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2019年09月22日 20:21:30    日报  参与评论()人

抚顺妇保院收费贵吗抚顺县妇幼保健院治疗阳痿哪家医院最好HONG KONG — The smartphone tells the story of a kiwi fruit in China.香港——在中国,智能手机能够呈现一颗猕猴桃的完整故事。With a quick scan of a code, shoppers can look up the fruit’s complete thousand-mile journey from a vine in a lush valley along the upper Yangtze River to a bin in a Beijing supermarket. The smartphone feature, which also details soil and water tests from the farm, is intended to ensure that the kiwi has not been contaminated anywhere along the way.通过快速扫描代码,购物者可以查询这种水果从长江上游苍翠山谷的藤蔓上到北京超市箱子里的千里之旅。用于智能手机的这项功能还能提供有关农田土壤和水质检测的详细信息。它的目的是确保猕猴桃在这整套流程中不受污染。“I have scanned some electronic products before, but never any food,” said Xu Guillin, who recently tested the tracking function at the supermarket while shopping with her 3-year-old grandson. “We pay lots of attention to food safety. Most families with young kids would.”“我以前扫描过一些电子产品,但从来没有试过食物,”最近带着3岁的孙子在超市购物的许桂林在尝试了手机追踪功能后说。“我们非常关注食品安全。大多数有小孩的家庭都会关注。”Controlling China’s sprawling food supply chain has proved a frustrating endeavor. Government regulators and state-owned agriculture companies have tried to tackle the problem in a number of ways — increasing factory inspections, conducting mass laboratory tests, enhancing enforcement procedures, even with prosecutions and executions — but food safety scandals still emerge too often.事实明,控制中国庞大的食品供应链是一项令人沮丧的工作。政府监管部门和国有农产品公司一直在设法通过多种方式来应对这一问题,比如加强工厂检查、进行大规模的实验室检测、强化执法程序,乃至起诉和处决违法人员,但食品安全丑闻仍旧时有发生。Chinese technology companies believe they can do it better. From the farm to the table, the country’s biggest players are looking to upgrade archaic systems with robust data collection, smartphone apps, online marketplaces and fancy gadgetry.中国的科技企业相信自己可以做得更好。从农场到餐桌,中国的科技业巨头期待利用强大的数据搜集能力、智能手机应用程序、网上市场和酷炫的电子设备来升级过时的旧系统。The founder of the computer maker Lenovo started Joyvio, the agricultural company that tracks kiwis and other fruit from planting to delivery. The Internet giant Alibaba directly connects consumers with farmers via an online produce-delivery service. A gaming entrepreneur is running a pig farm on the side. And Baidu, the country’s leading search engine, is developing a “smart” chopstick that tests whether food is contaminated.电脑生产商联想的创始人后来创立了农业公司佳沃。它会追踪记录猕猴桃等水果从种植到运送的各种细节。网络巨头阿里巴巴通过从生产到配送的一条龙在线务将消费者与农民直接连接起来。一名掌管游戏公司的企业家另外还经营了一家养猪场。中国主要的搜索引擎公司百度则是正在研发一款可以检测食品是否受到污染的“智能”筷子。“In the food production and agriculture industry, transparency is fundamental,” said Chen Shaopeng, chief executive of Joyvio. “But in China this is not the case.”“在食品生产和农业产业里,保持透明是基本原则,”佳沃集团总裁陈绍鹏说。“但是在中国,情况并非如此。”While technology companies may not have the scandal-tainted past of the traditional food industry, they will still have to earn customers’ trust. A shopper at another Beijing supermarket, BHG Market Place, tested the trackable kiwi and was intrigued, although not enough to buy it.虽然科技公司可能不像传统食品行业那样承受着丑闻迭出的历史负担,但它们仍然需要赢得消费者的信任。