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2019年09月17日 14:39:47
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On a recent trip to Tanzania with four grandsons, my most important task (beside protecting them from the jaws of a lion or leopard) was to keep them, and myself, in good health. It would not have been much fun to be stuck in a tent next to the commode or flattened on a cot while the rest of the gang viewed a dazzling array of wild animals from the safety of a Land Rover.最近,我带着四个孙子到坦桑尼亚旅行。行程中,我最重要的任务(除了从狮子或豹子的利爪下保护他们之外)就是保障他们和我自己的身体健康。当别的游客都乘坐路虎安全地欣赏各色各样的野生动物之时,你却被困在带座椅式便桶的帐篷里甚至卧床不起,肯定不是什么愉快的经历。Although I came prepared for the worst, I did everything I could to make our trip the best. And I’m happy to report, no one got sick and we all had a great time.虽然也要准备好去应对可能发生的最糟糕的事件,但我首先是竭尽所能地想让我们能享受一场美好的旅行。现在,我可以很高兴地报告大家,我们当中没有一个人生病,每个人都玩得很开心。When I described the steps I took to friends and physicians, they urged me to write about them. So here goes, along with a host of other helpful travel hints from well-informed professional sources.我向朋友和医生们说起我所采取的措施,他们都力劝我把它们写下来。所以,我们这就开始吧,以下内容中还包含我从其他见多识广的专业人士处得到的许多有用的旅行注意事项。No. 1: I reminded my grandsons daily, any water you drink or use to brush your teeth must come from a sealed bottle that you open. Ice wasn’t an issue in the bush, but that too should be prepared from bottled water. When you take a shower or swim in a pool, keep your mouth shut. (This warning was particularly pertinent for one grandson who always sings in the shower.)第一:我每天都提醒我的孙子,只有自己亲手启封的密封瓶装水才可以饮用或用于刷牙。在丛林中不存在冰的问题,但要用冰的话,也应该利用瓶装水制备。洗澡或在游泳池中游泳时要保持闭嘴。(这条警告特别适用于我一个喜欢在淋浴时唱歌的孙子。)No. 2: Before every meal, we each chewed one pink tablet of bismuth subsalicylate (sold as Pepto-Bismol and various store brands).第二:每次吃饭前,我们每人都要咀嚼一片粉色的次水杨酸铋片(商品名为Pepto-Bismol或其他品名不等)。I have used this preventive since first ing about it in 1980 in The Journal of the American Medical Association in a study led by Dr. Herbert L. DuPont, an infectious disease and travel medicine specialist at the University of Texas, Houston. The study described how using these tablets greatly reduced the risk of traveler’s diarrhea among American students traveling to Mexico. In a subsequent study published in 1987, Dr. DuPont and colleagues reported that two tablets chewed four times a day reduced the risk of developing diarrhea by 65 percent. (Each tablet contained the standard dose, 262 milligrams of bismuth subsalicylate.)自从我第一次读到这一点后,我就一直在采取这一预防措施。那还是1980年《美国医学协会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)上德克萨斯大学(University of Texas,位于休斯顿)的传染病和旅行医学专家赫伯特·L·杜邦(Herbert L. DuPont)士领导的一项研究。它介绍了在到墨西哥旅行的美国学生中,使用这些药片如何大大降低了旅行者的腹泻风险。在1987年发表的一项后续研究中,杜邦士及其同事报告说,每天四次、每次咀嚼两片该药片可将腹泻风险减少65%(每片含标准剂量的次水杨酸铋,即262毫克)。I have relied on these tablets, albeit in a lesser dose because I’m a lot smaller than average, during trips to Vietnam, Thailand, Peru, Indonesia, India and Nepal, and never got sick despite eating salads and peeled fruit, which one is warned to avoid. In fact, in India and Nepal, my traveling companion, who also took the tablets, and I were the only ones who stayed healthy even though the others in our group assiduously avoided those no-no foods and we did not.在赴越南、泰国、秘鲁、印度尼西亚、印度和尼泊尔的旅行期间,我一直依赖这些药片(虽然使用的剂量较小,因为我的体型远小于普通人)。尽管我食用了沙拉和去皮的水果(有人警告我提示要避免食用此类食物),也从来没有生过病。事实上,在印度和尼泊尔,我和一位坚持用这些药片的旅伴是我们那个旅行团中唯一保持健康的人——哪怕其他人都竭力不去碰那些禁忌食物,而我们并没有忌口。So for the five of us going to Tanzania, I packed 15 tablets for each day of our trip — and no one experienced the slightest gastrointestinal upset. That wasn’t the case, though, for most of the others on our itinerary. However, if you choose to try this preventive, I suggest you check first with your doctor and perhaps consider using Dr. DuPont’s larger dosage.