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襄阳第一医院治疗鼻窦炎价格中华乐园襄樊治五官在那家好

来源:光明健康    发布时间:2019年11月20日 18:17:16    编辑:admin         

A corrections officer is facing bigamy charges after authorities said a Washington woman using Facebook discovered that she and a potential ;friend; were married to him at the same time.美国政府机关称,一位华盛顿女性通过Facebook发现她和一位潜在;好友;的现任丈夫竟是同一人。这两位女性的丈夫是一名惩教官,他即将面临重婚罪的控诉。According to charging documents filed Thursday, Alan L. O#39;Neill married a woman in 2001, moved out in 2009, changed his name and remarried without divorcing her. The first wife first noticed O#39;Neill had moved on to another woman when Facebook suggested the friendship connection to wife No. 2 under the ;People You May Know; feature.根据周四提交的控告书,阿兰bull;Lbull;奥尼尔2001年曾与一名女子结婚,2009年他搬了出去,改了名字后再次结婚,但没有和原妻离婚。第一任妻子是在Facebook提示第二任妻子是她;可能认识的人;时才首次注意到奥尼尔已经和另一个女人在一起。;Wife No. 1 went to wife No. 2#39;s page and saw a picture of her and her husband with a wedding cake,; Pierce County Prosecutor Mark Lindquist told the reporters.皮尔斯县的检察官马克bull;林德奎斯特告诉记者说:;第一任妻子访问第二任妻子的页面,看见第二任妻子和她的丈夫的合照,合照中还有结婚蛋糕。;Wife No. 1 then called the defendant#39;s mother.于是第一任妻子给被告的母亲打了电话。;An hour later the defendant arrived at (Wife No. 1#39;s) apartment, and she asked him several times if they were divorced,; court records show. ;The defendant said, #39;No, we are still married.#39;;法院记录显示:;一小时后被告抵达(第一任妻子的)公寓房间,她多次问他两人是否已经离婚。被告回答说:lsquo;不,我们的婚姻关系还存在。rsquo;;Neither O#39;Neill nor his first wife had filed for divorce, according to charging documents. The name change came in December, and later that month he married his second wife.根据控告书,奥尼尔和他的第一任妻子都未曾提出过离婚申请。奥尼尔于十二月改名后,于当月和第二任妻子结婚。O#39;Neill allegedly told wife No. 1 not to tell anybody about his dual marriages, that he would fix it, the documents state. But wife No. 1 alerted authorities.据控告书中称,奥尼尔叫第一任妻子不要告诉任何人他重婚的事情,说他会处理好这件事的。不过第一任妻子还是向相关部门报告了。;Facebook is now a place where people discover things about each other they end up reporting to law enforcement,; Lindquist said.林德奎斯特说:;现在Facebook成了人们发现对方隐私的地方,他们往往会把自己的发现向执法部门举报。;Athima Chansanchai, a freelance journalist who writes about social media, said Facebook over the years has played a role in both creating relationships and destroying them.艾茜玛bull;山三钗是一位写作有关社交媒体文章的自由新闻工作者,她说这些年来Facebook扮演着建立关系和摧毁关系的双重角色。;It#39;s just the latest vessel by which people can stray if they want to,; she said.她说:;如果人们想出轨,Facebook是一条新渠道。;O#39;Neill, 41, was previously known as Alan Fulk. He has worked as a Pierce County corrections officer for five years, sheriff#39;s spokesman Ed Troyer said.皮尔斯县行政司法长官的发言人爱德bull;特洛耶说,41岁的奥尼尔原名为阿兰bull;富尔克,在过去的五年里他是皮尔斯县的一名惩教官。He was placed on administrative leave after prosecutors charged him Thursday. He could face up to a year in jail if convicted.在检察官周四对奥尼尔提出指控后,他就被停职了。如果被判有罪,他将可能被监禁一年。O#39;Neill and his first wife had issues that went back to 2009. In 2010, his first wife was arrested after an altercation with the woman who later became the second wife.奥尼尔和他的第一任妻子早在2009年就有感情问题。2010年,他的第一任妻子在和一名女子发生争吵后被逮捕,而这名女子不久后就成了奥尼尔的第二任妻子。 /201203/174102。