在北京的另一家超市——华联高级食品超市,一名顾客试着了解了一下这种可追踪的猕猴桃,而且很感兴趣,但这并不足以让她购买。“This looks impressive. But the thing is, I don’t really trust any certificate,” said Ms. Jiang, who declined to give her full name, looking closely at a three-page report on the fruit. “We all know that certificates can be faked.”“让人印象深刻。但问题是,我其实不相信任何认,”拒绝透露全名的姜女士说。她仔细查看着一份有关这种水果的长达三页的报告。“我们都知道书可以造假。”The size of the problem alone is daunting. With more than a billion mouths to feed, China has one of the world’s most complex food chains. At almost every link, there have been problems.单是食品问题的规模就会令人气馁。中国有十几亿人要吃饭,拥有世界上最复杂的食品供应链。几乎每一个环节都存在问题。In one of the country’s biggest food scares, in 2008 dairy producers sold milk formula laced with melamine, which put 300,000 babies in the hospital and killed six. Last year, a supplier to McDonald’s and KFC was caught putting rotten and expired meat into products. Penny-pinching chefs cook with waste oil from fryers and sewers, a toxic ingredient known as gutter oil that generally goes unnoticed until diners get sick.2008年,中国曝出了一桩巨大的食品丑闻:多家乳制品生产商出售掺有三聚氰胺的配方奶粉,致使30万名婴儿入院治疗,六人死亡。去年,麦当劳(McDonald’s)和肯德基(KFC)的一家供应商被发现向产品中掺入腐烂和过期的肉。吝啬的厨师会用从油炸锅及下水道中回收的废油做菜,而这种名为“地沟油”的有毒原料通常不会被注意到,直到食用者患病。Such food scandals have shaken consumer trust and spurred outcries and protests. The cynicism is so visceral that jokes about food contamination are standard fare on social media and online shows.此类食品丑闻动摇了消费者的信心,引发了强烈的不满和抗议。人们出于本能地对此冷嘲热讽,在社交媒体和在线视频中,拿食品污染开玩笑已经成为一种惯例。Baidu’s smart chopsticks were supposed to be a joke for April Fools’ Day. The search engine giant published a fake advertisement for a set of chopsticks that would determine whether food had been cooked with gutter oil. The ad struck a chord, and it quickly went viral on Chinese social media sites.百度的智能筷子本来是愚人节的一个玩笑。这家搜索引擎巨头发布了一则假广告,称有一种筷子能判别食物是不是由地沟油烹饪的。广告引发了共鸣,迅速在中国的社交媒体上火了起来。With such a strong response, Baidu decided to create a real product. Embedded with sensors, the chopsticks primarily test for gutter oil, but they also indicate pH levels and temperature. The product’s charger allows consumers to identify different fruits and vegetables as well as where they were grown and the calories they contain. The company is debating whether to add a feature that would indicate salinity, allowing users to determine whether mineral water is fake.由于反响极为强烈,百度决定创造出实物。这种装有传感器的筷子主要用于检测地沟油,但也能够显示酸碱度和温度。它的充电器能让消费者识别不同的水果和蔬菜,以及它们的产地和所含热量。公司正在讨论是否加入显示盐度的功能,使得消费者能够据此判断矿泉水是不是假冒产品。Baidu is currently manufacturing a small batch of prototypes for testing. The company says it has not yet decided when to release the product or how much it will cost. Even so, it has aly generated interest.百度目前正在生产一小批用于测试的样品。公司表示尚未决定这款产品的发布时间和价格。即便如此,它已经激起了人们的兴趣。“With Baidu smart chopsticks, I don’t have to worry about gutter oil any more,” one person recently commented on Weibo, a Chinese microblog. “I will definitely buy one once it is on shelves.”“有了百度的智能筷子,我就不用再担心地沟油了,”新浪微上的一名用户前不久道。“一旦上架,我肯定会买一副。”