因此,为了我们五人的坦桑尼亚之行,我按照每天15片的剂量准备了药片,结果,没有一个人出现过丝毫的肠胃不适。同行的其他人却大多没有这么幸运。不过,要是你选择尝试这种预防措施,我还是建议你先去拜访一下医生,或考虑使用杜邦士推荐的较大剂量。Without a preventive, which is no guarantee against food-borne illness, stick to “safe food” that is cooked and served hot, and fruits and vegetables you have washed in bottled water and peeled yourself. Never eat undercooked foods — eggs, meat, fish or poultry — or any food sold by street vendors.预防性用药并不能保你不会感染食源性疾病,而在没有预防性用药的情况下,你应该只吃那些“安全食品”,即煮熟并趁热食用的食品,以及你自己去皮、用瓶装水洗净的水果和蔬菜。绝对不要食用没煮熟的鸡蛋、肉、鱼或禽肉等或街头摊贩出售的任何食品。Reduce your exposure to germs by washing your hands often, and always before eating. A hand sanitizer with at least 60 percent alcohol can be used if soap and water are unavailable.经常洗手,尤其是在进食前,以减少你对病菌的暴露。如果没有肥皂和水,也可以使用至少含60%酒精的洗手液。I took no chances, especially since I was responsible for four children. I had an emergency supply of Lomotil (for digestive problems) and azithromycin (Zithromax Z-pak, for infections) just in case.我不会抱着侥幸心理去冒任何险,当我要为四个孩子的安全负责时尤其如此。我备有应急的地芬诺酯(Lomotil,治疗消化问题)和阿奇霉素(治疗感染)以防万一。No. 3 (really No. 1 chronologically): I made sure we were all up-to-date on routine vaccines — measles-mumps-rubella, varicella (chickenpox), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio and an annual flu shot — and added two (for hepatitis A and typhoid) that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends for travelers to Tanzania. You can review recommendations for other destinations on the C.D.C. website at cdc.gov/travel. We also each filled prescriptions for generic Malarone (atovaquone proguanil) to prevent malaria, and I checked daily to be sure the boys remembered to take it.第三(如果按时间顺序排列,其实这应该是第一点):我确保大家都接种了最新的常规疫苗:麻疹-腮腺炎-风疹、水痘、白喉-破伤风-百日咳、脊髓灰质炎和每年的流感疫苗,还补充接种了美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, C.D.C.)建议到坦桑尼亚旅游的游客接种的两种疫苗:甲肝和伤寒。您可以从C.D.C.的网站cdc.gov/travel上查看针对其他目的地的建议。我还让医生为我们每个人都处方了足量的阿托伐醌/氯胍来预防疟疾,并每天检查孩子们有没有按时药。I also packed an ample supply of sunscreen, insect repellent with 20 percent or more of DEET, and a first-aid kit of hydrocortisone cream, antibiotic ointment and a variety of bandages, though happily the latter two were never needed. For one grandson prone to motion sickness, I took some meclizine as well.我还准备了充足的防晒霜、至少含20%DEET(避蚊胺)的驱昆虫剂以及一个包含氢化可的松软膏、抗生素软膏和各种绷带的急救包,不过我们很高兴后两者从来没派上过用场。有一个孙子容易晕车,所以我也带了些美克洛嗪。As the oldest traveler in the group (and the shortest now that my youngest grandson, at age 11, has passed me), I am acutely aware of the risk of blood clots when flying long distances. I always book an aisle seat so I can get up every hour or so and walk around for a minute. It also helps to move your legs and flex your ankles frequently. You might also wear graduated compression stockings on very long trips. Similar precautions apply to long car or train trips.作为旅行团中最年长的成员(也是最矮的一个,因为我最小的孙子[11岁]已经超过了我),我对长途飞行中的血栓风险有深刻的认识。我总是预订靠过道的座位,这样我就可以每隔一小时左右站起来走动一会儿。这样的安排还有助于经常活动双腿和屈伸脚踝。你也可以在长途旅行时穿着预防下肢静脉曲张的弹力袜。类似的预防措施也适用于长途的汽车或火车旅行。Although the risk of clots is generally very small, they can be life-threatening. At greatest risk are people over 40, those who are obese or pregnant or have limited mobility (for example, because of a leg cast) or who have a personal or family history of clots. Estrogen-containing medications also raise the risk; I usually take one of those, raloxifene, prescribed to protect my bones. But it can increase the risk of a clot, so I stop taking three days before a plane trip of four or more hours. For more information, check the C.D.C. advisory on blood clots and travel, and talk to your doctor.