其他西非国家经济体国家的军队组成一军事力量。但是,即使这些有意愿的国家可以组成一队伍,但是地方军队在没有后勤和情报持的情况下却不能发动袭击行动。法国已经准备好了付诸行动,但是却不会派遣地面部队。尽管欧盟表示他们会在欧盟的旗帜下派遣训练员,美国却不愿意卷入其中。France’s anxiety is that, if nothing is done, the Sahel might become a crucible for Islamist terrorism. “What makes people very nervous is the idea that it will become Africa’s Afghanistan,” says Francois Heisbourg of the Foundation for Strategic Research, a think-tank. France, with its colonial history and commercial ties, is an obvious target. One Malian Islamist group has explicitly threatened Mr Hollande since his push for military action, and said that French hostages are in greater danger.法国担心的是,如果不采取行动,萨赫勒地区可能会成为伊斯兰恐怖主义的聚集地。“最让民众所担忧的是马里可能会变成非洲的阿富汗,”战略研究基金会的研究员弗朗索瓦·海斯伯格说道。拥有殖民历史和贸易关系的法国很显然会成为恐怖分子袭击目标。一驻马里的伊斯兰组织已经对奥朗德推进军事行动的行为发表了明确的威胁,宣传法国人质将会更加危险。As it is, France is aly fretting about terrorist threats. Although there is no direct link to AQIM, French police dismantled an Islamist cell in France earlier this month, arresting 12 suspects and shooting one dead. Two were wanted in connection with an attack on a kosher grocer in a Paris suburb last month, which rattled France’s big Jewish population. Seven have been charged with terrorist offences.事实上,法国已经开始担心恐怖主义威胁。本月初,法国警方捣毁了位于法国的一个伊斯兰组织,抓捕了12个嫌疑人,并击毙了一人,虽然他们与伊斯兰北非基地组织并没有直接联系。还有两个嫌犯正在被通缉,他们与上个月巴黎郊区发生的一起袭击犹太食品杂货店的案件有关,这使法国犹太群体人心惶惶。其中七个人以恐怖袭击罪被起诉。Francois Molins, the Paris public prosecutor, called the cell “extremely dangerous”. Some suspects were French converts to Islam. The threat is “increasingly coming from within”, Mr Valls told the Senate, adding that radicalisation can take a matter of months. The country was shocked earlier this year when seven people, including three Jewish children and a rabbi, were shot dead in Toulouse by a French Islamist who claimed to have been trained by al-Qaeda. The surveillance of radicals has been stepped up. Mr Valls is putting a law before parliament to give the police new powers to pursue French nationals abroad suspected of links to terrorism or of attending foreign training camps. With or without a French-backed operation in Mali, France is on high alert.法国公共检察官弗朗索瓦·莫林斯声称这个组织“非常危险”,一些嫌疑人是皈依伊斯兰教的法国人。“越来越多的威胁来自我们的内部”,瓦尔斯先生通告参议院,并强调极端主义可能会持续几个月。今年年初,图尔兹发生的惨案令法国震惊,包括三名犹太小孩和一名法师在内的七个公民被击毙。凶手是法国伊斯兰教主义者,他声称受到基地组织的训练。法国已经加强了对激进分子的监控。瓦尔斯先生正在向议会提交一部法律,该法律将赋予警方追踪可能与恐怖主义有联系的或参加外国训练营的在外法国公民的新权力。不管法国有没有插手马里的运动,他们都将处于高级戒备状态。 翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201608/459766For most of Michigan, this has been one of the driest starts to summer weve seen in a long time.With Fourth of July coming up, there are concerns about fires in these dry conditions.For this reason, Julie Secontine, the State Fire Marshal, has been considering banning fireworks this Fourth of July.As of now, no burn ban or fireworks ban has been issued.;But we are monitoring the situation very closely and its a day-to-day assessment,; Secontine said.Fireworks can aly be dangerous, but this dry spell has upped the ante.;Its a very serious concern,; Secontine said. ;I cannot stress safety enough. Safety is something that people generally make fun of, but this is a very serious situation in Michigan with the dry weather and we are monitoring the situation closely.;Suggested precautionsIf located in an area where a local burn ban or fireworks ban has not been issued, Secontine said its crucial to take ;extreme caution; when lighting fireworks, a grill or campfire.;The area in which you ignite fireworks has to be clear of all debris, people and pets,; Secontine said. ;Most injuries occur to bystanders, so you want to make sure the area in which you ignite is clear.;She also recommends igniting fireworks only from a hard surface, like a driveway, and having water at-the-y.;You need to make sure you have a bucket of water, a hose thats y and charged, maybe even wet the area down,; Secontine said. ;But with consumer-grade fireworks, the biggest problem is theyre airborne and we never know where theyre going to land or where the sparks from them are going to land.;For more safety tips, like what to do if your fireworks dont explode, listen above.GUESTJulie Secontine, State Fire Marshal201607/452576