They have appeared on clothes labels for four decades, each one chosen by international experts for its simplicity and clarity.Yet for most people, washing instructions might as well be written in Martian.According to a new poll, nine in 10 people are unable to decipher common symbols used on clothes labels. Even those who have mastered the difference between a wool and a synthetics wash admit being baffled by the bewildering array of boxes, circles and crosses used to give advice about drying and bleaching.The findings come from a poll of 2,000 people carried out by YouGov for Morphy Richards. A third of people surveyed said that they recognised none of the six symbols shown, while the only symbol recognised by more than half of people was the iron with a single dot. Around 70 per cent knew it meant "iron on a low heat". Just 10 per cent sign knew the sign for "do not dry clean", while only 12 per cent were familiar with "drip dry only".Despite the sexual revolution, women are still more knowledgeable than men. Awareness was highest among 18 to 29-year-old women--for whom taking care of clothes is clearly important.Chris Lever, from Morphy Richards, said: "Clothes Care symbols are a unique language, clearly a language that few people in the UK have taken the time to learn. ""Learning the basics such as which icon represents tumble dry and which represents normal wash would go a long way to getting the best out of clothes."The Home Laundering Consultative Council said it was not surprised to learn that people were unfamiliar with them."It's disappointing that there is a lack of recognition, but it's a story that's repeated time and time again," said a spokesman, Adam Mansell. "We are a small organisation and we don't have a big budget." /200812/59287。

The world's ten most unanswerable questions include "what is the meaning of life", "does God exist", showed a study made by Ask Jeeves, a popular search engine in US.美国著名搜索引擎Ask Jeeves最新调查发现,世界上最难回答的十大问题包括“生命的意义是什么”、“有没有上帝”等等。 /201009/114487。

1. Did you know Coca-Cola was initially green? Today the other name of trademark Coco Cola is the Red Empire.你知不知道可口可乐最开始是绿色的?今天可口可乐也被叫做红色王国。2. Coca Cola can be used to clean toilet, removing grease stains and to loosen rusty bolts.可口可乐可以用来搞厕所的卫生、祛除油渍残留,还可以用来松化生锈的铁钉。3. Coca Cola was basically made by John Pemberton, as a cure for headaches and today there is a term known as Coco Cola Phobia which refers to Addiction to Coco Cola.可口可乐最早是被John Pemberton研制出来治疗头痛的,而我们今天所说的“可口可乐恐惧症”就是用来指那些喝可乐喝到上瘾的人。4. I Didn’t know that Coca Cola can be used to cure Jellyfish stings.被水母蛰伤也可以用可口可乐来治疗哦。5. Coca Cola is the most recognized word in the World after the word “OK”. Isn’t that amazing? 除了“OK”以外,世界上被大家最广泛认识的英语单词就是“Coca Cola”了。神奇有木有?6. The production of Coca-Cola is equal to if Niagara Falls flows at its normal rate of 1.5 million gallons per second instead of water. The falls will flow for straight 38 hours and 46 minutes.尼亚加拉瀑布每秒流水量是150万加仑,而可口可乐的产量可能需要尼亚加拉瀑布奔腾38小时46分钟。 7. Coca Cola is a cold beverage but it is served as a hot one in different countries as a cure for cold.可口可乐是冷饮,但是在一些国家人们会用热的可口可乐来治感冒。