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来源:中华解答    发布时间:2019年08月18日 05:07:48    编辑:admin         

BEIJING — Just about every June, on the anniversary of his company’s founding, Richard Liu dons a big motorcycle helmet and red uniform, hops on a three-wheeled electric bike and makes home deliveries for his e-commerce company JD.com.北京——几乎每年6月,在公司成立的周年纪念日上,刘强东都会戴上一顶大大的托车头盔,穿上红色的制,跳上一辆三轮电动车,为他的电子商务公司京东送货。It is in part a publicity stunt for Mr. Liu, the 41-year-old billionaire who is the company’s chairman and chief executive. But it is also a way to better understand the technical and logistical challenges facing JD, which is in a pitched battle for e-commerce supremacy in the world’s second-biggest economy after the ed States.这是京东董事局主席兼首席执行官、41岁的亿万富翁刘强东的公共宣传活动的部分内容。但是,通过这种方式,人们也能更好地了解京东在技术和物流方面所面临的挑战。目前,京东正在仅次于美国的世界第二大经济体中,激烈地争夺电商霸主的地位。Long overshadowed by its rival Alibaba, JD has emerged as China’s other online goliath by carving out its own distinct identity.长期笼罩在对手阿里巴巴阴影下的京东,也通过刻画自己的独特身份,成为了中国的另一个网络巨头。While Alibaba’s marketplace serves as a platform to connect buyers and sellers, JD buys goods from manufacturers and distributors and holds the inventory in its own warehouses, in a model that echoes Amazon’s. It then arranges for quick delivery of virtually everything from television sets and refrigerators to socks and T-shirts, using motorbikes that weave in and out of traffic in some of the country’s biggest cities.阿里巴巴的市场提供了一个连接买家和卖家的平台,京东则从制造商和分销商手中购买商品,把存货放在自己的仓库里,这种模式与亚马逊(Amazon)类似。然后,它会安排快速送货务,其配送的商品包罗万象,既有电视机、冰箱,也有袜子和T恤,送货的托车在中国大型城市的车流中进进出出。Like Amazon, JD has invested heavily in infrastructure, pumping more than .5 billion into building and leasing warehouses and order-fulfillment centers around China. But JD has gone even further, venturing into home delivery with its own fleet of trucks and more than 20,000 couriers, all in the hope of capturing what is projected to be a trillion Chinese e-commerce market by 2020.与亚马逊一样,京东也在基础设施方面投入了巨资,斥资逾15亿美元(约合94亿元人民币)在中国各地修建和租赁仓库与配送中心。但是,京东采取了更进一步的举措,甚至还在用自己的货车和20000余名快递员提供送货到家的务。这一切都是为了夺取中国的电商市场。到2020年,中国电商市场预计将达1万亿美元。JD, which is publicly traded in the ed States, is now China’s biggest direct-sales retailer, with 46 million active users and an estimated billion in revenue last year.已在美国上市的京东目前是中国最大的直销零售商,去年拥有4600万活跃用户和大约200亿美元收益。“This isn’t a business model for everyone, but they were smart to build it,” said Elinor Leung, a Hong Kong-based Internet analyst at CLSA, an investment bank. “Now, their traffic is exploding.”“这种商业模式并不适用于每个人,但他们去建立起这个模式是很明智的,”投资里昂券(CLSA)驻香港的网络分析师梁向奕(Elinor Leung)说。“现在,他们的流量正在飞速增长。”And yet this costly approach to building an online retailer has worried some analysts, who say that JD could be weighed down by its physical assets and mounting debt. Several analysts say the company won’t turn a profit before 2017. Competitors like Jack Ma, chairman of Alibaba, have even disparaged the company’s business model, calling it tragically flawed.然而,这种打造在线零售商的方式成本高昂,让一些分析人士颇为担心。这些人表示,京东可能会被它的有形资产和日益增加的债务拖累。几名分析人士说,公司在2017年前无法盈利。阿里巴巴董事局主席马云等竞争者都不认同京东的商业模式,称之存在可悲的缺陷。“It’s not that we are better,” Mr. Ma said in a recently published interview. “It’s an issue of direction. So, I tell my people: Definitely do not get involved with JD.com. Don’t come blaming us if you die one day.” He later apologized for his comments.“不是我比他强,”马云在近期发表的一次采访中说。“而是方向性的问题。所以,我在公司一再告诉大家,千万不要去碰京东。别到时候自己死了赖上我们。”他后来对自己的言论表示了道歉。Executives at JD, which is based in Beijing, insist they are building a company that will eventually have a commanding advantage in e-commerce, with strong customer service, speedy delivery and assurances that the products it ships are authentic, not counterfeit. Among the biggest challenges now, they say, is keeping up with an enormous volume of online orders, which have doubled in each of the last three years.京东总部设在北京,其高管坚持认为,他们正在建设的公司,最终将在电商行业获得压倒性优势,拥有强大的客户务,快速的运输,并且能保它运送的货物是真品,而非仿冒品。他们称,目前面临着许多重大挑战,其中之一就是应对数量巨大的网络订单。过去三年中的每一年,网络订单的数量都翻了一番。“If we wanted, we could be profitable right now,” said Shen Haoyu, chief executive of JD Mall, the company’s biggest division. “But our immediate goal is to grow our customer base.”“只要我们想,马上可以实现盈利,”公司最大部门京东商城的首席执行官沈皓瑜说。“但是我们的近期目标是扩大客户群。”JD is a product of its founder’s ambitions. The son of a cargo shipowner, Mr. Liu grew up in one of the poorest parts of east China’s Jiangsu Province, before arriving in Beijing to study sociology at Renmin University.京东是其创始人远大抱负的产物。刘强东是一个货运船主的儿子,在中国东部省份江苏省最贫穷的地区长大,后来在位于北京的中国人民大学修读社会学。During his spare time in college, he wrote software code and earned enough money to buy a small restaurant near campus. He says the restaurant failed after staff members embezzled large sums of money.大学期间,他利用业余时间写软件代码,用挣来的钱在学校附近开了一家小餐厅。