Private health care私人医疗保健The problem-solvers问题的解决者Hints of how to provide better health care for less money有关花更少的钱获得更多的医疗保健的建议CHENMED doesnt look like much. Its clinic north ofMiamihas a modest waiting area and circle of examination rooms. But every action is engineered and tracked. Jennifer Thomas, a senior executive, pores over data. Whiteboards on her walls are covered with diagrams, a vestige from her days at McKinsey, a consultancy. “Weve kind of figured it out,” she says.CHENMED这家公司看起来和其他公司不太一样。它在迈阿密以北的一个诊所里,不仅有一个舒适的等候室,还有一个圆形的监查区。然而他们的每一个行动都是被好好设计和跟踪的。高级主管阵妮佛·托马斯。她墙上的白板上画满了图表,这是她在麦肯锡咨询公司工作时留下的习惯。“我们搞懂了这件事。”她说。“It” is how to care for the most expensive patients in the worlds most expensive health system. ChenMed is devoted to poor elderly people who may have half a dozen chronic conditions. It profits when they are kept well and their health-care costs are kept low. Clinics like ChenMed are the exception, not the rule. But the company is one of many that provide a hint of how American health care might work better.“这件事”是指如何在世界上最昂贵的医疗系统下照顾诊费最高的病人。ChenMed致力于照看那些全身都是慢性疾病的贫困老年人。只有把人照顾得好且所用医疗费用低时公司才能获利。像ChenMed这样的诊所是一个特殊的例子,不是普遍地规律。然而这家公司和其他众多的公司一样,可以为美国医疗体制更好地运行提供一些建议。ChenMed is led by Christopher Chen, a doctor and the son of the companys founder, a Taiwanese immigrant. Other members of the Chen family hold senior positions, but they have been joined by high-flying executives and management consultants, lured by ChenMeds model and the promise of profits as the company grows.ChenMed是由台湾移民克里斯托弗·陈领导的。他是公司创始人的儿子,同时也是一名医生。陈家族的其他职员都持有高级职位,ChenMed向他们展示了公司未来的发展模型,并保随着公司的发展,利润会不断增加。他们被此吸引,加入了该公司,成为了雄心勃勃的公司高管和管理顾问。The idea is simple. Medicare, the public health programme for the elderly, has a growing share of patients who use government money to buy private insurance. ChenMed contracts with those insurers, most of which pay a capped rate for each patient, and then plies patients with primary care to keep them out of hospital. ChenMed has vans to take patients to and from its clinics—lack of transport often keeps elderly patients from seeing their doctors. Once at the clinic, patients wave a card at the front desk and are automatically checked in. Staff perform a tightly choreographed routine, with data fed back to Ms Thomas and others to find further improvements.这个想法很简单。由于针对老年人的医疗保险和公共卫生计划的不断发展,越来越多的患者拿政府的钱来购买私人保险。ChenMed和那些保险公司签订合同,其中大部分为每位患者付一个最高金额,然后为患者配备初级的护理,让他们出院。ChenMed还有专用的货车带患者往返于患者的住处和诊所,因为缺乏交通工具是阻碍老年患者就医的一个常见问题。到了诊所,患者在前台刷卡就能自动登记。员工遵循一个严格设计过的步骤,然后把数据反馈给托马斯女士和其他人,以便寻求进一步改善。Examination rooms circle a central hub so that doctors can confer easily with assistants and specialists. A mobile app lets doctors see patients medical records and refer to clinical protocols. The clinic has a pharmacy, so doctors give patients pills directly and answer any questions; failing to take medicine often sends patients to hospital. Most administration is centralised elsewhere, so staff at the clinic devote their attention to treatment.监察室环绕着一个中心呈圆形排列,这样医生可以方便地和助手和专家探讨问题。一个移动应用程序能让医生看到患者的医疗记录并参考临床方案。不按时吃药是患者在医院反复折腾的重要原因之一,所以,诊所配有自己的药房,医生可以直接给患者开药并回答患者提出的所有问题。大部分政府部门的精力都集中在其他地方,所以诊所的员工专注于治疗。This seems to work. Medicare patients at ChenMed spent nearly 40% fewer days in hospital than the national average. Thanks to a venture with Humana, a big insurer, it has expanded to three dozen clinics. Dr Chen is bullish. “We dont see why we cant grow by 300% to 400% over the next five years,” he says.这样做似乎很有效果。在ChenMed就医的医疗保险患者相比全国水平而言,在医院少呆了40%的时间。由于一个大保险公司胡玛纳的加入,ChenMed名下已经有两36家诊所,陈士很乐观,他说“我们不明白我们为什么不能在未来的五年内增长300%到400%。” /201409/331815