虽然一般而言,血栓风险很小,但它们可能会危及生命。40岁以上、肥胖、怀或行动不便(比如一条腿打了石膏)以及有血栓病史或家族史的人风险最大。含有雌激素的药物也会增加血栓风险。我平时会用一种此类药物——雷洛昔芬来保护我的骨骼,但既然它可能增加血栓风险,我会在至少四小时的飞行前三天停止用该药物。欲了解更多信息,请查看C.D.C.关于血栓和旅行的建议,并咨询你的医生。Even when traveling alone, I always purchase travel health and medical evacuation insurance because, well, you never know. People on my various trips have broken bones or become seriously ill and had to return home mid-trip. Two men died while snorkeling on separate trips of mine.即使是在独自旅行的时候,我也总是会购买旅游健康与医疗保险,毕竟——你知道——世事难料。在我的各种旅行经历中,就见过有人因骨折或生了重病而不得不中途打道回府。在我独自旅行的时候,也遇上过2次男子在浮潜时死亡的案例。Consider carrying a card that lists your blood type, any chronic illnesses or serious allergies and the generic names of prescription medicines you take. Bring some extra doses in case of travel delays.请考虑携带一张卡片,列出你的血型、慢性疾病或严重过敏史,以及你正使用的处方药的通用名。请适当多带一些药物,以防行程延误。Other worthy precautions: To avoid nasty parasitic diseases like schistosomiasis, do not swim or wade in fresh water in developing countries or wherever the sanitation is poor. Pools should be chlorinated. However adorable an animal (domestic or wild) may be, keep your distance. Do not touch or feed any animal you don’t know. Some carry rabies. Should you get bitten or scratched by an animal, wash the wound immediately with soap and clean water and, if at all possible, get to a doctor quickly.其他值得注意的事项:为了避免血吸虫病等严重的寄生虫病,请不要在发展中国家或任何卫生条件差的地方的淡水中游泳或涉水。游泳池应经过加氯消毒。无论动物(家养或野生)有多可爱,都请保持距离。请勿触摸或饲喂你不认识的任何动物。有些动物可能携带狂犬病病毒。万一被动物咬伤或抓伤,应立即用肥皂和清水清洗伤口,如果可能的话,尽快去看医生。If you expect to be at a high altitude (8,000 feet or higher), consult your doctor about medicine to prevent altitude sickness, which can take more than the starch out of a person. I was glad I did when traveling to Cusco, Peru (11,154 feet) and climbing in the Sacred Valley of the Incas (9,000 feet). The recommended preventive is acetazolamide (generic version of Diamox).如果你计划前往高海拔(8000英尺[约合2348米]或更高),请咨询医生如何用药预防高原反应——万一发生高原反应,可就不单单是让人垂头丧气这么简单了。我很庆幸我在前往秘鲁的库斯科市(11154英尺[约合3400米])以及攀爬印加圣谷(Sacred Valley of the Incas,9000英尺[约合2743米])时做了这些预防措施。推荐的预防药物是乙酰唑胺。 /201603/429180厦门薇格医院网上咨询厦门薇格整形美容医院脱毛First doctor: “This morning for breakfast he requested something called ‘wheat germ, organic honey and tiger’s milk.’”医生甲说:“那家伙说今天早餐想吃……某种叫做‘小麦胚芽、有机蜂蜜和Tiger#39;s Milk有机蛋白质营养棒’的东西。” Second doctor: “Oh, yes. Those are the charmed substances that some years ago were thought to contain life-preserving properties.”医生乙:“对啊。很多年前,人们对这些东西可着迷啦,他们笃信这里面含有维持生命必备的营养成分。”Fans of Woody Allen may recognize that snippet of dialogue from his 1973 comedy, “Sleeper.” The main character, a health-food store owner somehow frozen in 1973, has been thawed out 200 years later. He awakens to a world he can barely fathom, down to the kinds of food now said to constitute a sound diet. Everything that nutrition specialists once said was good for you, or really bad, turned out to be wrong.如果你是伍迪·艾伦(Woody Allen)的粉丝,或许你已经认出上述对话是他1973年的喜剧电影《傻瓜大闹科学城》(Sleeper)中的片段。影片的主角是一名健康食品商店的老板,1973年他莫名其妙地被冷冻了起来,直到200年后才被解冻。他苏醒过来,发现自己来到了一个令他迷惑不解的新世界,就连所谓的“健康食品”也改变了——过去被营养专家宣称是对人大有益处或害处的东西,后来发现都不是那么回事儿。First doctor: “You mean there was no deep fat? No steak or cream pies or hot fudge?”医生甲:“你是说,不包括油炸食品?也没有牛排、奶油馅饼或热巧克力?” Second doctor: “Those were thought to be unhealthy — precisely the opposite of what we now know to be true.”医生乙:“他们觉得这些东西不健康——不过,我们现在知道,事实恰恰相反呀。”