他说,由于餐厅员工盗用了一大笔钱,餐厅最终倒闭。After college, Mr. Liu, whose Chinese name is Liu Qiangdong, worked briefly for a Japanese company before going into business for himself. He rented space at an electronics market in the city’s high-tech zone, called Zhongguancun, to sell software and electronics, including compact disc burners. Within a few years, he owned brick-and-mortar electronics shops in three cities.大学毕业后,刘强东在创业前曾在一家日企工作。他在北京的高科技区中关村的电子产品市场租了一个摊位卖软件、电子产品和光盘刻录机。几年之内,他就在三座城市拥有了实体电子商店。In 2004, when his stores began selling goods on the web, online shopping was just beginning to take shape in China, led by start-ups like Dangdang, Joyo and Alibaba’s Taobao site. JD, whose English name at the time was 360Buy.com, thrived on low prices and fast delivery, part of its motto today.2004年,当他的商店开始在网上销售商品时,由当当、卓越和阿里巴巴的淘宝网所领导的中国网络购物刚刚开始成形。当时英文名还叫做360Buy.com的京东,凭借低廉的价格和快速的送货获得了蓬勃发展,这两点在今天是京东的格言。With money running low in 2006, Mr. Liu sought million from a Hong Kong venture capital firm. The firm, Capital Today, put up million instead, for a large minority stake. The stake is now worth close to .4 billion, even after the firm sold some of its shares.2006年,由于资金不足,刘强东准备从一家香港风险投资公司获取200万美元(约合1250万元人民币)的资金。但这家投资公司——今日资本——提供了1000万美元,以获取少数股份。尽管该公司出售了一些股票,其股份价值现在仍接近24亿美元。The capital injection helped JD expand its product offering beyond electronics and develop new systems and software. The expansion, in turn, helped lure bigger investors, such as Tiger Global, the Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, Prince Alwaleed bin Talal of Saudi Arabia and the Waltons, the family behind Walmart Stores.这些资金帮助京东扩展了产品供应,在电子设备以外还提供其他产品,研发新的系统和软件。产品供应的扩展帮助京东吸引了更大的投资商,比如老虎环球(Tiger Global)、俄罗斯亿万富翁尤里·米尔纳(Yuri Milner)、沙特阿拉伯王子瓦利德·本·塔拉勒(Alwaleed bin Talal),以及沃尔玛超市(Wal-Mart Stores)背后的沃尔顿家族(Waltons)。“The first time I met him, I knew he was smart and trustworthy, and that he had a killer instinct,” said Kathy Xu, the partner who led the Capital Today investment.今日资本合伙人、总裁徐新说,“我一次见到他时,我知道他很聪明、可靠,他有一种好胜心。”Investors bought into Mr. Liu’s vision for a full-service online retailer.投资商相信刘强东对提供全面务的网络零售商的展望。At the time, China’s package delivery services were terrible. The country had new roads and bridges, but truck shipments were hampered by poor service, toll roads and other bottlenecks. With no Chinese equivalent of FedEx or UPS, packages often arrived late, in dented boxes.当时,中国的快递务非常糟糕。中国建造了新公路和新大桥,但卡车运输却因为糟糕的务,收费公路及其他瓶颈而受阻。中国没有类似联邦快递(FedEx)和UPS的快递务公司,包裹经常不能及时到达,而且还被压得变形。“Back then, 70 percent of our complaints were about deliveries, and everything was very slow,” Mr. Liu said during an interview at the company’s headquarters. “We realized logistics is related to user experience.”“当时,在我们收到的投诉中,70%是关于快递,每一个环节都很慢,”刘强东在公司总部接受采访时说。“我们意识到物流与用户体验有关。”So beginning in 2007, JD did something no other Chinese e-commerce company was willing to do then or since. It started building an integrated logistics network from scratch, promising to cater to customers from click to drop-off.因此从2007年开始,京东做了其他中国电子商务公司当时或以后都不愿做的事情。京东从零开始,建造综合物流网络,承诺为顾客提供从下单到送货的务。Today, the company boasts seven fulfillment centers and 118 warehouses in 39 cities. There are also 1,045 smaller pickup centers in about 500 cities. And since 2010, the company has pledged that most online orders placed before 11 at night will be delivered by 3 p.m. the next day.如今,京东拥有七个物流中心,在39个城市建立了118个仓库,还在大约500个城市设立了1045个自提点。自2010年以来,京东承诺大多数在晚上11点前提交的网络订单都将在第二天下午3点前送到。Morgan Stanley calls JD’s business model a combination of Amazon and UPS; other analysts say the company is beginning to look like Walmart, steeped in logistics and infrastructure and backed by a website.根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)称京东的商业模式是亚马逊和UPS的结合体;还有一些分析人士表示,该公司现在看起来有点像沃尔玛,致力于物流和基础设施,同时又有网站作撑。JD “has made it clear they will not only be a retailer but also an online supply chain and finance company,; said Lu Jianping, who teaches e-commerce at East China Normal University in Shanghai. “Retail is not profitable but it offers trading volume and cash flow. In the future, the main profits will come from finance and the supply chain.;京东“已经表明,他们不仅仅是零售商,还会是网络供应链、金融公司”,上海华东师范大学电子商务教师陆建平说。“做零售没有利润,但能产生交易量和现金流。未来,主要的利润来自金融及供应链业务。”By following its own path, JD has sought to make online shopping easier for China’s growing consumer class, promising authentic goods, delivered on time, for little or no delivery fee — and with a receipt, something hard to come by in a country where tax evasion is rampant.京东开辟了自己的道路,寻求为中国快速增加的消费阶层提供便利的网络购物务,承诺提供可靠商品,准时送货,只收取少量运费或免费,并提供发票。在这个逃税行为猖獗的国家,很难获得发票。Today, traffic to its website is exploding and the company is filling more than two million orders a day. No other direct sales retailer in the world has seen its revenue grow as quickly as JD, not even Amazon.