One brother was the last king of Guge, his name was Khri-bKra-shis-Grags-pa-lde and he was considered both a religious and political ruler of the land.哥哥正是古格王朝的最后一位国王,他的名字是赤扎西扎巴德被认为是古格王朝的宗教及政治统治者。The other, was the chief abbot of one of Tibets greatest monasteries.弟弟是西藏当时的宗教领袖,拥有强大的宗教力量作为后盾。What is said to have begun as an argument of authority turned into a bitter ongoing dispute, fueled by jealousy and the thirst for power.据说刚开始的权力争执是因为嫉妒及对权力的渴望而发展成长期激烈的矛盾。This, it is speculated, is one plausible explanation for the eventual demise of Guge.推断这是古格王朝没落的一个可能原因。There are a lot of stories out there about how Guge kingdom finally ended.外头流传了许多关于古格王朝是如何走向灭亡。We know that all through its history, there were intrigues, there were times that the royalty was assassinated, the king lost his position, usurped by a brother or half-brother.我们知道贯穿整段历史的是一连串的阴谋,当时的皇族权贵遭到暗杀列王丧失他们的王位。And so there were prompts all along the way.一直以来不断上演王位遭兄弟或同父异母兄弟篡位的事件。King Khri-bKra-shis-Grags-pa-lde, came from a long line of royalty, who had ruled the kingdom from extraordinary complex at Tsaparang.赤扎西扎巴德国王是世袭皇族出身,他的皇族在札布让要塞统治古格王朝。This unusual structure, was once a burgeoning metropolis, a city fortress.这座不寻常的古城曾是发展快速的首都一座堡垒。Today, its an archaeological bonanza for explorers like Bellezza.今日它是贝勒查等探险家的考古天堂。Oh, Tsaparang is a wonderful place to wander about.札不让是个非常棒的探险之地。Its like reliving your childhood and we are exploring all the nooks and crannies, seeing things for the first time.仿佛带你重回童年时期探索每个角落和缝隙看到前所未有的东西。I mean, you never know what you are gonna discover in th ruins.我想你永远也想不到会在废墟里发现什么。So I mean, it brings this civilization alive, and its people and its beliefs.意思就是它将它的文明人民和信仰重新注入生命。The heart of Khri-bKra-shis-Grags-pa-ldes city was a sophisticated labyrinth of tunnels, connecting the many caves called Pugo.札布让有着复杂的地道迷宫连接许多洞窟。 译文属201601/421158

Alibaba阿里巴巴Under scrutiny一审再审American regulators are investigating Chinas e-commerce giant美国监管机构正调查中国电商巨头“WE HAVE from time to time been subject to PRC and foreign government inquiries and investigations.” So declared form 20-F, a regulatory filing submitted by Alibaba, Chinas biggest e-commerce firm, to Americas Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on May 24th. It is tempting to dismiss this as boilerplate language. All foreign firms listed in America (Alibaba trades on the New York Stock Exchange) are required to file this document regularly. In fact, it is not inconsequential. The filing revealed that Alibaba is the target of an ongoing SEC investigation into its accounting practices. The companys shares fell sharply after the news became public.中国最大的电商—阿里巴巴在5月24日上交给美国券交易委员会(SEC)的20-F年报(译者注:监管文件,20-F是对那些注册地不在美国的上市公司所要求的年报,美国本土的上市公司用10-K格式的年报)称:“我们时常受到国内和外国政府的调查和问讯。”这样的说法很难不被当成是打官腔。所有在美上市的外国企业(阿里巴巴在纽约券交易所公开交易)需要定期填写相关文件。然而事实上这并非无关紧要。监管文件显示阿里巴巴已经成为美国券交易委员会调查会计实务的目标。消息曝光后,该公司的股票急剧下跌。The SEC appears to have three areas of concern. It wants to know more about the Cainiao Network, a logistics joint venture worth .7 billion in which Alibaba has a 47% stake. The agency also wants data on “Singles Day”, an annual marketing promotion that last year apparently generated .3 billion in gross merchandise value (GMV) on one day. As GMV is not a recognised term in GAAP, the accounting standard used in America, the SEC may be digging into this claim.