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楼主:百度知识 时间:2018年12月13日 03:03:13 点击:0 回复:0
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How many revolutions in history have been “successful”? How many have delivered lasting and stable political change? These are interesting intellectual questions, which are provoking new debate inside America#39;s security and foreign policy apparatus, particularly when looking at the Middle East.历史上有多少革命是“成功的”?有多少场革命带来了长久而稳定的政治新格局?这两个有趣的学术问题,正在美国国防与外交部门内引发新的辩论,尤其是就中东问题而言。Two years ago, when tumultuous change swept across the region, it was common to refer to events as the “Arab spring”. The sight of young crowds congregating in the streets of Cairo or Tunis seemed inspiring. It was easy for us all to cheer or at least post a message of support on Twitter or Facebook.两年前,剧变席卷中东时,人们通常称其为“阿拉伯之春”。当时,在开罗或突尼斯,一群群年轻人走上街头,那情景看上去激动人心。那时,我们大家很容易欢呼事件的发生,或至少在Twitter或Facebook上发条信息、以示持。These days, some key US leaders have quietly made a subtle linguistic shift. Instead of talking about the “Arab spring”, they are discussing the “Arab revolution(s)”. And while that “r” word might sound hopeful too, there is a crucial catch. “If you look at revolutions in history - say, the American, Russian, French, Chinese or Cuban - there is perhaps only one that turned out well: America,” a Washington grandee declared to a high-powered group of business leaders and policy officials earlier this month in Aspen. Thus, if the “normal” course of history plays out, he added, then “we had better be planning for a generation of turmoil and unrest”. Far from being an aberration, in other words, the current mess in Egypt or Syria will come to seem like the tragic norm - or so this new “revolution” argument goes.如今,美国一些关键领导人物悄悄地改了口。他们不再说“阿拉伯之春”,而开始说“阿拉伯革命”。虽然“革命”一词听起来也充满希望,但有一个重大隐患。上月初在阿斯彭(Aspen),华盛顿一名显要人物面对一群位高权重的商界领袖和政策官员宣称:“如果你回顾一下史上历次革命,比如,美国、俄罗斯、法国、中国和古巴的革命,你会发现结局不错的或许只有一场,那就是美国革命。”因此,他补充道,如果情况按照“正常”的历史进程发展,那么“我们最好计划一下如何应对未来一代人时间里的混乱和动荡”。换句话说,埃及或叙利亚当前的混乱远非异常现象,而似乎是一种悲哀的正常现象。至少,这种新的“革命”论是这样认为的。Some non-Americans might find this vision of history objectionably slanted. For one thing, America#39;s “revolution” did not immediately produce an entirely stable and peaceful democracy. Instead, it eventually delivered a very violent civil war. And some revolutions beyond US soil have produced much better outcomes than the cynics expected, if not always entirely peacefully. The collapse of the Berlin Wall did not deliver mass bloodshed in eastern Europe. The Baltic states broke free from Russia without too much dramatic upheaval (a development I remember only too well, since I started my career as a journalist writing about those Baltic revolutions and found the lack of cataclysmic drama frustrating). And if you want another reminder that history can sometimes deliver pleasant surprises, take a look at the brilliant new biopic of Nelson Mandela being released in the UK in January: as it shows, the “revolution” that took place in South Africa was almost as extraordinary as anything that occurred inAmerica. 在美国以外其他国家的人看来,这种历史观或许有失偏颇、令人反感。一方面,美国“革命”并未马上产生一个完全稳定、和平的民主制国家。相反,美国革命后来带来了一场极其暴力的内战。而美国之外的某些革命,即便过程不总是完全和平,其结果也大大好于怀疑者的预期。柏林墙(Berlin Wall)的倒塌并未导致东欧发生大规模流血冲突。波罗的海国家脱离俄罗斯,也没有引发太剧烈的动荡(我清楚地记得这件事,因为我的记者生涯就始于报道波罗的海革命,而革命过程的平淡无奇让我很郁闷)。如果你还不相信历史有时会产生让人惊喜的结果,那你可以看看英国今年1月新推出的一部关于纳尔逊?曼德拉(Nelson Mandela)的精纪录片。影片表明,南非的“革命”跟美国革命一样了不起。