如今,公司网站流量爆增,每天发送的订单超过200多万份。在这个世界上,没有哪家直销零售商的收益增长速度赶得上京东,包括亚马逊。American Internet start-ups have struggled in China. Amazon made its big foray into China in 2004, when it paid million to acquire Joyo.com, then one of China’s biggest e-commerce start-ups. A decade later, Amazon’s China operation has less than 2 percent of the online shopping market, according to iResearch Consulting.美国网络初创公司在中国举步维艰。亚马逊于2004年大举进入中国市场,当时该公司耗资7500万美元收购了卓越网——当时中国最大的电子商务初创公司。艾瑞咨询集团(iResearch Consulting Group)提供的数据显示,10年之后,亚马逊中国的业务在网络购物市场中所占的份额不到2%。And though Alibaba is better known in the ed States, Mr. Liu, JD’s biggest shareholder, is finding a warm reception. He led the company’s public stock offering on the Nasdaq early last year, which raised .78 billion.阿里巴巴在美国的名气比京东大,但京东最大股东刘强东正受到热烈欢迎。去年早些时候,刘强东带领公司在纳斯达克挂牌上市,筹集到17.8亿美元。Around the same time, he also struck a deal with China’s social media and mobile gaming giant Tencent, which allows JD to tap into Tencent’s huge user base. Tencent now owns about 20 percent of JD.刘强东在同一时间还与中国社交媒体、移动游戏巨头腾讯达成协议,让京东可以利用腾讯巨大的用户群。腾讯现在持有京东20%的股份。Mr. Liu is also pushing JD into online groceries and finance, and lending to his vendors the way Alibaba does. But unlike Alibaba and Amazon, he says he has little interest in developing film or entertainment divisions.刘强东还将带领京东涉足网购生鲜及金融方面的业务,像阿里巴巴一样为商家提供贷款。但与阿里巴巴、亚马逊不同,刘强东称他对开设电影或部门没有多大兴趣。“We don’t want to produce films or TV shows, but finance, yes,” Mr. Liu said, before returning to his thoughts on infrastructure. “And every few years we’ll invest in new warehouses. We need some temperature-controlled warehouses.”“我们不想制作电影或电视节目,但愿意涉足金融领域,”在回到有关基础设施的谈话前,刘强东说。“我们每隔几年就会投资建设新仓库。我们需要一些温控仓库。” /201501/357193。

SYDNEY, Australia — The Australian authorities on Wednesday raided the home of a computer expert and entrepreneur in suburban Sydney, just hours after two news outlets identified the man as a likely creator of the digital currency Bitcoin.澳大利亚悉尼——本周三,澳大利亚当局在悉尼郊区搜查了一名电脑专家和创业者的住所,在那之前的几个小时,有两家新闻媒体称这名男子可能是数字货币“比特币”(Bitcoin)的发明者。The Australian Federal Police said the raid on the residence of the man, Craig Steven Wright, was for a tax investigation, and a spokesman said it had no connection to the Bitcoin reports. The Australian Taxation Office, which asked the police to carry out the raid, declined to comment on “any individual’s or entity’s tax affairs.”澳大利亚联邦警察表示,该男子名为克雷格·斯蒂文·莱特(Craig Steven Wright),搜查其住所是为了进行税务调查,警方发言人表示此次行动和比特币的新闻无关。而要求警方开展突袭行动的澳大利亚税务局(Australian Taxation Office)拒绝对“任何个人或实体的税务问题”置评。The raid, in the leafy suburb of Gordon on Sydney’s upper north shore, came hours after reports in Wired magazine and Gizmodo drew strong links between Mr. Wright and Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of the virtual currency that has grown to billions of dollars in total value.这次突袭发生在悉尼上北海岸草木繁茂的郊区戈登(Gordon),就在《连线》(Wired)杂志和Gizmodo报道称莱特和中本聪(Satoshi Nakamoto)之间有紧密联系的几个小时之后。中本聪是比特币发明者的假名,这种虚拟货币的总价值已增长到了数十亿美元。The identity of Mr. Nakamoto has been a mystery since the currency’s computer code was released in 2009, with several false leads having been aired and debunked. The growing value of Bitcoin, which is managed by computers that run its peer-to-peer software, has driven the search for its elusive creator or creators.自2009年比特币的计算机代码发布以来,中本聪的身份一直是个谜,先后传出的几条假线索也都被揭穿。比特币是通过运行其点对点软件的计算机来管理的,随着它的价值日益增长,人们也一直在寻找它的的发明者。Wired, which was first to identify Mr. Wright as a possible inventor of the currency, cited old blog posts as well as leaked documents and emails. The magazine acknowledged that the trail of clues could be a hoax, but it added: “If Wright is seeking to fake his Nakamoto connection, his hoax would be practically as ambitious as Bitcoin itself.”《连线》率先指出莱特可能是比特币的发明者之一,它引用了一些早前的客文章以及泄露的文件和电邮作为据。该杂志承认,这些线索可能是一个骗局,但它表示:“如果莱特试图伪造出他和中本聪之间的联系,那么这个骗局的高明程度不亚于比特币本身。”The Gizmodo report said that Mr. Wright and Dave Kleiman, an American who died in 2013, “were involved in the development of the digital currency.”Gizmodo报道说,莱特和2013年去世的美国人戴夫·克莱曼(Dave Kleiman)“参与了这种电子货币的开发”。Both outlets cited what was described as a transcript of a 2014 meeting among Mr. Wright, lawyers and tax officials, in which he is ed as saying, “I did my best to try and hide the fact that I’ve been running Bitcoin since 2009.”这两家媒体都援引了一份记录,据称是2014年莱特与律师和税务官员之间的会议记录,其中莱特说,“我从2009年开始,一直在管理比特币,我尽了最大努力来隐瞒这个事实。”“By the end of this, I think half the world is going to bloody know,” he added, according to the transcript.记录显示,他说:“经过这件事之后,我觉得全世界有一半的人都会知道了。”Efforts to reach Mr. Wright on Wednesday were unsuccessful.本周三我们多番试图联系莱特,但均未成功。A Newsweek investigation in 2014 incorrectly identified the Bitcoin creator as Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, a physicist living with his mother in Southern California. He denied the report, saying he had only learned of Bitcoin weeks earlier after a reporter contacted his son.《新闻周刊》(Newsweek)在2014年刊发的一篇调查文章误认为多利安·中本聪(Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto)是比特币的创造者。此人是一名物理学家,与母亲住在南加州,他否认了那篇报道的说法,称几周之前一名记者联系他儿子时,他才听说比特币这种东西。 /201512/415517。