8. Coca-Cola used to contain cocaine till 1905, but was removed due to public concern.1905年以前的可口可乐里是含有可卡因的,之后由于公众压力将可卡因从中去除。9. Coca Cola has more than 9 Million Estimated Retail Outlets in 206 Regions which is more than the countries in UN and it is also said that the Coco Cola’s global sales estimate is Billion a year.可口可乐在全球206个地区约有9百万个零售网点,这比加入联合国的国家还要多。而可口可乐每年销售值可能达到600个亿美元收入。10. Did you know every second more than 15000 Coco Cola Drinks are being consumed in the World? Which makes it 1.6 Billion oz. Coco Cola servings every day in the World?你知不知道每秒全球就有1万5千瓶可口可乐被喝掉。为了跟上如此之大的消耗量,全球可口可乐公司每天要生产160万盎司的可口可乐。 /201107/145026。

While many people aren#39;t getting enough calcium, new research cautions that some people may have the opposite problem: They could be getting too much. 尽管有很多人钙摄入量不足,但新的研究提醒我们,也有一些人面临的问题可能恰好相反:他们的摄入量太多了。 Americans spend more than billion a year on calcium supplements in hopes of staving off osteoporosis, the brittle bone disease that cripples many elderly women and some men. 美国人一年花费逾10亿美元购买各类钙补充剂,期望能推迟骨质疏松症的发生。骨质疏松症是一种让骨头变脆的疾病,许多老年女性和部分男性都会因骨质疏松致残。 Yet recent studies link calcium supplements to a higher risk of heart attacks and kidney stones. Last month, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a draft recommendation against taking calcium and vitamin D, saying there wasn#39;t enough evidence of benefit to justify the risk. 但近期的研究揭示,钙补充剂有可能导致心脏病和肾结石风险升高。美国预防医学工作组(U.S. Preventive Services Task Force)上月发布了一份建议书草案,不主张用钙和维生素D补充剂,称并没有充足的据显示这样做利大于弊。 For generations of Americans who grew up exhorted to drink their milk to maintain strong bones, the reports raised troubling questions: Is calcium not so important after all? Are the supplements unsafe? And how much is too much? 对从小就被劝说要多喝牛奶以维持强健骨骼的几代美国人来说,这些报告引发了一些麻烦的问题:钙是不是其实并不太重要?钙补充剂是不是不安全?摄入钙量多少算超量? #39;It#39;s gotten very confusing but it doesn#39;t need to be,#39; says Ethel Siris, director of the Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. 纽约哥伦比亚大学医学中心(Columbia University Medical Center)托尼#8226;斯塔比尔骨质疏松研究中心(Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center)主任西里斯(Ethel Siris)说,“问题变得令人非常费解,但其实不至于如此。” The links to heart attack and kidney stones involved calcium supplements, not calcium from food sources, Dr. Siris and other experts note. Many other studies have not found such health risks, so more research is needed to understand what levels, if any, might be hazardous. 西里斯士和其他专家指出,可能引起心脏病和肾结石的是钙补充剂,而不是从食物中获取的钙。许多其他研究并未发现这类健康风险,因此,若要了解钙摄入量过多是否会有危险以及达到多少可能会有危险,还需要做更多研究。 Meanwhile, experts say they are still more concerned that too many Americans aren#39;t getting enough calcium, since the body can#39;t make it on its own. 专家们同时也说,他们更担心的仍然是有太多美国人钙摄入量不足,因为人体无法自己制造钙。 #39;Unless you take in enough calcium, by mouth, every day, you have to keep borrowing it from your skeleton, so over your lifetime, you need to get enough,#39; says Dr. Siris. #39;If you have low bone mass, or are at risk for fractures, you want to minimize any need to take calcium from the skeleton.#39; 西里斯士说,“除非每天都能经口摄入充足的钙,否则你不得不一直向骨骼借用钙,所以人一生中必须摄取足够的钙。