City dwellers can buy directly from farmers through Jutudi, a pilot program created by Alibaba that has about 10,000 users. An e-commerce twist on the “buy local” movement, Jutudi lets users buy regular deliveries of vegetables and fruits from farms across China. Consumers can even pick their own plots in a sort of virtual farming, although deliveries may come from multiple places.通过阿里巴巴创立的试点项目“聚土地”,城市居民可以直接从农民那里购买产品。该项目目前拥有大约一万名用户。它是电子商务特色的“当地消费”运动,能让用户从全国各地的农场购买定期配送的蔬菜和水果。消费者甚至还能在某种虚拟农场中挑选自己的地盘,不过配送的产品可能来自多个地方。Alibaba is tapping into consumers’ nostalgia for their rural roots with a heavy dose of marketing. The site features a Socialist Realist illustration of two women in a field of golden grain — harking back to the days of Mao Zedong, when farmers were lionized by propaganda. With images of shiny, red tomatoes, well-groomed pigs and other succulent fruits and vegetables, the program also promotes quality. Higher-end packages include tours of the farms.阿里巴巴正在通过大举营销来挖掘消费者对他们根在农村的怀念之情。在聚土地网站的突出位置上,是一幅社会主义现实主义风格的图画,表现的是两名女子站在一片金黄的麦田中,让人想起了农民被宣传成了名人的毛泽东时代。网站还对产品质量进行了宣传,张贴了很多图片,上面是红得闪闪发亮的西红柿、皮毛干净的猪以及其他一些鲜美的水果和蔬菜。较为高端的套餐中包括参观农场的选项。The idea of having one’s own plot of land is attractive to Jiang Hui, a 27-year-old web editor. Typical for her generation, Ms. Jiang goes online to buy just about everything, so produce was an easy next step.自己有块地这个概念,对27岁的网站编辑蒋慧颇具吸引力。她几乎什么都是网购的。对她这一代人来说,这种情况很典型。因此,农产品顺理成章地成为了她的网购对象。“The increasing number of food scandals is turning everyone into a food safety expert,” said Ms. Jiang, who lives with her parents in Beijing. “The more we , the more scared we are and the more careful we are.”“食品丑闻越来越多,把大家都变成了食品安全专家,”和父母生活在北京的蒋女士说。“我们看的文章越多,就越害怕,越谨慎。”Alibaba has set ground rules for farmers. Farmers are required to separate the crops and treat them with lower amounts of pesticides.阿里巴巴为农民制定了基本规则,要求他们分开种植农作物,并减少农药的用量。“I am only allowed to spray pesticide on that piece of land once for every harvest. So I hire workers to pick pests by hand,” said Zhang Zhaohui, a 38-year-old farmer in the program. Samples of the mangoes are also independently tested before being shipped, he added.“那块地我每一季收成只能喷一次农药。所以我请了工人用手捉虫,”参加该项目的37岁农民张朝晖说。他还表示,装运前芒果样品还要接受独立检测。Despite the extra costs, Mr. Zhang says he makes more on the mangoes he sells to Jutudi. “To me, they all seem really rich,” Mr. Zhang said of the customers.尽管会产生额外的成本,但张朝晖称,卖给聚土地的芒果会让他赚得更多。谈到消费者,他表示,“要我说,他们好像都真的很有钱。”Joyvio is taking on a bigger challenge: the entire food chain.佳沃集团则在应对更大的挑战:整个食品供应链。Started in 2009, it is now the largest provider of kiwis and blueberries in China. It controls everything, picking what seeds are planted, then tracking and collecting data each step of the way.佳沃集团创立于2009年,现在是中国最大的猕猴桃和蓝莓供应商。它控制着一切工序,从挑选种子,到追踪和搜集整个过程中每一步的数据。Its nurseries are the stuff of science fiction. The room temperature and irrigation schedules are automatic and can be controlled remotely via a mobile phone or a computer. Seeds are grown in greenhouses, and plant tissue is cultivated in research labs.