Apple and Samsung are in advanced talks to join the rest of the telecoms industry to launch electronic Sim cards, in a move could fundamentally change how consumers sign up to mobile operators.苹果(Apple)、三星(Samsung)已就与电信业其他同行一道推出电子SIM卡进入深入谈判阶段。此举可能会从根本上改变消费者与移动运营商签约的方式。The GSMA, the industry association which represents mobile operators worldwide, is close to announcing an agreement to produce a standardised embedded Sim for consumer devices that would include the smartphone makers.代表全世界移动运营商的行业协会——全球移动通信系统协会(GSMA)已接近公布一项协议,协议涉及的是生产一种面向消费者设备的标准化嵌入式SIM卡,智能手机生产商将参与其中。The traditional Sim card locks in the user to a network but an embedded Sim would enable a smartphone, tablet or wearable user to avoid locking themselves into a plan with a single operator or sign up to switch instantly.传统SIM卡将用户绑定在某个网络上,而嵌入式SIM卡将让智能手机、平板电脑或可穿戴设备的用户能够不再绑定在某一运营商的合约上,或者能够迅速切换运营商。Networks expected to support the plans include ATamp;T, Deutsche Telekom, Etisalat, Hutchison Whampoa, Orange, Telefónica and Vodafone.预计将持电子SIM卡计划的网络包括ATamp;T、德国电信(Deutsche Telekom)、Etisalat、和记黄埔(Hutchison Whampoa)、Orange、西班牙电信(Telefónica)和沃达丰(Vodafone)。Anne Bouverot, chief executive of the GSMA, said all parties were heading towards an agreement for the “common architecture”.GSMA总干事安妮布弗罗(Anne Bouverot)表示,各方正努力就“共同架构”达成协议。However, with any deal still contingent on finalising the technical specifications it will be at least a year before any devices supporting the electronic Sim reach the market.然而,考虑到达成协议还要取决于敲定技术规格,起码要等到一年之后才会有持电子SIM卡的设备上市。The GSMA said: “With the majority of operators on board, the plan is to finalise the technical architecture that will be used in the development of an end-to-end remote SIM solution for consumer devices, with delivery anticipated by 2016.”GSMA表示:“随着大多数运营商加入进来,现在的计划是敲定将用于消费者设备端对端远程SIM解决方案开发的技术架构,预计将在2016年交付。”Last year, Apple revealed its own Sim card for its latest iPads. However, it was supported by only a handful of operators such as T-Mobile and ATamp;T in the US, and just EE in the UK. Those familiar with its UK rollout said that it had not been widely adopted.去年,苹果披露了用于其最新iPad的自家SIM卡。然而,该卡只得到少数几家运营商的持,比如美国的T-Mobile和ATamp;T,以及英国的EE(仅此一家)。那些了解苹果SIM卡在英国推出情况的人士表示,该卡没有得到广泛采用。The electronic Sim is not expected to replace the Apple Sim, a piece of plastic that fits into a device and could be included in the next generation of iPhones.电子SIM卡预计不会取代苹果SIM卡。苹果SIM卡是一块能设备里的塑料片,可能会在下一代iPhone上使用。The GSMA said it was “continuing to work with Apple to secure their support for the initiative. While we are optimistic, a formal agreement with them is still in progress.”GSMA表示,它正“继续与苹果合作,以确保他们持这项倡议。尽管我们感到乐观,但与他们的正式协议仍在商谈当中。”Apple declined to comment.苹果拒绝置评。“We have got everyone back on one point, with Apple and Samsung agreeing to be part of that specification,” said Ms Bouverot. “We have been working with them and others to create an industry solution for machines and will agree a solution for consumer electronics.”“我们已把所有人都拉回到一点上,苹果和三星同意参与制定技术规格。”布弗罗表示,“我们一直在与他们以及其他人合作,以求创建一个针对机器的行业解决方案,我们还将就一项针对消费电子产品的解决方案达成一致。” /201507/386338。

Huawei, the Chinese telecoms company, has been given the all-clear over fears it may compromise UK national security.针对华为(Huawei)是否可能损害英国国家安全的担忧,这家中国电信设备制造商如今已经获得了“完全健康通知”。Risks from using equipment provided by the company have been “sufficiently mitigated”, according to the first report into the operation that vets its technology in the UK.针对华为在英国供应的技术,首份审查评估报告称,使用该公司所提供的设备的风险已被“充分缓解”。Huawei is one of the UK’s largest providers of telecoms equipment, with deals in place to provide critical national infrastructure as well as the technology behind services from companies such as BT, EE, Virgin Media, O2 and Sky.华为是英国最大的电信设备供应商之一,按照已经签署的协议提供关键的国家基础设施,也向英国电信运营商,如英国电信(BT)、EE、维珍媒体(Virgin Media)、O2和Sky,提供技术设备。However, concerns have been raised in countries such as the US and Australia about potential links to the Chinese government and the People’s Liberation Army in spite of strong denials from the group.不过,在美国和澳大利亚等国家,有人对于华为与中国政府和解放军的潜在联系提出了关切,尽管该集团强烈否认存在这种联系。A cyber security evaluation centre in Banbury was established in 2010 by Huawei to take apart the physical equipment and software used in the UK to mitigate risks to national security.2010年,华为在英国班伯里(Banbury)建立了一个网络安全评估中心,负责分解并剖析在英国使用的硬件设备和软件,以缓解对国家安全构成的风险。In the report for the national security adviser, the centre’s oversight board said the “technical assurance” provided by Banbury was of “sufficient scope and quality to meet its obligations”.