如果你骨密度低,也就是说有骨折风险的话,你就得尽量避免从骨骼中获取钙。” How much calcium people need varies by age and gender. Adults generally need 1,000 milligrams daily, rising to 1,200 mg for women over 50 and men over 70, according to guidelines issued in 2010 by the Institute of Medicine, an independent advisory group. Children need 1,300 mg daily during the peak growing years of 9 to 18. 人体需要的钙量依年龄和性别而有不同。根据独立顾问组织药学研究所(Institute of Medicine)2010年发布的指导原则,成年人一般需要每天摄入1,000毫克钙,50岁以上的女性和70岁以上的男性每天需要摄入的钙量会增加到1,200毫克。孩子在九到18岁的生长高峰期每天需要1,300毫克钙。 People also need sufficient levels of vitamin D to absorb the calcium. The IOM recommends 600 international units a day for most adults, and 800 daily after age 70, although many physicians recommend more. It is difficult to take in that much vitamin D from food sources, and prolonged sun exposure, the best source of vitamin D, can lead to skin cancer, so experts say many people should take vitamin D in supplement form. 人体要吸收钙,还需要摄取充足的维生素D。药学研究所建议多数成年人每天摄入600国际单位的维生素D,并建议70岁以上的人每天摄入800国际单位,不过许多医生推荐的摄取量要大于这个数。从食物中摄入这么多的维生素D很难,而长时间阳光照射(维生素D的最佳来源)可能导致皮肤癌,因此专家称,许多人都应该用维生素D补充剂。 Getting adequate calcium from food is easier. For example, 8 ounces of milk or 6 ounces of yogurt has 300 mg of calcium, and one cup of spinach has 270 mg. But studies show on average, Americans get only about 750 mg of calcium from their diets. 从食物中获取充足的钙则比较简单。比方说,八盎司牛奶或六盎司酸奶中含有300毫克钙,半品脱菠菜中含有270毫克钙。但研究显示,美国人平均只能从食物中获得约750毫克钙。 Many of the more than 30 million Americans who are lactose intolerant don#39;t get逾3,000万乳糖不耐受的美国人无法获得充足的钙,或者要依赖钙补充剂。 #39;For people who can#39;t or won#39;t get more in their diet, it#39;s better to fill that gap with supplements than to stay on the low side,#39; says Bess Dawson-Hughes, director of the Bone Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA Nutrition Center at Tufts University. 塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)美国农业部营养中心(USDA Nutrition Center)骨骼新陈代谢实验室(Bone Metabolism Laboratory)主任道森休斯(Bess Dawson-Hughes)说,“对无法或没能通过饮食摄取更多钙的人来说,用营养片剂来补钙比缺钙要好。” Consuming too little calcium can contribute to osteoporosis, a thinning of the bones that causes more than 2 million fractures a year. Once osteoporosis sets in, taking extra calcium and vitamin D won#39;t prevent fractures. But not getting enough of the nutrients can make bone loss worse. 摄入钙量过少会引起骨质疏松,骨质疏松症导致每年逾200万例骨折事件发生。一旦得了骨质疏松症,即使摄入额外的钙和维生素D也无助于防范骨折。但如果这些营养物质摄入不足的话,骨耗损会加重。 On the other hand, it is easy to consume more than the 2,000 mg a day that the IOM considers the safe upper limit for adults. #39;A number of health-care providers say, #39;Oh, the requirement is 1,200 mg daily, so take 1,200 mg in supplements,#39; regardless of what the patient is consuming in food,#39; says Dr. Dawson-Hughes. #39;If you have a bowl of Total in the morning and a yogurt and a glass of milk for lunch, you can get to 2,000 mg easily.#39; Multivitamins also contain calcium in widely varying amounts. Chewable chocolate, caramel and gummy-bear varieties have made calcium supplements as appealing as candy. 从另一方面来说,人一天的钙摄入量很容易超出2,000毫克(被药学研究所视为成年人的安全上限)。道森休斯士说,“许多医疗务机构会说,‘哦,一天必须摄入1,200毫克钙,所以要用1,200毫克补充剂,’他们不管患者吃的是什么样的饮食。