Moviegoers laughed. They recognized how they were whipsawed by contradictory expert pronouncements about what they should or should not eat to stay healthy. On this score, not much has changed. How many times have Americans about a study damning this or that food, only to then hear the revisionist opposite? Avoid eggs, we were told; they clog your arteries. Wait, we then heard, eggs have nutritional value. Coffee can give you cancer. Hold on, coffee can improve brain function. Butter is terrible. Well, not really. Again and again, yesterday’s verity becomes today’s punch line.看到这里,观众们纷纷大笑起来。他们意识到,关于为了保持健康应该或不应该吃什么,专家们一直在给他们灌输相互矛盾的意见,让他们莫衷一是——只有这一点似乎一直都没有改变。多少次,一项研究言之凿凿,宣称这种或那种食物“罪大恶极”,结果不久,就又有人提出相反的论断。我们被告知不要吃鸡蛋,因为它们会堵塞你的动脉——接着我们又听说,鸡蛋颇具营养价值;咖啡会害你患癌症——等等,咖啡可以改善脑功能;黄油简直糟透了——好吧,其实也并非如此。一次又一次,昨天被奉为至理名言的,变成了今天的笑话。The vagaries of nutrition claims infuse the latest episode of Retro Report, documentaries exploring major news developments of the past and how they still resound. This installment harks back to the 1970s, when many health authorities asserted, with unshakable confidence, that a diet low in fat and cholesterol was essential for a healthful life (wheat germ and tiger’s milk presumably optional).最近一期的“Retro Report”(回顾历史上的重大新闻,并探讨其现实意义的系列电视纪录片)中就充斥着此类变幻莫测的营养学声明。这期节目回顾了上世纪70年代,当时,众多卫生部门都以坚不可摧的信心声称,低脂肪和低胆固醇的饮食(譬如小麦胚芽和Tiger#39;s Milk有机蛋白质营养棒之类)是健康生活必不可少的一部分。“Fat-free” became a mantra, not to mention a marketing tool to sell breakfast cereals and high-caloric snacks. If anyone qualified as a heretic back then, it was Dr. Robert C. Atkins, a cardiologist who died in 2003. The Atkins diet encouraged loading up on fat-laden foods like steaks and omelets, and steering clear of pasta, b and other carbohydrates.“脱脂”仿佛成了一个魔咒,更不用说它实际上已经化身为推销早餐谷物和高热量小食品的一种营销工具。而在当年,要说特立独行离经叛道,当属心脏病医生罗伯特·C·阿特金斯(Robert C. Atkins)士了(他在2003年去世)。阿特金斯饮食法鼓励人们大量进食高脂肪食物,如牛排和煎蛋卷等,同时避免食用意面、面包等碳水化合物。But conventional wisdom held that fat was bad, period, with relatively few Americans distinguishing between saturated fats (meat, eggs, dairy products) and healthier unsaturated fats (fish, vegetable oils, nuts). Typically, people turned to bs, cereals and potatoes — and to sugary soft drinks — for the calories they no longer got from protein-rich foods.但传统观念认为脂肪不是好东西,句号,一度只有少数美国人能对饱和脂肪(肉、蛋、乳制品)和较为健康的不饱和脂肪(鱼、植物油、坚果)区别对待。通常,人们只是直接转而食用面包、谷物、土豆以及含糖软饮料,以便获得他们原本应从富含蛋白质的食物中摄取的热量。“Diet is a trade-off,” Gary Taubes, a science journalist and the author of “Why We Get Fat,” told Retro Report. “If we reduce the amount of fat, you have to replace it with something.” That something tended to be carbohydrates. The result? Carbo-loading Americans grew fatter. “We put the whole country on a low-fat diet,” Mr. Taubes said, “and, lo and behold, we have an obesity epidemic.”“膳食是个交易过程,”《我们为什么会发胖?》(“Why We Get Fat”)一书的作者,科学记者盖里·陶比斯(Gary Taubes)在接受”Retro Report”采访时说。“如果我们减少了脂肪的摄入量,就必须用别的什么东西来替代它。”——比如碳水化合物。结果,大量食用碳水化合物,让美国人变得更胖了。陶比斯先生说:“在整个国家推行低脂肪饮食后,瞧啊,肥胖大肆流行了开来。”Obesity has proved a stubborn plague, one that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says affects 35 percent of American adults — about 79 million people. Tens of millions more, while not technically obese, are overweight. Not coincidentally, diabetes is a big national headache, even if the C.D.C. reported last month that new cases of the disease had begun to decline.肥胖已成为一个顽疾,美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,CDC)的工作人员表示,在美国的成年人中,肥胖者人数高达7900万,占35%。还有数以千万计的人虽然严格来说算不上肥胖,至少也是超重的。无独有偶,虽然据CDC上个月报道,糖尿病的新病例数开始下降了,但它仍是令美国头痛的一大疾病。As for that low-fat diet, a major federal study concluded in 2006 that its health benefits were greatly overrated. Such a diet, researchers found, had no effect on the risk of heart disease or cancer, the two biggest killers in the ed States2006年美联邦进行的一项重大研究显示,低脂肪饮食的健康效益被大大高估了。