该中心的监督委员会在提交国家安全顾问的报告中表示,班伯里提供的“技术保”具有“足够的涵盖范围和质量,足以履行其义务”。Huawei has also pledged further funds to expand the centre.华为还承诺提供更多资金以扩大这个中心。A management audit by Ernst amp; Young showed the centre was sufficiently independent from Huawei, which will address concerns about the centre and its staff being fully funded by the Chinese group.安永会计师事务所(Ernst amp; Young)的一项管理审计显示,该中心已经足够独立于华为公司,这将化解有关该中心及其工作人员完全由这家中资集团资助的担忧。Three concerns were identified by the report, although these were rated as “low risk”. They included difficulties in recruiting staff owing to a lack of cyber security skills as well as the reluctance of potential new recruits to complete security clearance.报告提出了三项关注,尽管它们都被评为“低风险”。它们包括:缺乏网络安全技能所导致的招聘困难,以及潜在的新聘人员不愿接受安全审查。Ernst amp; Young found some staff working at the centre without developed vetting clearance — the most comprehensive type of security vetting — although this has now been reduced to just two.安永发现,在该中心工作的一些工作人员尚未通过“高度审查”(developed vetting,简称DV),即最全面的安全审查,尽管其人数已减至两人。The report also found “tensions” between teams working in the centre and the Huawei response team in Shenzhen, but decided they did not have a “detrimental effect on the security of the UK networks”.报告还发现,在班伯里中心工作的团队和华为在深圳的响应小组之间关系“紧张”,但得出结论认为,这并未“对英国网络安全造成不利影响”。Senior government representatives visited Huawei in Shenzhen in January 2015, according to the report, when the company provided further reassurances.报告称,英国政府高级代表2015年1月在深圳走访了华为,当时该公司提供了进一步的保。David Pollington, former Microsoft cyber security expert, has been lined up to replace retiring chief Andy Hopkins at the Banbury centre.微软(Microsoft)前网络安全专家戴维#8226;波林顿(David Pollington)已被任命为班伯里中心的下一任负责人,接替即将退休的首席安迪#8226;霍普金斯(Andy Hopkins)。Huawei has also sought to alleviate concerns over corporate governance with the appointment of former BP chief executive Lord Browne to head a UK board of directors to oversee British operations.华为还任命英国石油(BP)前首席执行官布朗勋爵(Lord Browne)执掌一个英国董事会,由其监督在英业务,以求减轻有关公司治理的担忧。In a statement, Huawei said it was “pleased to be playing its part in providing reassurance to its UK customers of the quality of our products and solutions”.华为在一份声明中表示,该公司“很高兴能够发挥自己的作用,就本公司产品和解决方案的质量向英国客户提供保”。 /201503/366743。

Don’t tell people what you do,” Per Sundin’s wife insisted as they went to a dinner party several years ago. Sundin wasn’t a banker, used-car salesman or weapons producer, but the head of a record label in Sweden. Back then, being a music industry boss in the Nordic country was a miserable job. Sales had more than halved between 2000 and 2008 as illegal downloading took over. Sundin, who has headed a record label since 1998, was known by international colleagues as the expert on The Pirate Bay, an infamous Swedish website used to illegally download the latest music and films.几年前,佩尔#8226;松丁(Per Sundin)与妻子参加晚宴时,妻子叮嘱他:“别跟别人说你是做什么工作的。”松丁既非家、二手车销售员,也非军火商,而是瑞典一家唱片公司的主管。那时在这个北欧国家,音乐产业高管的日子可不好过。由于非法下载猖獗,销售额在2000至2008年间锐减过半。从1998年起便开始担任唱片公司主管的松丁,是各国同事们眼中的“海盗湾”(The Pirate Bay)问题专家。海盗湾是一家臭名昭著的瑞典网站,人们通过它非法下载最新的音乐和电影。Today Sundin, now head of Universal Music in Sweden, is that rarest of things: a happy music executive. No longer shunned by colleagues, he is the company expert on something more attractive: Spotify. “Sweden has gone from being worst in the class to the best in five years. We were so down the drain when Spotify came and presented their idea. Today, Spotify is the majority of the success we have,” he says.但如今,担任环球唱片(Universal Music)瑞典分公司总裁的松丁成了稀有物:一位开心的音乐公司高管。同事们不再回避他,相反,他是公司里的Spotify专家——而Spotify可比海盗湾更吸引人。松丁表示:“瑞典在五年时间里从差生变成了优等生。当Spotify来介绍他们理念的时候,我们简直是一团糟。现在,我们的成功主要归功于Spotify。”Sundin’s happiness is mirrored by much of the music industry in Sweden. Music sales have increased by more than a quarter from their nadir in 2008 and Sweden has become one of the first countries in the world where streaming services – listening to music over the internet without owning it – make more money for the industry than CDs or downloads. Almost three-quarters of the SKr990m (£86m) made last year came from streaming.瑞典音乐产业的诸多从业者也体会到松丁的这种幸福。音乐销售额比2008年谷底时高出逾四分之一,瑞典也成为世界上首批流媒体音乐务(即用户在互联网上听音乐,但无音乐所有权)收入超过CD或下载务收入的国家之一。瑞典音乐产业去年收入9.9亿瑞典克朗(合8600万英镑),其中近四分之三来自流媒体务。Launched in Stockholm in 2008, Spotify has a library of more than 20 million songs that people can choose from. They either pay for the premium service to stream music without interruption or they listen for free but with adverts between songs. Sundin insists that Spotify – in which Universal and other big record labels have minority stakes – has saved the music industry, although the company itself remains lossmaking.Spotify于2008年在斯德哥尔创办,如今拥有2000多万首歌曲供用户选择。用户可以选择付费高级务,不间断收听流媒体音乐,也可以选择免费收听,但曲目之间会插播广告。松丁坚信Spotify拯救了音乐产业,尽管它还在亏损。环球唱片等大牌唱片公司持有Spotify的少数股份。