如果你早晨喝一碗Total牌谷物片,中餐喝一盒酸奶和一杯牛奶的话,很容易就能摄入2,000毫克钙。”复合维生素片中也或多或少地含有钙。钙补充剂能制成可以嚼着吃的巧克力、太妃糖和小熊糖等品种,像糖果一样吸引人。 In general, any vitamins or minerals the body can#39;t absorb are simply excreted. But studies linking calcium supplements to heart attack and kidney stones have made experts more wary of excess calcium than before. 总体而言,任何人体无法吸收的维生素或者矿物质都会被排泄出去。但由于研究发现钙补充剂与心脏病和肾结石存在关联,专家们对过量摄入钙这一问题比从前更加警惕。 In a 2006 report from the Women#39;s Health Initiative, a large government study, women who took 1,000 mg of calcium daily had 17% more kidney stones than those who got a placebo. But subjects were allowed to eat their usual diet, and take calcium supplements on their own, no matter what group they were in, so their total calcium intake was unknown. 大型政府研究项目“妇女健康倡议”(Women#39;s Health Initiative)2006年的一份报告显示,每日用1,000毫克钙补充剂的女性患肾结石的风险比用安慰剂的女性高17%。不过在此项研究中,两个组别的实验对象都被允许按照她们的日常饮食习惯来吃东西,钙补充剂也是自行用,因此她们摄入的钙的总量是未知的。 In the 12-year Nurses#39; Health Study of 90,000 women, those who consumed a high level of calcium in food had fewer kidney stones than those who consumed less. 为期12年的“护士健康研究”(Nurses#39; Health Study)对九万名女性进行了研究,研究发现,从饮食中摄取大量钙的女性患肾结石的风险要低于钙摄入量较少的女性。 Studies linking calcium intake and heart-attack risk are similarly confusing. A study of 24,000 Germans published in the journal Heart last month, found that those who consumed about 820 mg of calcium a day had a 31% lower risk of heart attack than those who consumed much less. But those who got their calcium exclusively from supplements were more than twice as likely to have a heart attack as those who took no supplements. 揭示钙摄入量与心脏病风险之间关联的研究也令人感到有些困惑。《心脏医学期刊》(Heart)上月刊登了一项针对24,000名德国人的研究,研究发现,每日摄入约820毫克钙的人患心脏病的风险比摄入量少得多的人低31%。但仅从补充剂中摄取钙的人患心脏病的风险则比不用任何补充剂的人高出一倍以上。 In 2010, researchers in New Zealand analyzed 11 clinical trials involving 12,000 people, and found that those taking calcium supplements had a 30% higher risk of heart attack than those who didn#39;t. However, the studies didn#39;t include people taking vitamin D, which some researchers believe is protective for the heart. 2010年,新西兰的研究人员对涉及12,000名试验对象的11项临床试验进行了分析,发现用钙补充剂的人患心脏病的风险比不用钙补充剂的人高30%。然而,相关研究未将用维生素D的人包括在内,一些研究人员认为,维生素D可保护心脏。 Exactly how calcium supplements might contribute to heart attacks baffles cardiologists. #39;Nobody has associated the calcium in your bloodstream with calcification in your arteries,#39; says Nieca Goldberg, medical director of the Joan H. Tisch Center for Women#39;s Health at New York University Langone Medical Center. Still, she says she now urges patients get their recommended calcium from food than from supplements to avoid possible problems. 钙补充剂究竟是怎么导致心脏病呢?这个问题令心脏病学家疑惑不解。纽约大学朗格尼医学中心(New York University Langone Medical Center)琼#8226;H#8226;蒂施女性健康中心(Joan H. Tisch Center for Women#39;s Health)的医学主任戈德堡(Nieca Goldberg)说,“没有人发现血液中的钙与动脉血管钙化有什么联系。”不过,她说她现在会敦促患者通过膳食而非补充剂来摄取推荐量的钙,以避免潜在风险。 Osteoporosis experts also urge patients not to take more than the recommended amount of calcium. #39;Women should definitely stop taking two big calcium supplements a day,#39; says Dr. Dawson-Hughes. Even if the risks remain unclear, taking more than the body can absorb doesn#39;t benefit bones, #39;so it#39;s not worth any risk -- real, imaginary, uncertain, possible or probably,#39; she adds. 骨质疏松症专家也敦促患者不要摄取超过推荐量的钙。道森休斯士说,“女性肯定不应该再一天用两大片钙补充剂了。”即使相关风险我们还不清楚,但摄入超过身体吸收能力的钙对骨骼没有好处,她还说,“所以不值得去冒险──不管是真正的、想象的、不确定的、有一定可能的还是可能性很大的风险。” /201207/190975。