美国券交易委员会要考虑的主要是三个方面。菜鸟网络科技公司便是其中之一,这个公司是市值77亿美元的合资的物流公司,阿里巴巴持有47%的股份。除此以外委员会还想了解“光棍节”(一年一度的营销推广日)的数据,去年这个节日仅一天的总交易额(GMV)达到了143亿美元。但GMV并不是美国使用的会计准则GAAP(Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)认可的条款,美国监会(SEC)可能会对此深入调查。 译文属译生译世 /201606/449163Its Sunshine Week, when Americans celebrate access to public information (and highlight instances where there isnt enough transparency). The Freedom of Information Act became law in Michigan in 1976. But it came with a big loophole:, exempting the governor and the lieutenant governor and their staff. This meant documents and records could be shielded from the public, except in rare occasions.Then, in 1986, the law was amended to make that loophole bigger—exempting the Michigan Legislature as well.Frank Kelley was Michigans Attorney General for 37 years (1961-1999), longer than anyone has ever held that position anywhere in the country. In 1986, he was asked to offer an opinion of the changes made to the FOIA law.;I obviously wanted the Freedom of Information Act to be as broad as possible, but the Legislature, for their own purposes, exempted themselves,; said Kelley. ;And I was asked formally … for an opinion on it and of course we got into it. And we found direct es in there, and theyre in my opinion, that the Legislature did exempt themselves from the Freedom of Information Act, applying it to all other bodies of government except themselves.;I didnt like it at the time, but I had to issue an opinion because that was the law,; added Kelley.The Flint water crisis has highlighted that Michigan is among just a handful of states that exempts their elected officials exempt from FOIA. The crisis could lead to massive FOIA reform in the state.But FOIA aside, Kelley says on his watch the Flint situation could have been avoided.;Had I been attorney general, the matter would have been handled quite a bit differently,; said Kelley. ;I dont think we would have ever gotten to the point where Flint would have converted to the water in the first place.;How would things have been different?;The attorney general would have gotten in the act a lot earlier,; said Kelley. ;If you look at the staff of the attorney general, even then, we had a public health department. We had a municipal affairs department. We had attorneys who did nothing but look after health and look after cities. They would have been on the ball and would have seen that coming and would have taken steps to avoid it back in those days. Also joining the show was John Lindstrom, the publisher of the Gongwer News Service, which keeps tabs on everything happening at the capitol.Lindstrom feels that if lawmakers werent exempt from FOIA, then our government could be a lot different.;I think anybody is always a little bit more careful about what they do when they think that someone is watching them,; said Lindstrom. ;Not wanting to ascribe bad motivations, but clearly when you think you have something of a free pass, in terms of materials getting out to the public, then you clearly feel you have a freer hand in doing certain things … free speech is often more praised than it is practiced to protect it.;Lindstrom points out that the further away we get from the origins of FOIA, the more people became complacent with the changes that have been made to the law over the years.;All of these laws, by and large, came into effect after Watergate in the 70s,; said Lindstrom. ;But as people have gotten away from Watergate, as theyve gotten away from the idea of government conspiracies in large measure, weve seen governments try to make things more convenient for themselves. What weve seen now with the Flint water situation certainly puts a bit emphasis on making changes to FOIA.;I wouldnt put a big bet on any major changes happening to FOIA any time soon. Not under the current political structure anyway,; added Lindstrom.201603/432554