But irrespective of what you think about individual revolutions, it is crystal clear that the new “r” word poses big problems for America#39;s establishment, particularly in the Middle East. What has been overlooked during the recent drama over the debt ceiling is that fiscal policy is not the only question splitting the nation: the political world is now also deeply divided about what it should do about foreign policy - and those revolutions-cum-springs.但不管你怎么看待个别革命,新的“革命”一词明显对美国当局构成了重大问题,尤其是在中东地区。在最近的美国债务上限风波中,人们忽视了这样一个问题:财政政策不是唯一分裂美国的问题。在如何处理外交政策、以及阿拉伯革命(或曰阿拉伯之春)的问题上,美国政界如今也存在严重分歧。The debate at Aspen, which featured numerous former and present foreign policy players, illustrated this split. One chunk of the establishment feels strongly that America needs to intervene more forcefully in the Middle East, not just for humanitarian reasons but also to protect the aspirations of people wanting a “revolution” against despotic regimes - and to prevent extreme versions of Islam gaining ground. But other parts of the establishment feel equally strongly that it would be madness to get involved - that this would probably make things worse, particularly given the sorry, messy history of revolutions. “The American public is overwhelmed with globalisation, they are war weary,” complained one former military leader.在阿斯彭,无数昔日和当今外交政策决策者的辩论凸显出这种分歧。当权者中有一派非常肯定地认为,美国必须加大对中东地区的干预力度,不仅仅是出于人道主义,还是为了保护人们想要揭竿而起、推翻暴政的愿望,以及为了防止伊斯兰极端势力得势。但当权者中另一派则同样肯定地认为,疯子才会去掺和中东问题——干预只会让局势变得更糟,尤其是有鉴于革命往往难逃悲剧和一团糟的结局。一名前军方领袖不满地说:“美国公众已经被全球化搞得焦头烂额,他们对战争感到厌烦。”Indeed, the only thing upon which everyone agrees is that the current fiscal fights make the policy options far worse by undercutting US economic power, military muscle and credibility. Or as one policy grandee thundered: “The biggest threat to national security today is not what is happening elsewhere [say, the Middle East] but in the two square miles in Washington.”确实,唯一得到每个人认同的一点是,当前围绕财政预算的争斗削弱了美国经济和军事实力、损害了美国的信誉,从而导致美国面临的政策选择形势大大恶化。或如一位政界大佬怒吼的那样:“眼下美国国家安全面临的最大威胁,不是正在别处发生的事情,而是正在华盛顿的两平方英里内发生的事情。”Such battles are not entirely new. In the 18th century, founding fathers such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson argued bitterly about whether to support the French revolution. But when Jefferson was worrying about Paris, America was a minor player on the world stage. Today, it is not. Either way, the key point is this: the next time an American politician talks or tweets about the Middle East, watch if that “s” word - “spring” - crops up or if the controversial “r” word appears instead. Subtle semantic shifts can matter deeply - particularly when they are barely noticed at all.这样的争斗并不新鲜。18世纪,亚历山大?汉密尔顿(Alexander Hamilton)和托马斯?杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)等美国的开国之父,曾就是否应持法国大革命展开激辩。但在杰斐逊操心巴黎的事情时,美国还只是世界舞台上的小角色。如今的美国,与那时大不相同。无论如何,问题的关键在于:下一次哪位美国政界人士谈论中东(或在Twitter上发有关中东的消息)时,留心观察他用的是阿拉伯之“春”、还是有争议性的“革命”一词。微妙的用词变化可能具有深远意义,尤其是在这种变化几乎完全无人注意到的时候。 /201311/263915A jealous British husband who accused his wife of having an affair with a workmate took the ultimate online revenge -- by placing her for sale on eBay.BEIJING, May 16 (Xinhuanet) -- A jealous British husband who accused his wife of having an affair with a workmate took the ultimate online revenge -- by placing her for sale on eBay.Paul Osborn, 44, evicted his wife of 24 years, Sharon, from their marital home, then advertised her on the internet site for sale, The Sun reported Thursday."I started checking her emails and I realized the rumors were true," he said. "They had been discussing their sex life together and making plans for the future. I was absolutely destroyed. I gathered all her stuff in bags and dumped it in the drive."Osborn told The Sun he initially