1.Get an Early Start早行动早漂亮Make a habit of washing your face a few hours before bed. If you wait until you're tired, you're more likely to blow it off—allowing toxins and dirt to stay on there all night.Another consequence? You miss the best time to treat your skin. At night there's more blood flow to the skin's surface, and there's nothing else on your face to interfere with absorption.睡觉前几个小时洗脸。如果等到困了再洗脸,那你很可能搞砸美容大计——毒素和灰尘会在脸上滞留整夜。另一个后果就是你错过了皮肤护理的最佳时段。夜间脸部皮肤中的血流量会增多,而且不会有其他什么影响护理产品的吸收。2.Sleep On Your Back躺着睡觉Lying on your stomach is bad for "beauty sleep." The average head weighs 7 to 8 pounds—a lot of pressure to be putting on your face every night. In fact, many dermatologists say they can tell what side of the face people sleep on by the number of wrinkles there.趴着睡觉是美容觉的大忌。头部平均重量是7-8磅——趴着的话对脸部可是不小的压力。不少皮肤科医生都说,他们能根据皱纹的数量判断这个人睡觉时脸朝向哪边。3.Get a Lift高枕无忧Sleep with your head elevated on two pillows, or put the headrest area of your bed on 2- to 4-inch pieces of wood. Gravity helps lymph and blood flow so fluid won't accumulate.枕两个枕头,或者把床的枕头区域垫高2-4寸。重力能促进淋巴和血液循环,如此体液就不会淤积一处。4.Avoid Carb Face避免水肿脸To wake with defined cheekbones, eat a high-protein, low-sugar dinner. Skip the rice, pasta and potatoes. When our diet's high in glycemic carbohydrates, our features take on a soft, doughy appearance.如果想一觉起来,脸上不会水肿得像包子,晚饭就多吃高蛋白、低糖分的食物、不要吃米饭、面条和土豆。当饮食中有过多的生糖碳水化合物时,面部容易变得绵软而浮肿。5.To minimize A.M. frizz避免晨间头发蓬乱sleep on a satin pillowcase or put your hair in a silk scarf. Those fabrics are much softer than cotton, so there's less friction.睡在缎面枕头上,或者用丝巾把头发包起来。这些面料比棉柔软多了,可以减少擦。6.Find Your Inner Ballerina模仿芭蕾舞女演员Pile hair into a twist on the top of your head. In the morning you'll have major volume and beautiful waves.把头发在头顶扎成髻。早上起来就能看到蓬松而蜷曲的浪了。 /201002/97390。

If you expect the worst, the worst will happen. If you let things bother you, they will. But if you smile, you#39;ll feel better. Studies have shown that putting a cheerful smile on your face can trigger a part of your brain that actually makes you feel happier and more optimistic about the present and future.如果你总是期待坏的事情发生,那坏事情一定会发生。如果你让事情来烦扰你,那它们一定会烦扰你。但如果你选择微笑,你一定会感觉更好。研究表明挂一个大大的微笑在脸上能够刺激你大脑的一个部分,使你对现在和未来感到更开心和更乐观。Also, feed your optimism with positive reminders. Write down short statements that inspire optimism. Put them in places where you#39;ll see them every day, such as on your bathroom mirror, the inside of your locker, and on your computer monitor.同样,用积极的提醒也可以提升你的乐观。写下一些短小的话语来激励你自己。把它们放在你每天都会看到的地方,比如卫生间的镜子上,柜子里,或是电脑显示器上。;Anything is possible.;;一切皆有可能。;;Lead a life of positivity.;;积极生活。;;The only thing I can control is my attitude towards life.;;我唯一能掌控的就是我对生活的态度。;;I always have a choice.;;我总有选择的余地。;;Even the longest journey begins with a single step.;;千里之行始于足下。;;I will look at the sunny side of everything and make my optimism shine.;;我会看到每一件事情积极的一面,并让我的乐观情绪发光。; /201206/188555。