Demography人口统计学The strange case of the missing baby婴儿的离奇流失As the financial crisis hit, birth rates fell in rich countries, as expected. But a persistent baby bust is a real puzzle正如人们所预料那样,金融危机的冲击导致发达国家的出生率下降。但持久的生育低谷才是一个真实的谜团。HE IS not exactly leading by example, but Pope Francis wants more babies. “The great challenge of Europe is to return to being mother Europe,” he said last year, while suggesting that young people might be having too few children because they preferred holidays. Europe certainly lacks young souls, particularly in Catholic countries such as Italy and Spain. But the baby shortage is broader: mother America and mother Australia have gone missing, too.他自己并非以身作则,但教宗方济各想要有更多的婴儿出生。他在去年说道,“欧洲所面临的重大挑战就是,恢复作为一名欧洲母亲的身份,”同时也暗示,年轻人也许不喜欢多生几个孩子,因为他们更喜欢假期。确实,欧洲缺乏年轻人,尤其是在意大利和西班牙这样的天主教国家。但婴儿短缺的范围更为广泛:美国母亲和澳大利亚母亲也越来越少了。They were certainly present a decade ago. Although birth rates were low in the former communist countries of eastern Europe, and in traditionalist places where it is hard to combine work with motherhood—think Japan, South Korea and southern Europe—many countries were having a baby boom. In the decade to 2008, the total fertility rate (the number of children a woman can expect to have in her lifetime based on present patterns) rose in much of the rich world. In Britain it went up from 1.68 to 1.91; in Australia from 1.76 to 2.02; and in Sweden from 1.5 to 1.91. America even managed to reach the “replacement rate” of 2.1, meaning its population was sustaining itself, without taking migration into account.在十年前,他们是确实存在着的。尽管在东欧的前社会主义国家,以及难以将工作与母亲身份结合的传统之地中,如日本、韩国和欧洲南部地区,出生率低下—但许多国家都经历过婴儿潮时期。到2008年为止的十年间,大部分发达国家的生育率均上升了(生育率是指在既有模式下,一位女性希望在其一生中生育的孩子的数量)。在英国,生育率从1.68上升至1.91;在澳大利亚,生育率从1.76上升至2.02;在瑞典,该指标从1.5上升至1.91。美国甚至达到2.1的“人口置换率”,这意味着,在不考虑移民的情况下,该国人口基本保持不变。There were two reasons, says Tomas Sobotka of the Vienna Institute of Demography. First, women who had delayed having children while they studied and started careers hurried to the maternity wards while they still could. Births to women in their 30s, which had been rising gently for years, went up further in Norway and elsewhere. Second, fertility among women in their 20s stopped falling.维也纳人口统计学研究所的托马斯·索特卡表示,导致这种现象的原因有两个。首先,那些因为学习或者事业刚起步而延迟怀的女性都趁自己身体状况允许的条件下着急生育。这些年来,30几岁才生育的女性数量一直在缓慢增加,在挪威以及别的地方增长得更快。其次,20几岁生育的女性数量也逐渐减少。The financial crisis abruptly turned the boom to bust. Countries in the European Union delivered 5,469,000 babies in 2008 but only 5,075,000 in 2013—a drop of over 7%. That was too much for Kimberly-Clark, the maker of Huggies nappies, which announced in 2012 that it would pull out of most of Europe. In America the fertility rate fell from a peak of 2.12 in 2007 to 1.86 in 2014. Ken Johnson, a demographer at the University of New Hampshire, estimated that America was missing 2.3m babies.金融危机突然地将婴儿潮转变为生育低谷。在2008年,欧盟国家共有5,469,000名婴儿出生,而在2013年,仅有5,075,000名——下跌超过7%。这对于好奇纸尿布的制造商金佰利克拉克而言,实在是太多了。金佰利在2012年宣布将退出大部分欧洲市场。在美国,生育率从2007年的顶点值2.12跌至2014年的1.86。新罕布尔什大学的人口学家肯·约翰逊估计,美国已流失230万婴儿。The crunch was unsurprising: anxiety about jobs and money puts people off children. But a rich-world baby bust that began predictably turned into a puzzle.这一窘境在人们意料之中:对工作和金钱的担忧使得人们推迟要孩子的计划。但原本可预计的生育低谷发生在发达国家却变成了一个谜。 译文属译生译世 /201605/444566

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