研究人员发现,这种饮食对美国致死率最高的两大疾病——心脏病和癌症的风险并没有影响This Retro Report episode comes as the federal government is again rethinking its Dietary Guidelines for Americans. They form a nutrition template that Washington issues every five years and is a bible for millions of the diet-conscious, whose numbers undoubtedly include many who overindulged during the holidays and entered the new year with a pledge to shed pounds.本期“Retro Report”的推出,正值联邦政府再次反思其《美国膳食指南》(Dietary Guidelines for Americans)之际。这些每隔五年由华盛顿发布的指南得到了数以百万计的注重饮食者的追捧,并视其为营养模板和饮食圣经,毫无疑问,众多在节假日里胡吃海喝,而后又在新年伊始许愿一定要减肥的人也在其中。The new guidelines are expected to be issued this month by the Departments of Agriculture and of Health and Human Services, which tend to follow the recommendations of an advisory committee. One likely eye-catcher is a new assessment of cholesterol, long an archvillain. It seems destined for rehabilitation to some degree. Months ago, the advisory committee concluded that the dietary intake of cholesterol (the body produces this waxy, artery-obstructing matter on its own) had no real effect on blood levels of LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol. “Cholesterol,” the committee said, “is not a nutrient of concern for overconsumption.”预计新指南将在本月由美国卫生和公众务部(Department of Health and Human Service)和农业部(Department of Agriculture)发布。这些指南通常都会遵循顾问委员会的建议。其中,一项关于胆固醇的新评估很可能将十分引人注目。长期以来,胆固醇一直被视为洪水猛兽,而该评估可以说在一定程度上为它平了反。几个月前,该顾问委员会得出结论,从膳食中摄取胆固醇(人体自己也会产生这种会阻塞动脉的蜡状物)对LDL(低密度脂蛋白胆固醇),也就是所谓的“坏胆固醇”的血液浓度没有实质影响。该委员会称:“我们无需担心过度摄取胆固醇。”There is a conspicuous American tendency to cling to a favored diet as the gateway to good health, keeping weight down, staving off cancers and banishing heart attacks. A consequence is an abundance of regimens — vegan, gluten-free, Paleolithic, fruitarian and many more — each promoted by its adherents as the one true path.美国人中存在着一种非常明显的倾向,总是喜欢追捧某种特殊的饮食,以为它是能让你身体健康、保持体重、预防癌症、避免心肌梗死的唯一制胜法宝。结果,各种各样的膳食方案层出不穷:素食主义、无麸质饮食、旧石器时代饮食(Paleolithic,又译,古式饮食)、果食主义等等,每一种都拥有大批忠贞不二的拥趸。But nutrition experts, including those in this Retro Report, caution that life is complex, and that we are more than what we eat. Among them is Dr. Barbara V. Howard, who was a principal investigator in the 2006 federal study of low-fat diets.但营养专家,包括本期“Retro Report”中的专家们都警告,生命远比吃什么东西复杂得多。芭芭拉·V·霍华德(Barbara V. Howard)士也是其中之一,她是2006年美联邦一项低脂肪饮食研究的首席研究员。“We are not going to reverse any of the chronic diseases in this country by changing the composition of the diet,” Dr. Howard said when that report was issued. “People are always thinking it’s what they ate. They are not looking at how much they ate, or that they smoke or that they are sedentary.”“在这个国家中,改变饮食结构是无法逆转任何慢性疾病的,”霍华德士在发布上述研究报告时说道。“人们总觉得问题出在食物身上,却从不留心自己的食量,以及吸烟与否或是否存在久坐不动的生活习惯等。”Other explanations for why one person gains weight and someone else does not may include sleep patterns, genetic predispositions and the compositions of individual microbiomes — the trillions of microbes residing inside the human body. Some health researchers even question the significance of exercise in keeping pounds off, regardless of its other benefits. Among other things, one has to move around quite vigorously to hold the weight down. A Big Mac, for instance, has 540 calories. To burn it off, a person would need to jog or to swim laps for about 45 minutes. Not every Big Mac eater exercises that strenuously.对于为何有些人容易发胖而其他人则不然,还有些其他的解释,例如睡眠模式、遗传倾向和个人的微生物组(也就是栖息在人体内的数万亿微生物的总和)等。有些健康研究人员甚至对运动在保持体重中的重要性提出了质疑——虽然他们承认它可以带来其他好处。别的先不说,要控制体重,一个人非积极地运动不可。例如,一个巨无霸(Big Mac)含有540卡路里的热量。要消耗掉这些热量,需要慢跑或游泳45分钟。显然,不是每个吃巨无霸的人都会这么勤奋地锻炼的。