His office is strewn with memorabilia, from a picture of a “Born to Run”-era Bruce Springsteen to gold records of his latest star, the DJ Avicii. Sundin is dressed simply in a black sweater and jeans, his completely bald head glistening under the lights. “It was devastating,” he says, thinking back to those years. “People thought it was OK to steal with The Pirate Bay. It wasn’t nice going to international meetings. Was it close to killing the industry? Yes. Then Spotify came and it was better than illegal downloading. It was super-fast, almost everything was on it, and it was free.”松丁的办公室摆满了纪念物,从《Born to Run》风靡之时布鲁斯#8226;斯普林斯汀(Bruce Springsteen)的照片,到他旗下新晋明星DJ艾维奇(Avicii)的金唱片,不一而足。松丁衣着休闲,一身黑毛衣配牛仔裤,光头在灯光下闪闪发亮。回忆起难熬的那几年,他说道:“那是毁灭性的。人们觉得从海盗湾下载盗版内容没什么问题。参加国际会议的经历很狼狈。海盗湾是不是差点毁了音乐产业?是的。后来Spotify出现了,它比非法下载要好。它速度极快,几乎无所不有,而且免费。”Spotify’s reach goes beyond its home base. It has more than 10 million paying subscribers and a total of 40 million active users in 58 countries. Many executives hope that streaming – including other services such as Deezer or Pandora’s internet radio – can demonstrate that record labels can still make money in the digital age. Apple seems to be making the same bet with its bn acquisition in May of Beats, a smaller streaming service and maker of headphones.Spotify走出了国门。它拥有1000多万名付费用户,而活跃用户总计达4000万,分布在58个国家。许多高管希望流媒体务——包括Deezer和Pandora互联网电台等其他务——可以明,唱片公司在数字时代仍能赚钱。苹果(Apple)似乎也在下同样的赌注,它在5月份斥资30亿美元收购了较小的流媒体务商Beats。Jonathan Forster, Spotify’s managing director for the Nordics, argues: “We find ourselves being in this position where Sweden is a crystal ball for the new music industry. And that’s as relevant for what might happen next in the UK or US as it is here in Sweden.” But could this country of just 10 million inhabitants really offer a blueprint for the future of music?Spotify北欧区执行董事乔纳森#8226;福斯特(Jonathan Forster)表示:“我们所处的情况是,瑞典成为了预知新音乐产业趋势的水晶球。瑞典即将发生的事情,对于英国或美国同样相关。”但这个只有1000万居民的国家,是否真能呈现音乐产业的未来蓝图?If it does, people like Ash Pournouri will be the winners. The 32-year-old is manager and producer of Avicii, whose track “Wake Me Up” is the most streamed song yet on Spotify, with more than 200 million listens. His At Night Management company is based at one of Stockholm’s most prestigious waterfront addresses. The first-floor office is home to four recording studios of various sizes and a cinema room with an enormous screen. At its heart is a boardroom pimped out by Ralph Lauren almost entirely in black, from the wallpaper to the mixing bar. “I want to show people how successful we are. There is still life in the business, and still a lot of potential for people to make it,” says Pournouri, clad in a black jacket, denim shirt and skinny tie.如果真是如此,那么像阿什#8226;普尔努里(Ash Pournouri)这样的人将成为赢家。32岁的普尔努里是艾维奇的经纪人兼制作人,艾维奇的曲目《Wake Me Up》已是Spotify上迄今播放次数最多的歌曲,收听量达200多万次。普尔努里的At Night Management公司总部坐落于斯德哥尔最有名的海滨地带,办公楼一层设有四个不同大小的录音棚,以及一间配有巨屏的放映室。该层的中心是一间会议室,它由拉尔夫#8226;劳伦(Ralph Lauren)设计,从墙纸到调音台几乎完全采用黑色色调。“我希望向人们展示我们有多成功。音乐产业仍有活力,对于投身这一产业的人们仍充满潜力,”身穿黑夹克和牛仔衬衫、打着细领带的普尔努里表示。Pournouri is a fervent believer in Spotify. “I always thought it was the next thing,” he says while sipping a latte. “How do consumers want to consume music? If you mimic the behaviour as much as possible of illegal downloading and make it even easier and for a small payment, then you have the solution.”普尔努里是Spotify的狂热信徒。“我一直觉得它是下一个大热门,”他边啜着拿铁边说,“消费者希望如何消费音乐?如果你尽可能模仿非法下载的模式,让整个体验变得更轻松,收取一小笔费用,那你就有了解决问题的出路。”Perhaps most appealing for him is what he calls Spotify’s “democratic” side. The more a song is streamed, the more an artist is paid. “Not only do you have a platform where you can reach the whole world but you have a way that you can be listened to a lot. It hasn’t been democratic before in any sense. People buy a CD even if they only like three songs. With iTunes you might like it this week but not next week. Spotify is more democratic – people listen to a good song over and over again,” he says.或许最吸引普尔努里的,是他所称的Spotify“民主”的一面。一首歌播放的次数越多,艺人的报酬就越高。他表示:“艺人不仅获得了接触全世界的平台,还有办法让自己的作品得到大量收听。以往的音乐产业从来没有这么民主过。人们就算只喜欢一张专辑中的两三首歌,也得买下整张专辑。至于iTunes,你或许这周还喜欢一首歌,但下周就不喜欢了。Spotify更民主——人们会反复听一首好歌。”Some artists, however, are less glowing. Thom Yorke, the singer of Radiohead, told a Mexican website that Spotify was “the last desperate fart of a dying corpse”. He added: “I feel like as musicians we need to fight the Spotify thing. I feel that in some ways what’s happening in the mainstream is the last gasp of the old industry.”但有些艺人的反响没有这么热烈。电台司令(Radiohead)主唱汤姆#8226;约克(Thom Yorke)向墨西哥一家网站表示,Spotify是“濒死之人放的最后一个绝望的屁”。他补充道:“我认为作为音乐人,我们需要反抗Spotify这类东西。我觉得从某种程度上,主流世界发生的事情是旧音乐产业的垂死挣扎。”Spotify has responded to growing criticism by detailing how artists get paid. It pays out about 70 per cent of its revenues to record labels, who share the pot depending on how often their artists’ songs have been played. On average, that works out to between .006 and .0084 per stream. Or to put it another way: one million streams would give a label ,000-,400.