agreed to take his wife back but decided more drastic measures were needed after he again became suspicious. He created an eBay auction offering his "cheating, lying, adulterous slag of a wife" to the highest bidder. Bids reached more than 1 million U.S. dollars.Sharon Osborn denies cheating on her husband and has filed a police complaint against him for harassment, the newspaper report said.Three weeks ago, Sharon pleaded for Paul to take her back. She moved back in, but two weeks later, Paul was again convinced she was cheating.Paul said: "In a fit of rage I put the advert on eBay. I later took it off because I realised it wasn't the right thing to do. I was just so angry."But Sharon had aly made a complaint to police who today confirmed they were investigating, saying: "Statements have been taken from two people." 北京,5月16(新华网)--一个妒火焚心的英国丈夫曾起诉他的妻子跟一个同事有染,他采取了终极的网上报复--将妻子发到易趣网上出售。保罗奥斯伯恩,44岁, 将他24岁的妻子莎朗逐出他们的婚姻生活,然后在网站上登出广告出售她,太阳报于周二报道。“我开始查看她的电子邮件并且意识到留言是真的,”他说,“他们一直一起讨论他们的性生活并且为将来做打算。这彻底毁了我,我把她所有的东西都装到袋子里然后倾倒在街上。”奥斯伯恩告诉太阳报,他起先同意接纳他的妻子,但是在他再次起疑心时,决定采取更加极端的措施。他在易趣上发起竞拍,将他的“爱欺骗撒谎,不贞的妻子”卖给出价最高的人。出价达到了一百多万美元。莎朗奥斯伯恩否认欺骗了他的丈夫,并且向警方提起指控,控告他的骚扰行为,本报报道说。三周千,莎朗恳求保罗再次接纳她。她搬回去住了,但是两周之后,保罗再次信她在欺骗他。保罗说:“在一阵愤怒之后,我在易趣上留言了。之后我将它取消了因为我意识到这样做不对。我只是非常生气。”但是莎朗已经向警方提起控诉,确信今天他们正在调查,她说:“已经从两个人处取得了陈述”。 /200805/39779An Australian woman who paid #163;800 for two new Apple iPhones lost her money when she opened the boxes - and found two real green apples inside. 一位澳大利亚女子花了800英镑买了两部新的苹果iPhone手机,在收到盒子的时候却发现里面只有两颗真正的青苹果,这名女子的钱就这么打水漂了。 The 21-year-old Brisbane woman had placed an advertisement in an online buy-and-sell site saying she was looking to purchase a number of iPhones. 这名21岁的女子来自澳大利亚东部城市布里斯班,她在一个在线购物网站发广告表示自己想求购几部iPhone手机。 Police in the Queensland town of Upper Mt Gravatt, near Brisbane, said that not long after the advert was placed in the Gumtree site a woman called and said she had two Apples for sale. 昆士兰Upper Mt Gravatt 小镇上的警方表示,广告发布在这个叫Gumtree的网站后,一名女子打电话过来声称自己有两部苹果手机要出售。 Senior Constable Jess Hopkin of the Upper Mt Gravatt Crime Prevention said the two women arranged to meet at a McDonald`s outlet, where the transaction took place. Upper Mt Gravatt预防犯罪机构的高级警员杰西-霍普金说,这两名女子安排在麦当劳会面进行交易。 The purchaser handed over 00, the equivalent of #163;800, and was given two new iPhone boxes in return, the Quest community newspaper of Queensland reported today. Her mistake was to not look inside. 根据昆士兰当地报纸的报道,买家付了1500美元(约为800英镑),拿到了两个新的iPhone手机盒,但她犯了个严重的错就是没检查盒子里面。 On returning home the young woman opened the boxes and found to her horror that they contained real apples. 一回到家打开盒子,她很惊恐地发现盒子里装着的竟然是真正的苹果。 Senior Constable Hopkin warned people to be wary when they buy anything online.`If something seems too good to be true, it probably is. It`s really just common sense.` she said. 霍普金警员警告大家网购时需谨慎。她表示:“如果你觉得某件事儿太好了,好得非常不真实,那十有八九就是假的,这真的是常识问题。” Commentators writing on an online site weren`t letting the buyer off the hook with their criticism. 不过购物网站上的者们可不会这么轻易放过这个倒霉的买家,他们对这位姑娘大加批评。 `I don`t know anyone that would hand over 00 to a stranger without checking the item,` wrote one man. `Besides, you can buy a brand new iPhone5 for 0. So if this is a true story then I`m sorry but she deserved it!` 一位男子这样写道:“我从来还没见过这么傻的人,不检查物品就把1500美元交给一个陌生人。再说,现在一部全新iPhone5手机售价也只要700美元。如果这是个真故事,那只能说这姑娘活该了!” /201308/251826

