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Bad Things Come in Small Packages 拆信小心!While most armies in the world shun their use, and military authorities exclude them from warfare, the technology to produce biological and chemical weapons is widely available. Moreover, these weapons are cheap, easy to conceal, and very effective. Since September 11, 2001, biological weapons seem to have become the weapon of choice among the disenfranchised militants of the world. Some people are worried chemical warfare may follow.Chemical weapons are abundant in variety. Their effectiveness is determined by several factors, including age, purity, weather conditions, and choice of dissemination. They include nerve agents, blister agents, and choking agents, all of which can be ingested through the eyes, lungs, or skin. Sarin, a type of nerve gas, was used by the Aum Shinrikyo cult in March 1995, killing 12 people and injuring more than 5,500 on a Tokyo subway.Biological weapons, by definition, are any infectious agent, such as a bacterium or virus, used deliberately to inflict harm on soldiers and civilians alike. This classification can include toxins and poisons derived biologically. Biological weapons can be produced nearly anywhere, from government labs to suburban kitchens.Experts contend, however, that the transformation of a deadly virus or bacterium into an effective weapon is anything but straightforward: A conventional bomb would likely destroy the germ as it exploded. In contrast, dissemination via alternative methods, such as surface mail, has recently proved quite effective.1. shun v. 回避2. disenfranchised a. 被剥夺公权的3. ingest v. 摄取4. toxin n. 毒素尽管世界上多数国家的军队都避免使用生化武器,军事当局在战争中也不使用它,而制造生化武器的科技仍然随处可得。此外,这些武器造价便宜、容易藏匿,而且效果很明显。2001年9月11日之后,生物武器似乎已成了世界上被剥夺公民权的好战分子们选择的武器。有些人担心,接着可能会有一场化学战争。化学武器种类繁多。它们的效力是由几种因素决定的,包括年限、纯度、气候状况,以及散布途径。化学武器包括神经毒、疱毒和窒息毒,它们都能通过眼睛、肺部或皮肤被人体吸收。沙林是一种神经性毒气,1995年3月奥姆真理教在东京地铁站使用,造成12人丧命,5,500多人受伤。从定义来看,生物武器是指任何蓄意用来伤害士兵和老百姓等的传染手段,如细菌或病毒等。这类武器包括用生物学方法培植出来的毒素和毒药。生物武器几乎到处都可以制造,从政府实验室,到郊区的厨房。然而,专家认为,要将一种致命的细菌或病毒转化成有效的武器并不是一件容易的事:一颗常规炸弹就有可能在爆炸时摧毁病菌。相对来说,通过其它方式传播,如普通邮件,近来被实相当有效。 Article/200803/30278A middle-aged man with a long beard was arrested by the police for disorderly conduct and property damage. “More charges might be added later,” said a police officer. The man, identified as Bill Wild, checked into the Motel Five last night about an hour after sunset. Telling the clerk that he would be staying four nights, he paid cash in advance. He then asked her where a grocery store was. She said that the nearest grocery store was John-Johns, which was only two blocks away. The police said that Wild went to John-Johns and purchased three gallons of honey and four gallons of chocolate syrup. The checker asked him what the occasion was. He replied, “I'm trying to become a sweeter person.” The checker smiled at the joke. Wild drove back to the motel. He opened all seven containers and poured them into the bathtub. He added warm water to the mix. Then he placed his boom box on the bathroom floor next to the tub. He tuned the radio to an opera station. He got undressed, hopped into the tub, and started singing loudly with the music. Fifteen minutes later, the lodgers in the room next door phoned the clerk. She banged on Wild's door, but he kept singing. She phoned his room, but he didn't answer. Then she called the police, who arrived quickly. “Well, at least he paid in advance,” said the clerk. “That money will help pay for the plumber.” The bathtub drain was completely clogged. The tub remained full of chocolate and honey. “You just never know about people,” said the clerk. “He seemed so nice and friendly. Who'd have thought he was a bathtub-singing nut?” The police said this was the third time that Wild had been arrested for this kind of behavior. Article/201106/142377Rich Dad, Poor Dad 富爸爸,穷爸爸Most parents would probably be extremely grateful to be shown an easy way to instill into their children an appreciation of the value of money and a better understanding of how to make it. According to some critics, they can find the answer by ing a new bestselling book by financial wizard Robert T. Kiyosaki. Rich Dad, Poor Dad has the title of a novel rather than a how-to treatise, and indeed, much of the book is written in story form. Its central theme is summed up by the subtitle "What the Rich Teach Their Kids about Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not.? The author also strongly disparages the tendency of most people to work for money rather than "letting money work for them." Kiyosaki illustrates his point in the first part of the book by narrating a story based on his childhood experiences. The title refers to the author's own highly educated father, the "poor dad" who always had to work hard to meet the family's needs; and the "rich dad", a neighbor who had dropped out of high school but whose financial acumen turned him into a multimillionaire. The book has generated its share of negative feedback. For one thing, some reviewers have lashed out against its antieducation slant. All agree, though, that Kiyosaki is sound on the need to shake off a fearful, conservative mindset in order to make it big financially.如果有个简单的方法能帮助家长给孩子灌输重视钱的价值,以及更好地了解挣钱的办法,相信多数家长都会十分感激的。根据家的观点,父母可以在一本由财经奇才罗伯特·T·清崎所著的畅销书中找到。