当前位置:黑龙江地方站首页 > 龙江新闻 > 正文


2019年12月09日 04:41:34    日报  参与评论()人

盐城同洲手外科医院痛经多少钱盐城协和医院病房盐城/市盐都区第二人民医院引产多少钱 The brain#39;s plasticity and its adaptability to new situations do not function the way researchers previously thought, according to a new study published in the journal Cell. Earlier theories are based on laboratory animals, but now researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have studied the human brain. The results show that a type of support cell, the oligodendrocyte, which plays an important role in the cell-cell communication in the nervous system, is more sophisticated in humans than in rats and mice -- a fact that may contribute to the superior plasticity of the human brain.发表在《细胞》杂志上的一项最新研究表明,大脑的可塑性和对新环境的适应力并非如以前研究者们认为的那样。以前的理论都是基于动物实验研究,如今瑞典卡洛琳斯卡学院的研究者们真正研究了人脑。结果显示,人脑中的少突胶质细胞(一种持细胞,在神经系统细胞信息传输中起重要作用)比老鼠脑中的要复杂得多,这可能是人脑可塑性更强的原因之一。The learning process takes place partly by nerve cells creating new connections in the brain. Our nerve cells are therefore crucial for how we store new knowledge. But it is also important that nerve impulses travel at high speed and a special material called myelin plays a vital role. Myelin acts as an insulating layer around nerve fibres, the axons, and large quantities of myelin speed up the nerve impulses and improve function. When we learn something new, myelin production increases in the part of the brain where learning occurs. This interplay, where the brain#39;s development is shaped by the demands that are imposed on it, is what we know today as the brain#39;s plasticity.学习过程其实正是大脑神经细胞创建新连接的过程。因此,神经细胞对于我们存储新知识来说是至关重要的。但是,神经冲动高速传播着,一种叫做髓磷脂的物质也是举足轻重的。髓磷脂类似于附着在神经纤维和神经突出上的绝缘层,大量的髓磷脂可使得神经冲动加速并改善其功能。当我们学到了新知识时,大脑相应部位的髓磷脂就会增加。脑力的开发受施加其上的压力的影响。这种相互作用正式我们今天所讨论的话题——大脑的可塑性。Myelin is made by cells known as oligodendrocytes. In the last few years, there has been significant interest in oligodendrocytes and numerous studies have been conducted on mice and rats. These studies have shown that when the nerve cells of laboratory animals need more myelin, the oligodendrocytes are replaced. This is why researchers have assumed that the same also applies in humans. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet and their international collaborators have shown that this is not the case. In humans, oligodendrocyte generation is very low but despite this, myelin production can be modulated and increased if necessary. In other words, the human brain appears to have a preparedness for it, while in mice and rats, increased myelin production relies on the generation of new oligodendrocytes.髓磷脂是少突胶质细胞的产物。过去几年,研究者们对它很感兴趣,在老鼠身上做了大量实验。这些实验表明,当实验对象的神经细胞需要更多的髓磷脂时,少突胶质细胞就开始了制作过程。基于此研究,研究者假定这现象同样发生在人脑中。卡洛琳斯卡学院的研究者及其国际合作伙伴发现事实并非如此。人脑中的少突胶质细胞是非常少的,尽管如此,必要时,它还是会生产并调节髓磷脂含量。换句话说,人脑似乎事先早有准备,而老鼠大脑中的髓磷脂的增加依赖少突胶质细胞的更新换代。In the study in question, researchers have studied the brains of 55 deceased people in the age range from under 1 to 92 years. They were able to establish that at birth most oligodendrocytes are immature. They subsequently mature at a rapid rate until the age of five, when most reach maturity. After this, the turnover rate is very low. Only one in 300 oligodendrocytes are replaced per year, which means that we keep most of these cells our whole lives. This was apparent when the researchers carbon-dated the deceased people#39;s cells. The levels of carbon-14 isotopes rose sharply in the atmosphere after the nuclear weapons tests during the Cold War, and they provided a date mark in the cells. By studying carbon-14 levels in the oligodendrocytes, researchers have been able to determine their age.在该研究中,科学家们研究了1岁至92岁的55位死者的大脑。他们断言,新生婴儿大脑中的少突胶质细胞都是不成熟的,随后这些细胞迅速生长,在5岁之前大部分成熟了。接下来,它们更新换代的速度很慢。300个少突胶质细胞中每年只有1个更新,这意味着大多数的细胞会伴随我们终生。研究者们观察死者脑细胞时发现这是显而易见的。冷战期间由于核武器实验,大气中的C-14含量迅猛增长。通过研究少突胶质细胞中的-14含量,科学家们可确定死者年龄。;We were surprised by this discovery. In humans, the existing oligodendrocytes modulate their myelin production, instead of replacing the cells as in mice. It is probably what enables us to adapt and learn faster. Production of myelin is vital in several neurological diseases such as MS. We now have new basic knowledge to build upon,; says Jonas Frisén, PhD, Professor of Stem Cell Research at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at Karolinska Institutet.“对于这个发现,我们也很惊讶。少突胶质细胞在人脑中可调节髓磷脂含量,而不像在鼠脑中那样迅速更新换代。这也许正是我们适应新环境、学习新知识更快的原因。髓磷脂的产生对于治疗像MS这样的神经疾病是至关重要的。现在我们的研究更进了一步。” 卡洛琳斯卡学院细胞和分子生物学系的教授乔纳斯说道。 /201411/341770大丰市第二人民医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱

盐城医院药流多少钱That feeling you have whenever you think about your boyfriend or when he walks in the door? You think it means you have found “The One.” How exactly can you tell if you’re right? More importantly, how can you tell that the two of you really are a good match? Here are four of the signs to tell if the guy you’re with now should be the guy you’re with forever.每当想起男友或者当他走进房门的时候,你可能会有特别的感觉,不过这意味着你找到了Mr.right?对此你又有多少把握呢?更重要的是,你怎知道你们就是很合适的一对呢?这里有四种标志帮你判断:他是否就是你的真爱?1. Looks外表It seems totally superficial, but there is going to be a time when you have to be honest: do you find this guy attractive? Can you see yourself living with him for the rest of your life? If you were just tolerating him while you were dating, you may want to get serious about what you really want before you take the next step. When it comes down to things that he can change—if this guy is not meeting your standards of personal hygiene, healthy weight, decent dress—you may want to have a conversation with him about your concerns before you decide it’s time for a commitment.看外表似乎极其肤浅,但也该是诚实面对现实的时候了。你觉得这个男人的外表吸引你吗?你会幻想两个人在一起的未来生活吗?如果和他约会的时候还需要容忍的话,那么在你们进入下一个阶段之前,要认真思考一下究竟什么才是你真正想要的。细数一下他在哪些方面需要改变。如果这个男人在卫生、体重以及着装方面没有符合你的理想标准,那么在你决定两个人厮守一生之前,可能需要就这些问题和他谈一谈了。2.Shared Beliefs信仰It’s more than just your religious backgrounds. Do the two of you have the same ideas about life, how to live, financial goals and philosophies, and feelings about humanity. If your guy has beliefs that you just can’t get behind, there’s a serious problem with your relationship. It may be okay now, but eventually you won’t be able to feel comfortable living with someone who doesn’t share the same basic outlook on life as you. There’s always a chance that you could change, but that’s a big risk to take. If the two of you do share all of the same ideas about the world, go for it!这不仅关乎你们的宗教信仰。你们对于生活、生活方式、经济目标以及处事态度和人性的感知方面看法一致吗?如果你男友的思想观念让你无法理解,你们的关系可能会面临比较严峻的问题。目前来说你可能觉得一切还好,但是有朝一日你会无法忍受一个和一个与你没有共同人生观的人生活在一起的。还有改变的机会,但是风险很大。但是如果你们的世界观出奇地一致,那么努力争取一下吧。3.Emotional Maturity情商Not everyone is on the same level of emotional maturity. The interpersonal skills that you have that help you deal with getting hurt or feeling happy are developed from childhood: both you and your boyfriend have emotional intelligences that probably aren’t going to change at this point. If you fight a lot it could mean one or both of you are not very emotionally mature. If it bothers you that he is not empathic, feeling, able to compromise, or control his temper you need to think twice before you decide you want to spend a lifetime with someone who is emotionally stunted.每个人在情商都是不一样的。目前你在处理挫折和好心情方面的人际交往能力早在童年时期就已经形成了。从这个意义上说,你和你的男友在情商方面可能不会改变什么。如果你们经常吵架,那就说明你们当中的一方甚至双方的情商比较低。4.Intelligence智商This is going to be different for everyone, depending on how judgmental you are. Sometimes women date dumb guys and can still be perfectly happy. Sometimes they can’t stand how stupid he is. Let’s even consider that he might be the one with the brains in the relationship. If the difference between your SAT scores is something that makes either of you unhappy, then it’s probably not a good idea to move forward with him. If the two of you are happy with who you are, whether you can go toe-to-toe on Sunday crossword, or if you have to remind him of his family member’s names, you may have found the one.智商水平因人而异,取决于你的判断力如何。有时候女人和脑子笨的男友在一起依然可以很快乐,但有时候却无法忍受他的愚蠢。此外,也有可能他是两个人当中头脑聪明的那一位。无论如何,如果SAT分数存在很大的差距会让其中一个人心里感到不舒的话,那么对你们而言,继续走下去可能不是个好选择。如果你们喜欢对方真实的样子,无论是周末时候两个人在纵横字谜游戏中一争高下,还是记性不好的他连家族成员的名字都得让你提醒,都不会影响相处愉快,那么很有可能他就是你的真爱。 /201407/308819盐城/市第四人民医院官网 盐城怎么治疗包皮过长