Play is a serious business. The pioneering developmental psychologist Lev Vygotsky thought that, in the preschool years, play is the leading source of development.Through play children learn and practice many basic social skills. They develop a sense of self, learn to interact with other children, how to make friends, how to lie and how to role-play.The classic study of how play develops in children was carried out by Mildred Parten in the late 1920s at the Institute of Child Development in Minnesota. She closely observed children between the ages of 2 and 5 years and categorised their play into six types.Parten collected data by systematically sampling the children's behaviour. She observed them for pre-arranged 1 minute periods which were varied systematically (Parten, 1933).The thing to notice is that the first four categories of play don't involve much interaction with others, while the last two do. While children shift between the types of play, what Parten noticed was that as they grew up, children participated less in the first four types and more in the last two - those which involved greater interaction.1. Unoccupied play: the child is relatively stationary and appears to be performing random movements with no apparent purpose. A relatively infrequent style of play.2. Solitary play: the child is are completely engrossed in playing and does not seem to notice other children. Most often seen in children between 2 and 3 years-old.3. Onlooker play: child takes an interest in other children's play but does not join in. May ask questions or just talk to other children, but the main activity is simply to watch.4. Parallel play: the child mimics other children's play but doesn't actively engage with them. For example they may use the same toy.5. Associative play: now more interested in each other than the toys they are using. This is the first category that involves strong social interaction between the children while they play.6. Cooperative play: some organisation enters children's play, for example the playing has some goal and children often adopt roles and act as a group.Unlike Jean Piaget who saw children's play in primarily cognitive developmental terms, Parten emphasised the idea that learning to play is learning how to relate to others. 玩耍是一项重要的事情.先锋发展心理学家Lev Vygotsky这么认为,在学前的几年里,玩耍时发展的头号来源.孩子在玩耍中学习和联系许多基本的社交技能.他们发展出自我意识,学习如何与其他的孩子互相接触,如何交朋友,如何说谎和角色扮演.在20世纪20年代后期,明尼苏达州儿童发展协会的Mildred Parten发表了玩耍对于儿童发展的经典研究.她密切观察了年纪在2到5岁的儿童并将他们的玩耍分为6个类型.parten收集到的数据通过系统抽样儿童的行为.她在预先安排的1分钟时间内观察到他们具有不同的系统性.要注意的是前四种类型的玩耍没有涉及到太多与他人的接触,然而后两者却有.Parten发现孩子在玩耍的类型中进行转换时,当他们渐渐长大,儿童参加前四种玩耍类型的减少而后两者增多 - 因为后两者有更多的互动.占有型玩耍:孩子相对稳定并表现出没有明显目的随意行为.一种相对罕见的玩耍类型.孤独型玩耍:孩子完全投入到玩耍中而似乎没有注意到其他的孩子.大多数出现在2到3岁的儿童中.旁观型玩耍:孩子对其他在玩耍的孩子感兴趣但不加入他们.可能会向其他孩子提出问题或与其交谈,但对于主要活动只是简单的旁观.类似型玩耍:孩子模仿其他孩子玩耍但并不主动加入他们.例如他们可能共用一个玩具.联合型玩耍:现在对彼此比他们玩的玩具更感兴趣.这就是第一种涉及到在孩子玩耍时需要更多社交互动的类型.合作型玩耍:一些组织加入到孩子的玩耍中,例如有目的的玩耍,孩子经常利用角色和假装是一个团队.不像Jean Piaget 在初级认知发展期间内所看到的孩子们玩耍类型,Parten强调学习玩耍的这个想法就是学习如何与他人交流. /200808/46207。