《富爸爸,穷爸爸》有点像小说的书名,而不像是一部入门的专著。的确,书的大部分内容以故事的形式写成。书的副标题——《富人教给孩子有关金钱的观念和穷人与中产阶级所教的相左》,归纳了该书的主题。作者也强烈蔑视大多数人为钱工作而不是“让钱为人工作”的倾向。 清崎在书的第一部分根据自己童年的经历讲述故事来阐述他的观点。书名中的“穷爸爸”是指他受过高等教育的父亲,他为了满足家庭的需求而努力工作; “富爸爸”则是指一位高中就辍学的邻居,但其敏锐的理财眼光却使他成为大富豪。本书也得到一些负面的反馈。其中一些图书家抨击了该书的反教育倾向。不过,大家都认为清崎的主张是合理的,要赚大钱就必须先摆脱恐惧、保守的心态。 Article/200803/29205Murder is the most evil thing in the world. I don’t know how it is possible for one person to murder another. Why do they think they can take someone else’s life? Even worse are people who commit multi-murder. Mass killing seems to be more and more common today. Shootings at schools are especially bad. How can we prevent murder? Every time we look at the news, there’s another murder. I hope it is not something that will stay with the human race forever. What is the correct punishment for murder? In some societies it is just a few years in prison. In others it is the death penalty. But there are some countries that don’t punish people for murder. If you are in power and are rich, you can literally get away with murder. Article/201106/139163

Madam C.J. Walker, 1867-1919: She Developed Hair-Care Products for Black WomenHer products helped women have a better sense of their own beauty. VOICE ONE:I'm Shirley Griffith. VOICE TWO: Madame C.J. Walker And I'm Rich Kleinfeldt with the VOA Special English program, People in America. Every week, we tell the story of someone important in the history of the ed States. Today we tell about Madam C. J. Walker. She was a businesswoman, the first female African American to become very rich. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:In the early nineteen hundreds, life for most African-Americans was very difficult. Mobs of white people attacked and killed black people. It was legal to separate groups of people by race. Women, both black and white, did not have the same rights as men. Black women worked very long hours for little wages. They worked mostly as servants or farm workers. Or they washed clothes. Madam C. J. Walker worked as a washerwoman for twenty years. She then started her own business of developing and selling hair-care products for black women. Madam Walker, however, did more than build a successful business. Her products helped women have a better sense of their own beauty. Her business also gave work to many black women. And, she helped other people, especially black artists and civil rights supporters. She said: "My object in life is not simply to make money for myself or to spend it on myself. I love to use a part of what I make in trying to help others. "(MUSIC)VOICE TWO:Madam C. J. Walker was very poor for most of her life. She was born Sarah Breedlove in the southern state of Louisiana in eighteen sixty-seven. Her parents were former slaves. The family lived and worked on a cotton farm along the Mississippi River. Cotton was a crop that grew well in the rich, dark soil near the river. Most children of slaves did not go to school. They had to work. By the time Sarah was five years old, she was picking cotton in the fields with her family. She also helped her mother and sister earn money by washing clothes for white people. There was no water or machine to wash clothes in their home. The water from the Mississippi River was too dirty. So, they used rainwater. Sarah helped her mother and sister carry water to fill big wooden containers. They heated the water over the fire. Then they rubbed the clothes on flat pieces of wood, squeezed out the water and hung each piece to dry. It was hard work. The wet clothes were heavy, and the soap had lye in it. Lye is a strong substance that cleaned the clothes well. But it hurt people's skin. VOICE ONE:When Sarah was seven years old, her parents died of the disease yellow fever. She and her sister moved to Vicksburg, Mississippi. At the age of fourteen, Sarah married Moses McWilliams. They had a daughter after they were married for three years. They named their daughter Lelia. Two years later, Moses McWilliams died in an accident. Sarah was alone with her baby. She decided to move to Saint Louis, Missouri. She had heard that washerwomen earned more money there. Sarah washed clothes all day. At night, she went to school to get the education she had missed as a child. She also made sure that her daughter Lelia went to school. Sarah saved enough money to send Lelia to college. Sarah began to think about how she was going to continue to earn money in the future. What was she going to do when she grew old and her back grew weak? She also worried about her hair. It was dry and broken. Her hair was falling out in some places on her head. Sarah tried different products to improve her hair but nothing worked. Then she got an idea. If she could create a hair product that worked for her, she could start her own business. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:At the age of thirty-seven, Sarah invented a mixture that helped her hair and made curly hair straight. Some people believe that Sarah studied the hair product she used and added her own "secret" substance. But Sarah said she invented the mixture with God's help. By solving her hair problem, she had found a way to improve her life. Sarah decided to move west to Denver, Colorado. She did not want to compete with companies in Saint Louis that made hair-care products. For the first time in her life, Sarah left the area along the Mississippi River where she was born. Sarah found a job in Denver as a cook. She cooked and washed clothes during the day. At night she worked on her hair products. She tested them on herself and on her friends. The products helped their hair. Sarah began selling her products from house to house. VOICE ONE:In nineteen-oh-six, she married Charles Joseph Walker. He was a newspaperman who had become her friend and adviser. From then on, Sarah used the name Madam C. J. Walker. Madam Walker organized women to sell her hair treatment. She established Walker schools of beauty culture throughout the country to train the saleswomen. The saleswomen became known as "Walker Agents. " They became popular in black communities throughout the ed States. Madam Walker worked hard at her business. She traveled to many American cities to help sell her products. She also traveled to the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Panama, and Cuba. Her products had become popular there, too. VOICE TWO:Madam Walker's business grew quickly. It soon was employing three thousand people. Black women who could not attend her schools could learn the Walker hair care method through a course by mail. Hundreds, and later thousands, of black women learned her hair-care methods. Madam Walker's products helped these women earn money to educate their children, build homes and start businesses. Madam Walker was very proud of what she had done. She said that she had made it possible "for many colored women to abandon the washtub for more pleasant and profitable occupations. "(MUSIC)VOICE ONE:In nineteen-oh-eight, Madam Walker moved her business east to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh was closer to cities on the Atlantic coast with large black populations, cities such as New York, Washington, D. C. and Baltimore. Two years later, she established a laboratory and a factory in Indianapolis, Indiana. There, her products were developed and made. Some people criticized Madam Walker's products. They accused her of straightening black women's hair to make it look like white women's hair. Some black clergymen said that if black people were supposed to have straight hair, God would have given it to them. But Madam Walker said her purpose was to help women have healthy hair. She also said cleanliness was important. She established rules for cleanliness for her employees. Her rules later led to state laws covering jobs involving beauty treatment. VOICE TWO:Madam C. J. Walker became very rich and famous. She enjoyed her new life. She also shared her money. She became one of the few black people at the time wealthy enough to give huge amounts of money to help people and organizations. She gave money to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, to churches and to cultural centers. Madam Walker also supported many black artists and writers. And, she worked hard to end violations against the rights of black people. In nineteen seventeen, she was part of a group that went to Washington, D. C. to meet with President Woodrow Wilson. The group urged him and Congress to make mob violence a federal crime. In nineteen eighteen, Madam Walker finally settled in a town near New York City where she built a large, beautiful house. She continued her work, but her health began to weaken. Her doctors advised her to slow down. But she would not listen. She died the next year. She was fifty-one years old. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:Madam C. J. Walker never forgot where she came from. Nor did she stop dreaming of how life could be. At a meeting of the National Negro Business League, Madam Walker explained that she was a woman who came from the cotton fields of the South. "I was promoted from there to the washtub," she said. "Then I was promoted to the cook kitchen, and from there I promoted myself into the business of manufacturing hair goods and preparations. I have built my own factory on my own ground. "She not only improved her own life, but that of other women in similar situations. Madam C. J. Walker explained it this way: "If I have accomplished anything in life, it is because I have been willing to work hard. "(MUSIC)VOICE TWO:This Special English program was written by Vivian Bournazian. I'm Rich Kleinfeldt. VOICE ONE:And I'm Shirley Griffith. Join us again next week at this time for another People in America program on the Voice of America. Article/200803/32046

I think the idea of genetic engineering is fascinating. It’s also quite dangerous. Fiddling around with what makes us human might make us less human. We could end up creating a Frankenstein’s monster. The idea of genetic engineering has been around for centuries. Scientists have always wanted to change us. The real breakthrough came in the latter half of last century. Geneticists cracked the genetic code and found ways of altering our genes. Now they can clone animals and reproduce human tissue and organs. I don’t think it’ll be too long before scientists clone a person. Once all the fuss has died down, younger generations will be more accepting of genetic engineering. We might even live to be two hundred years old. Article/201104/133914

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