盐城/治疗包皮哪个医院好The manner by which a mother interacts with her friends serves as a role model for how an adolescent child develops his/her own peer friendships.妈妈们与朋友之间的相处方式,在一定程度上是给未成年孩子们处理自己同龄人间友情的一种示范。Unfortunately, teens often pick up on the negative elements in a relationship, such as conflict and antagonism, and then copy these attitudes into their own relationships.不幸的是,青少年往往会挑出那些处理友情的消极做法,比如闹别扭,对着干,然后把这些消极的态度搬到自己的友情处理模式中。The new study investigated a previously understudied association —how a parent’s friendships influence the emotional well-being of their adolescent children.新的一项研究调查表明,过去一项并未被充分研究的问题——家长的交友模式是如何影响他们的未成年孩子原本存在的纯洁情感的。For the study, doctoral student Gary Glick and Amanda Rose, Ph.D., studied the development of friendships and other peer relationships during adolescence and their impact on psychological adjustment.在读士加里格里克和哲学士阿曼达後瑟对于青少年如何处理友情的不同阶段发展变化、其他同龄青少年的交友方式及其对心理调适的影响,进行了研究和分析。They found that adolescents may mimic the negative characteristics of their mothers’ relationships in their own peer-to-peer friendships suggesting that mothers can serve as role models for their adolescents during formative years.他们在研究中发现,青少年模仿妈妈们在交友处理问题上一些不好的做法然后照搬到自己的交友模式中,这也同样表明了妈妈们在交友之道上对孩子们起到的模范作用是十分重要的。Additional findings suggest that adolescents internalize their reactions to their mothers’ conflict with adult friends which may lead to anxietyand depression.另外研究还发现,青少年孩子们面对妈妈们与成年朋友间的一些争执和对立产生的心理反应和采取的内心回应致使他们出现消沉和焦虑的心理症状。Previous research of this type focused on elementary-aged children, but MU researchers wanted to expand their study to focus on the formative adolescent years.以前对于这个问题的研究集中在了小学学龄的儿童上,研究学者们希望把研究对象扩大并集中在青春期形成阶段的青少年们。Youth ranging in age from 10 to 17 and their mothers were polled separately to measure perceived positive and negative friendship qualities in both groups.专家们对一些10到17岁的青少年进行实验研究,并将他们的母亲分开实验,在两组中分别地纪录了一些她们积极和消极的交友做法。Results showed that positive friendship qualities were not always imitated by adolescents; however, negative and antagonistic relationship characteristics exhibited by mothers were much more likely to be mimicked by the youth studied.实验结果显示,积极的关系处理做法并不总是被青少年们采纳;然而,消极的关系处理做法,甚至是一些对立关系的做法却更容易被孩子们模仿和接受。“We know that conflict is a normal part of any relationship —be it a relationship between a parent and a child, or a mother and her friends —and we’re not talking physical altercations but verbal conflicts,” Glick said.“我们都知道争执矛盾是任何人物关系中很正常的一部分 - 不论是家长和孩子的关系中还是母亲们的交友关系中 - 我们不是在说身体上的争执而是言语上的对立。” 士格里克这样讲道。“But being exposed to high levels of such conflict generally isn’t going to be good for children. Parents should consider whether they are good role models for their children especially where their friends are concerned. When things go awry, parents should talk with their children about how to act with their friends, but more specifically, how not to act.”“然而如此过激的对立暴露在孩子们面前是十分不可取的,这样对孩子百害无一利。家长们的应该考虑到自身的所作所为、言谈举止是否成为孩子们的榜样和示范,特别是当他们学到的举止言行影响到交友和朋友的关系上的时候。当发现苗头不对,家长应该和孩子们进行谈心,告诉他们该如何对待朋友,更重要的是,什么是不该做的。 /201312/269060 盐城妇幼保健医院治疗痛经多少钱盐城治疗少精症需要多少钱



盐城协和不孕不育专科门诊 盐城妇幼保健医院治疗膀胱炎多少钱美报 [详细]
盐城市妇幼保健院治疗便秘多少钱 盐城/国家高新经济技术开发区腋臭科 [详细]
盐城国家高新经济技术开发区做无痛人流哪家医院最好的 放心热点盐城/市城南新区无痛人流手术多少钱爱问活动 [详细]
百家咨询盐城/治疗不育症医院 阜宁县中西医结合医院治疗痔疮多少钱飞度云解答阜宁县中医院看妇科炎症多少钱 [详细]