Politics, too, can enter the picture. An example is the experience of Michael R. Bloomberg, a forceful public-health advocate when he was New York’s mayor. Despite resistance from restaurant owners and their political allies, Mr. Bloomberg pushed through a ban on trans fats (almost universally deemed a health hazard), and required fast-food outlets to post calorie counts.政治在饮食问题中也占有一席之地。就拿迈克尔·R·布隆伯格(Michael R. Bloomberg)的经历为例吧,他在担任纽约市长时是一位强有力的公众健康倡导者。尽管遭遇了来自餐馆老板和他们的政治盟友的阻力,布隆伯格依然力促通过了对反式脂肪(普遍认为它有害健康)的禁令,并要求快餐店公布其产品的卡路里计数。But he hit a political and a juridical wall when he also sought to restrict the sale of sodas and other sugary drinks of dubious nutritional value. State courts shot down his plan on procedural grounds. Mr. Bloomberg found himself widely denounced for having taken government nannyism too far.然而,当他试图限制汽水和其他营养价值存疑的含糖饮料的销售时,在政治和法律两方面都碰了壁。州法院基于程序上的原因驳回了他的议案。布隆伯格也因为让政府害了“奶妈主义”病(nannyism,禁止任何“可能”导致伤害的事情——译注)而广受批评。Then again, no one ever said figuring out the elements of a healthy diet would be easy. Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, a nutrition specialist at Tufts University, suggested to Retro Report that accepted wisdom was not necessarily wise. Much of what has shaped dietary guidelines, he said, are “basically best guesses.” Uncertainty abounds. “I think now we know about 50 percent of what we need to know,” Dr. Mozaffarian said.不过话说回来,要找到健康饮食的要素绝非易事。塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)的营养学专家戴瑞什·莫萨法利安(Dariush Mozaffarian)士向“Retro Report”表示,受到广泛认可的观念未必就是正确的。他说,膳食指南中的大部分内容“基本上都是些‘最佳猜测’(best guess),”充满了不确定性。他还说:“我认为我们目前所知的,只占应该和需要知道的50%左右。”So is it possible that steaks, cream pies and hot fudge will someday be called the cornerstones of a healthy diet? Maybe if you can stick around for 200 years, you’ll find out.既然如此,有朝一日人们会不会将牛排、奶油馅饼和热巧克力列为健康饮食的重要组成部分?努力再活上个200年,你就知道啦。 /201601/423720McDonald#39;s Corp (MCD.N) plans to launch in China this year 150 outlets where clients can customize burgers to suit their tastes, as the world#39;s top restaurant chain aims to grow sales in the country after being hit by a fast-food scandal in 2014.麦当劳公司计划年内在中国开设150家概念餐厅,在这些餐厅里,顾客可以根据自己的口味自创汉堡。而作为世界顶级快餐连锁公司的麦当劳,在经历了2014年食品安全问题的沉重打击后,决心在中国提升销售额。The U.S. burger chain currently has 11 such outlets on the mainland, including in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing, Regina Hui, senior director of communications for McDonald#39;s China said in an email received late on Thursday, in which she also disclosed the plans for the 150 restaurants.麦当劳中国区新闻发言人Regina Hui在周四的一封邮件中公布,麦当劳现在在中国内地共有11家类似的概念餐厅,分别位于上海、广州、深圳以及北京,未来计划在全中国新增150家自助概念餐厅。McDonald#39;s beat analyst forecasts for quarterly same-restaurant sales this week, adding momentum to a global recovery for the chain as demand picked up in China.麦当劳公司这星期公布的四季度同店销售额超出了分析师的预测。中国市场的快速恢复为该公司全球销售力的恢复提供了强有力的动力。Its same-store sales in China rose 4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015, the second straight quarter of growth after four quarters of falling sales.在2015年的第四季度,麦当劳在中国的同店销售额增长了4%,是继连续四季度销售额下降之后,连续第二季度上涨。McDonald#39;s and Yum Brands Inc (YUM.N), the parent of KFC and Pizza Hut, are slowly turning things around in China, although same-restaurant sales for both firms remain below pre-scandal levels, according to a Reuters analysis of available data.根据路透社对已有数据的分析,尽管相比2014年食品安全事件曝出之前,麦当劳和百胜公司(肯德基和必胜客的母公司)的同店销售额仍然要低很多,但两家公司在中国的业绩正在慢慢好好转。The so-called #39;Create Your Taste#39; outlets allow customers to build customized burgers from a wide selection of ingredients.麦当劳所谓的“自创口味”指的是,顾客可以从各式各样的配菜中,搭配出符合自己口味的汉堡。Hui said the chain had seen ;very positive feedback; from local diners, who analysts say are increasingly tough to win over due to greater health awareness and a boom in the range of available dining options.Regina Hui表示,他们已经从当地食客中收到了非常积极的反馈,而分析师认为,由于较高的健康意识和多样的就餐选择,通常来说,这些人非常难以取悦。 /201602/425365厦门思明薇格做双眼皮手术多少钱