2. Taslima Akhter. Savar Dhaka, Bangladesh. April 24, 2013.2013年4月24日,孟加拉国首都达卡郊区,摄影:塔斯利马·阿赫特尔April 24, 2013, still remains fresh in my memory. At 9 AM when I got the news, I rushed to Rana Plaza. That morning I did not understand what a brutal thing had happened, but within hours I grasped the enormity and horror of it. The day passed with many people helping survivors and taking photos. At midnight there were still many people. I saw the frightened eyes of the relatives. Some were crying. Some were looking for their loved ones.2013年4月24日这一天在我记忆里鲜活依旧。上午九点钟, 我得到消息,便冲到里那广场(Rana Plaza)。那天早上我并不知道这一事故的严重性,但后来一个小时里我才了解到其恐怖之极。那天是在和众人帮助幸存者和拍照中度过的。直至半夜,现场仍有很多人。我看到受害者亲人眼中的恐惧。有的在哭泣,有的在寻找亲人。 Around 2 AM among the many dead bodies inside the collapse, I found a couple at the back of the building, embracing each other in the rubble. The lower parts of their bodies were stuck under the concrete. A drop of blood from the man’s eye ran like a tear. Since then, this couple remains firmly in my heart. So many questions rose in my mind. What were they thinking at the last moment of their lives? Did they remember their family members? Did they to try to save themselves?约凌晨两点钟,大楼后边被废墟掩埋的尸体中,我看到一对拥抱的夫妇。他们的下半身被压在石块下。男子眼中落下的一滴血如泪般落下。从那以后,这对夫妇的形象便刻在我心上。我脑海里涌出很多问题:他们在生命最后一刻想的是什么?他们还记得家人吗?他们想要挽救自己吗?I keep asking myself whether the dreams of these people do not matter at all. Are they not worthy of our attention because they are the cheapest labor in the world? I have received many letters from different corners of the world, expressing solidarity with the workers. Those letters inspired me so much, while this incident raised questions about my responsibility as a photographer. My photography is my protest.我一直思考这些人的梦想是否重要。因为他们从事世上最廉价的劳动便不值得引起我们的关注吗?我收到世界各地的来信,信中表达对工人的鼓励持。我被深深地震撼了,这次事故也向我提出了有关摄影师责任感的问题。我的摄影作品就是我的抗议。 /201312/269449

“极限工作”--性生活杀手Extreme jobs can ruin sex livesExtreme jobs play havoc on sex lives, according to a new study.Millions ofhigh flyingexecutives are risking divorce as the long hours they workplay havoc ontheir sex lives, a new study has found.Ambitious professionals are sacrificing their personal lives and ignoring their children because of the so-called "the extreme job".Research, published by the Harvard Business Review, identifies this new type of worker who regards a 10-hour day at work as part-time.It is "wreaking havoc on private lives and taking a toll on health and well-being", the research warns.The research estimates 45 per cent of high-earning people working for large global companies have "extreme jobs".For starters, an extreme job involves working at least 60 hours a week, although many work 100 hours or more.The biggest losers are the spouses and families of workers with extreme jobs.Nearly half of men and women who took part in the international research project said their jobs "interfere with having a strong relationship with my spouse/partner."At the end of a 12-hour or longer day at work, 45 per cent of all respondents in the global companies survey are too tired to say anything at all to their spouses or partners.The same number said that their jobs, which involves regular travel and evening entertainment, make it "impossible" to have a "satisfying sex life." 一项最新调查发现,很多高级白领由于工作时间过长而使性生活受到危害,因而正面临着离婚的危险。一些雄心勃勃的“职场精英”为了“挑战”所谓的“极限工作”,不惜牺牲自己的家庭生活和照顾孩子的时间。这项由《哈佛商业》公布的调查将那些每天工作超过十个小时的人称为“极限工作者”。调查报告中说:“这种工作严重危害了个人的生活质量、健康状况和家庭幸福。”调查显示,在供职于大型跨国公司的高收入人群中,有45%的人是“极限工作者”。从事这种极限工作的人一开始每周要工作至少60个小时,不过很多人都达到了每周100个小时,甚至更多。这种工作的最大受害者则是这些人的配偶和家庭。在参加此项国际性调查的男性和女性中,近一半的人说他们的工作“影响了他们和伴侣之间的关系”。在跨国公司的调查中,45%的调查对象说,一天工作了12个小时或更长时间,到家之后连跟家人讲话的精力都没有了。另有45%的调查对象说,由于工作需要,他们经常出差而且晚上总有应酬,所以“不可能”有“满意的性生活”。Vocabulary:high flying : 高层的;高级的play havoc on : 对…造成严重破坏 /200803/30964

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