面对着越来越多的指责,Spotify的对策是详细说明其补偿艺人的方式。它将自己约70%的收入付给唱片公司,而唱片公司能分到多少,取决于旗下艺人曲目的播放频度。平均而言,每次播放可以带来0.006至0.0084美元的报酬。换句话说,100万次播放可以为唱片公司带来6000至8400美元。But Spotify argues that to concentrate on the “per stream” maths is the wrong way of looking at things. In total, it has paid out bn in royalties to labels including 0m alone last year. It has also persuaded 10 million people to pay 0 a year for music. And it contrasts its fees with others: a “-streaming service” (presumably YouTube) would pay out just ,000 for one million listens while US terrestrial radio would hand over . Spotify has had some success – notable holdouts such as Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and Metallica have all signed up recently, leaving The Beatles as the main exception. But other bands, such as the Black Keys, refuse to release new music on to Spotify straightaway.但Spotify辩称,专注于每次播放的酬金是错误的解读方式。它总共向唱片公司付了10亿美元的版税,去年一年就付了5亿美元。它还说1000万人每年为听音乐付120美元。这与其他务商的费用形成了对比:某一家“视频流媒体务”(想必是指YouTube)只为每100万次收听付3000美元,而美国的地面无线电台只付41美元。Spotify取得了一些成功——齐柏林飞船(Led Zeppelin)、平克#8226;弗洛伊德(Pink Floyd)和金属乐队(Metallica)等知名的不合作者最近均与它签署了协议,使得主要的“钉子户”只剩下披头士乐队(The Beatles)。但Black Keys等乐队仍拒绝直接在Spotify上发布新曲。Per Herrey has known the heights of pop success, winning the Eurovision Song Contest in 1984 with “Diggi-Loo, Diggi-Ley”. He is now a lawyer for the Swedish musicians’ union and is preparing to sue several record labels over the royalties they pay from Spotify. He says the labels, not Spotify, are the villains. “They have stolen the rights of artists. It is betrayal from the record companies. They have snatched the rights and paid nothing to the artists. It’s ridiculous,” he says.佩尔#8226;赫雷(Per Herrey)经历过流行音乐成功的巅峰,他在1984年凭借一首《Diggi-Loo, Diggi-Ley》赢得欧洲歌唱大赛(Eurovision Song Contest)冠军。他如今是瑞典音乐人联盟的律师,正准备起诉数家唱片公司,称它们拖欠向音乐人付来自Spotify的版税。他表示,Spotify不是坏蛋,唱片公司才是。“它们窃取了艺人的权利。这是唱片公司的背叛。它们拿走了版权,却不分一点给艺人。这很荒唐,”他说。Herrey says the problem is that the artists do not even get the Clichés are often true, and at the moment this one is apt: the Chinese word for crisis also implies opportunity. On Friday, Hong Kong- and China-listed property developer China Vanke announced first-half results. Revenues rose one quarter — mostly on volume growth; average prices were down just shy of 3 per cent.陈词滥调中往往蕴含着真知灼见,此时此刻下面这个词就很符合这个观点:中文中的“危机”一词也包含“机会”的意思。周一,在香港和中国内地两地上市的房地产开发商万科(China Vanke)发布了上半年业绩。营收增长近四分之一——主要是拜销售面积增长所赐;销售均价则下降了约3%。Along with peers China Overseas Land and Investment and China Resources Land, Vanke trades on single-digit multiples of 2015 earnings, for growth in the low to mid teens. Cheap? That depends where we are in the cycle. Since April, property prices have merely stopped falling. If they resume their tumble, the low multiple will prove painfully deceptive.与中国海外发展(China Overseas Land and Investment)和华润置地(China Resources Land)两家同行一样,按2015年盈利(预期增幅13%至16%吧)计算,万科股票的市盈率为个位数。便宜吗?这要看我们处在周期中的什么位置。今年4月以来,房价只是停止了下跌。如果房价恢复下滑的话,低市盈率将被明极具欺骗性。China’s economy looks shaky, with last week’s adjustment to the renminbi taken as a sign that it could be worse than feared. Still, macro data have been poor for some time — yet Vanke’s numbers were far from terrible. This year, supply has fallen much more sharply than demand. Figures from China’s National Bureau of Statistics show completed residential projects’ gross floor area (GFA) down 16 per cent year on year, even as the GFA of residential sales rose 7 per cent. The GFA for new projects commenced — which would become available in about a year — has fallen by nearly a fifth. Land purchases have collapsed by a third.中国经济看起来很疲弱,上周对人民币的调整被看作一个信号:中国经济状况可能比人们担忧的还要糟。不过,虽然一段时间以来的宏观经济数据表现不佳,但万科的业绩可是一点都不糟糕。今年以来,比起需求,供给的降幅要大得多。中国国家统计局的数据显示,竣工住宅项目总建筑面积(GFA)同比减少了16%,而同期销售的住宅总建筑总面积却增长了7%。新开工项目总建筑面积下降了近五分之一。开发商拿地数量锐减了三分之一。Some of this is due to demand and supply mismatches: inventories in third tier cities remain high, curbing appetite for new projects. More vibrant top tier cities, such as Shenzhen which has led the turnround, look set to become supply constrained due to a scarce, and thus expensive, land bank.造成这种局面的部分原因在于供需不匹配:三线城市库存仍然很高,抑制了开发商上马新项目的兴趣。而在交易更加活跃的一线城市,例如已率先扭转局面的深圳,由于土地稀缺又贵,供应势必将吃紧。This lends itself to a bullish thesis for sector leaders. COLI, China Resources Land and Vanke have been disciplined with their balance sheets. Vanke’s net debt to equity is a mere 16 per cent. As the renminbi weakens, offshore debt may have lost its appeal but onshore demand is healthy, with about bn of renminbi debt raised so far this year. Last week, regulators approved Vanke to issue .4bn in bonds.这为行业龙头提供了乐观的理由。中国海外发展、华润置地和万科一直都严格管理资产负债表。万科的净债务与股东权益的比率只有16%。