厦门薇格医疗门诊部胎记多少钱福建厦门市薇格医院点痣多少钱Slot machines chatter; playing cards slide over green baize; chips pile up at the baccarat table. The average age in the room is 80 and, for Japan’s greying millions, it is time to embrace Las Vegas daycare.响个不停,卡牌在绿呢台面上滑动,筹码堆放在赌桌上。房间里的人平均年龄达到80岁,对日本几千万老年人来说,是时候接受式的日间陪护了。The ersatz casino in the suburbs of Yokohama, windows blackened to heighten the atmosphere, has become a central part of the lives of local retirees.位于横滨郊区的这间模拟配有涂黑的玻璃窗以增强氛围,这里已经变成了当地退休人员生活的一个核心部分。For entrepreneurs, who have controversially opened as many as 60 such establishments across Japan in the past 12 months, the concept represents a potentially lucrative bet on the “silver yen” and the hefty government subsidies available for daycare.过去12个月,企业家们在日本各地开办了多达60家这样的场所,这引起了一些争议。对这些企业家而言,这个概念是押注于“银发经济”、以及政府对日间陪护数额可观的补贴。这份押注有可能为他们带来丰厚的利润。For Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, casino-themed daycare may become a pillar of his economic revival plans by occupying some of the 10m Japanese aged over 80 and so freeing up workers who might otherwise have left the shrinking labour force to look after frail relatives — as do some 100,000 workers each year.对首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)而言,主题的日间陪护所可能会成为撑起其经济重振计划的一个柱:让日本约1000万80岁以上的老人有事可做,解放原本需要退出劳动力大军以照顾体弱亲人的劳动者。日本的劳动人口正在萎缩,每年有约10万人因上述原因离职照顾老人。Mr Abe has vowed to cut that number to zero by 2020. He stands a better chance, say the owners of Las Vegas Tsuzuki, if daycare is an attractive option.安倍发誓到2020年把这个数字降至零。式日间陪护所都筑(Las Vegas Tsuzuki)店的所有者们表示,如果日间陪护所成为一种有吸引力的选项,安倍完成这一目标的可能性更高。“The honest situation is that we have a rising number of elderly people and there is often not a lot for them to do,” says Kaoru Mori, owner of this and nine similar facilities. “If they stay at home alone, they get worse and the burden for the country is ultimately bigger.”“真实的情况是,我们的老年人越来越多,他们往往没有多少事情可做,”拥有这家和其他9家类似陪护所的森薰(Kaoru Mori)说,“如果他们独自一人待在家中,情况会更糟糕,国家的负担最终会更大。”As Japan’s demographic crisis has deepened, the number of daycare facilities has doubled since 2010 to about 40,000. But the majority, say Mr Mori, offer activities that “are too childish, patronising even. These are adults and they want serious activities.”随着日本的人口危机加深,自2010年以来,日本日间陪护所的数量已经翻了一番,至约4万家。但森薰表示,其中大多数陪护所提供的活动“太幼稚,甚至好像大人对小孩。这些人是成年人,他们想要真正的活动。”But Mr Mori, who plans to open many more Vegas daycare centres across the country, is playing his cards carefully. Casino gambling is illegal in Japan, so the currency is faux and can only be “earned” through exercise — a “Vegas stretch” warm-up routine performed to the music of Lady Gaga.然而,计划在日本全国开办更多主题日间陪护所的森薰正在谨慎行事。在日本是非法的,所以这里使用只能通过锻炼“挣得”的虚拟货币。锻炼则是指配着Lady Gaga的音乐进行“伸展”热身动作。Before a single chip is bet, everyone has their blood pressure and temperature checked.在开始任何押注之前,每个人都要量血压和体温。The casinos succeed in attracting more elderly men, who are less willing than women to attend regular daycare centres. But not everyone shares the enthusiasm of Mr Mori and his clientele. Some local governments, which heavily subsidise daycare, are reluctant to encourage gambling. The city of Kobe has banned casino daycare as a malign social influence, and the wider prefecture of Hyogo may follow.这些成功地吸引了更多老年男性。比起女性,他们更不愿意去普通的日间陪护中心。但并非所有人都像森薰和他的客户那样热衷于此。一些地方政府(它们对日间陪护所提供高额补贴)不太情愿鼓励。神户市已禁止式日间陪护所,认为这会带来不良的社会影响,禁令还可能推广至神户市所属的整个兵库县。 /201511/408541厦门思明微格整形医院在哪个区Cao Xueqin(1716~1763), styled Mengruan, had the literary names Xueqin and Qinxi Jushi. His ancestral home was Liaoyang, and later was received as member of the Orthodox White Banner of the ;Eight Banners; of the Man nationality in the Qing Dynasty.曹雪芹(1716~1763 ),字梦阮,号雪芹、芹溪居士,祖籍辽阳。先世本汉人,后入满洲正白旗。From his great-grandfather to his father#39;s generation, four persons of three generations of the Cao#39;s successively held the post of Jiangning Zhizao, a post in charge of satin-weaving for the use of the emperor or officials, for as long as 60 years, enjoying imperial favor for along time and living a life of luxury and dissoluteness.曹雪芹曾祖到父辈,曹家祖孙三代4人历任江宁织造达60年之久。Emperor Kangxi lived in the office of Jiangning Zhizao four times during his six inspection tours to the south. 康熙6次南巡,有4次都以江宁织造署为行宫。During the reign of Emperor Yongzheng, the house of Cao Family was searched and their property was confiscated, their family, once prosperous and prominent, being on the wane. 雍正年间,曹家遭受抄家,由盛转衰。During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, great calamity befell the family again.乾隆年间又遭巨祸,从此一败涂地。Living in such a family, Cao Xueqin endured all kinds of frustrations and tribulations in his lifetime, getting a full taste of misery and bitterness.曹雪芹从繁华坠人贫困,一生历尽坎坷与苦难,饱尝了人世的辛酸与悲痛。Imperturbably he began to ponder and reflect upon the past. He dipped his brush heavily in poignant tears to blend the tragedy of the age with culture and life, which resulted in A Dream of Red Mansions, the summit of Chinese classical fiction.往事已成旧梦,他开始冷静地回味与反思,对人生和历史有了很多感悟,因此他能把时代的悲剧、文化的悲剧和人生的悲剧熔为一炉,饱蘸辛酸之泪创作出中国古典小说的高峰之作《红楼梦》。Before he could complete the book, he passed away due to exhaustion, leaving behind merely 80 chapters of scribe#39;s copy.书未成,泪尽而逝,仅留下八十回抄本。During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, Gao E combined the 80-chapter transcript with over 30 volumes of incomplete draft and produced a 120-chapter edition to be block-printed.乾隆年间,高鹗根据八十回后的30余卷抄稿,增补成一百二十回刊刻。A Dream of Red Mansions was originally entitled The Story of the Stone. It took the author 10 years to over marginalia and make additions and deletions five times. The fiction was the crystalization of Cao#39;s talent, emotion, scholarship and painstaking effort. 《红楼梦》初名《石头记》,披阅十载,增删五次,是曹雪芹一生才华、学问与心血的结晶。Its main th was the passionate love between Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu, with the first five chapters as its key link. Through the depiction of the prosperity and adversity of the four big clans, namely, Jia family, Shi family, Wang family and Xue family, the author exposed and animadverted with profundity the evils of the feudal ruling class and feudal system. The tragedy of the times caused by the decadence and collapse of the Qing Dynasty was fully incarnated.小说以宝黛爱情为主线,以前五回为纲,通过对贾、史、王、薛四大家族兴衰的描绘,深刻揭露和批判了封建统治阶级与整个封建制度的罪恶,比较全面地表现了清王朝腐朽没落造成的时代悲剧。A Dream of Red Mansions was penetrated with an intense feeling of predestination, the concepts of “nihility; and that “the nature of the things was the emptiness; . It contained the historical sense of vicissitudes and the experience of life piercing to the bones. It was endowed with rich implication of tragedy.《红楼梦》中渗透着强烈的命运感与“虚无”、“色空”的观念,蕴涵着荣久必枯、兴久必衰的历史感受和透骨人髓的人生体验,具有浓郁的悲剧意味。As a great realistic magnum opus and a fiction of human feelings like an encyclopedia, it has been interpreted divergently by innumerable people.这是一部伟大的现实主义巨著,一部百科全比式的人情小说,两百年来,它得到了无数人的无尽的阐释。The study of Cao Xueqin and A Dream of Red Mansions has aly become a renowned cosmopolitan school called the Hongloumeng(A Dream of Red Mansions) scholarship.对曹雪芹和《红楼梦》的研究已成为一门专门学问,称为“红学”。 /201602/426406厦门思明薇格医院祛痣多少钱

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