随着人民币走软,离岸债务可能已经失去吸引力,但在岸需求还很健康——今年迄今共发行了约140亿美元的人民币债券。上周,监管机构批准了万科发行14亿美元的债券。Goldman Sachs figures show the consolidation trend has been accelerating. In the year to July, the top 17 developers increased their market share to 22 per cent, up 5 percentage points and the biggest gain since at least 2007. The crisis is not the same for everyone; that is why it will create opportunities.高盛(Goldman Sachs)的数据显示,房地产业的整合趋势一直在加速。在截至7月的一年中,中国17家最大开发商的市场份额扩大到22%,上升5个百分点,是至少自2007年以来的最大增幅。危机对每个人来说是不一样的,这就是为什么它能够创造出机会。 /201508/393778.006-<牛人_句子>.0084 per stream; instead they get between 6 and 10 per cent of that small sum. The rest goes to the record label in what he calls a hangover of the days when the label had to recoup the costs of distribution and pressing. Now those costs no longer exist, Herrey argues that labels should give artists a similar deal to radio, where royalties are split 50-50.赫雷表示,问题是艺人连每次播放0.006至0.0084美元的酬金都拿不到,只能获得这一小笔钱的6%至10%,其余都被唱片公司收入囊中。赫雷称这种分配方式是旧时代的遗留物——以前,唱片公司要收回发行和压制唱片的成本。如今这些成本已经不复存在,赫雷主张,唱片公司应当像电台那样对待艺人,与他们平分版税。Herrey says artists are afraid of speaking out. “I can’t even begin to tell you how many artists I’ve talked to. They are too scared. Sweden is a small market and they are afraid of burning their bridges. Artists are also extremely sensitive to not show their fans they are interested only in money. The winners therefore are the big companies.” He adds that he believes the major record labels offered their back catalogue to Spotify at a reduced rate in return for their shareholdings in the company. Spotify refuses to say how much the labels own but people close to the company say it is less than the 17 per cent or so they were reported to have five years ago.赫雷称,艺人不敢大声抗议。“我都没法跟你说我同多少艺人谈过。他们太害怕了。瑞典市场小,他们不敢断了自己的后路。艺人也极为敏感,不想向歌迷们表现出自己只对钱感兴趣。结果,大公司成了赢家。”他补充称,据他所知,大型唱片公司以折价向Spotify提供旧曲目,以换取Spotify的股份。Spotify拒绝公布唱片公司持有的股份,但接近该公司的人表示,这部分持股不到五年前报道的17%上下。What is certain is that Spotify is changing the economics of music. Ludvig Werner, the head in Sweden of IFPI, an organisation representing the record industry globally, says: “The music industry has never been so different from one country to another. For instance, 10,000 CD sales in Poland can make more money than being number one in Sweden.” He adds: “Under the old business model, you pre-paid for eternal listening. The downside was if you didn’t like it, if you damaged it. For 90 years, we didn’t know as a business how you listened to a song: was it 10 times or 10,000?”可以肯定的是,Spotify正在改变音乐的商业模式。国际唱片业协会(IFPI)是代表全球唱片行业的机构,其瑞典分会主席路德维希#8226;维尔纳(Ludwig Werner)表示:“各国音乐行业从未有过如此大的差异。例如在波兰卖出1万张CD,可能比瑞典的排行榜第一名赚得还多。”他补充道:“在旧有的商业模式下,你预付一笔钱,获得永久的收听权。坏处是你可能不喜欢,你可能把CD损坏。在整整90年期间,音乐行业不知道你怎么听某一首歌:听了10次还是1万次?”Per Sundin now has the answer in his hands. He flips open his MacBook Air and logs on to a website, Spotify Analytics. Within seconds, he has dialled up information on Avicii. The 24-year-old DJ has been played 129,694,407 times in the past 59 days. That works out at 2.2 million streams a day by 1.16 million different listeners. Sundin calls up some more statistics. A fifth of Avicii’s listeners were in the US, with 17 per cent in Sweden. Males accounted for 60 per cent and Sundin can also see a breakdown by age. “When I wake up every morning I log into this and see what happened yesterday. This is addictive. And this is money,” he says.如今,佩尔#8226;松丁随时能够掌握。他麻利地打开自己的MacBook Air,登录一个名叫Spotify Analytics的网站。区区数秒间,他便已经查到关于艾维奇的信息。这位24岁DJ的曲目在过去59天内被播放129,694,407次,日均播放220万次,听众数量达到116万。松丁调出一些更具体的数据。艾维奇五分之一的听众位于美国,17%的听众位于瑞典。男性占60%。松丁还能看到用户的年龄构成。“我每天早晨醒来都会登录这个网站,看看昨天发生了什么。这让人上瘾,这也是实实在在的业务。”The power of the data has other effects as well. “The industry gets excited when you talk to them about this. We have an incredible amount of data about what is being played by whom and when,” says Spotify’s Jonathan Forster. Artists can plan tours by targeting cities where they have fans or see where they need to boost marketing. The company is aly adding other services such as allowing artists to sell merchandise or concert tickets via Spotify or even send an email when a new song is out.数据的力量还有其他影响。“跟行业人士谈到这些数据时,他们就会兴奋起来。我们拥有令人难以置信的海量数据,能够展示谁在何时收听了什么曲目,”Spotify的乔纳森#8226;福斯特表示。艺人在策划巡演时可以选择那些他们拥有大量歌迷的城市,他们也可以看出自己在哪些市场需要加强市场宣传。Spotify已经加入了其他务,如允许艺人通过Spotify出售商品或演唱会门票,甚至是在新歌发布时发送一封邮件。. . .. . .The company that is supposedly the future of the music industry is housed in a nondescript tower block north of Stockholm’s city centre. Get past Spotify’s reception and the offices finally begin to look like a typical start-up. Fridges stocked high with soft drinks, milk and even beer are dotted around, as are big comfortable chairs.这家被视为音乐产业未来的公司,坐落于斯德哥尔市中心以北一座不起眼的高楼里。走过Spotify的前台,办公室终于开始有了典型创业公司的模样。散布各处的冰箱堆满了软饮料、牛奶乃至啤酒,舒适的大椅子随处可见。 /201412/348076。