它的育苗室像是来自科幻小说。室温和灌溉计划都是自动的,并且能通过移动电话或电脑远程控制。种子播撒在温室里,植物组织则是在研究实验室里培育。Taking a similar approach to Lenovo’s, Joyvio focused on acquiring technology and know-how to build its business.佳沃采取了与联想类似的方式,把精力主要放在了获取技术和实践来打造自己的业务上。Executives studied foreign agriculture businesses. Joyvio hired a top American agronomist who specialized in the development of preservatives and microorganisms that work as natural pesticides. The company bought farms in Chile and Australia and partnered with two large Chilean fruit companies.企业高管对外国农业企业进行了研究。佳沃聘请了一名顶尖的美国农学家。此人专门研发防腐剂,以及能有天然杀虫剂功效的微生物。公司在智利和澳大利亚购买了农场,并与智利两家大型水果公司开展了合作。“We’ve leveraged our global capacity to bring a lot of new technology to China,” said Mr. Chen. “We continue to eye buying companies or farms in other countries, and also in China to give more scale to our ability to provide high-quality products and goods.”“我们利用在全球的实力,将大量新技术引入中国,”陈绍鹏说。“我们会继续着眼于收购其他国家及中国的公司和农场,进一步提升我们提供高质量产品和商品的能力。” /201503/362175抚顺中医院男科最好的医院 Paris to unlock #39;love locks#39;巴黎将拆#39;爱情锁#39;The city of Paris will start removing padlocks from the Pont des Arts on June 1, effectively ending the tourist tradition of attaching ;love locks; to the bridge.6月1日起,巴黎将开始拆除艺术桥上的挂锁,有效终止游客们在桥上悬挂;爱情锁;的传统。For years, visitors have been attaching locks to the bridge in symbolic acts of affection.多年来,游客们都会在桥上挂一把象征爱情的锁。Some further seal the deal by throwing keys into the Seine River below.为了使爱情契约更加牢固,有人甚至将钥匙扔到桥下的塞纳河里。The phenomenon sp to other bridges, creating two major concerns: degradation of property heritage and a risk to the safety of visitors.这种现象很快蔓延到其它桥上,造成了两个主要问题:一是破坏了物质遗产,二是给游客安全造成风险。The bridge carries more than 700,000 locks with an estimated combined weight roughly the same as 20 elephants.桥上悬挂了70多万个锁,据估计总重约相当于20头大象。Part of the bridge collapsed under the weight last year.去年,重压导致部分桥体塌陷。The removal of the locks is a ;strong first step after a long time of inaction.;拆除爱情锁是;长期不作为之后的第一步强有力的举措。; /201506/378313抚顺妇幼保健医院治疗包皮包茎多少钱

抚顺中心医院前列腺炎哪家医院最好When fate hasn#39;t dealt you the best hand in life, it#39;s easier to complain than to work change it. But throughout history, there have been people who just grab the whole deck for themselves, rising from those humble beginnings to seize more power than anyone could have ever thought possible. As we#39;re about to tell you, sometimes even the lowliest peasants can rise to the highest stations.当命运之神不曾眷顾你的时候,是选择抱怨还是努力改变现状?前者似乎更容易一些。然而纵观历史,不乏拼尽全力与命运抗争之辈,他们出身卑微,却最终达到一般人无法企及的权力巅峰。正如我们将在本文中为你讲述的,即使是地位最低下的农民,也可以登上权力金字塔的顶端。10.Catherine I – Russia10.叶卡捷琳娜一世——俄罗斯Catherine was born in 1684 to a peasant family, and orphaned just three years later when both parents died from the plague. She was raised by a pastor in Latvia until she was 17, when the Russians invaded and took her captive. Catherine proved to be one of the more valuable acquisitions of the conquest, and thanks to her good looks was passed around as a favor in the court, eventually being given to Peter the Great in 1705.1684年,叶卡捷琳娜出生于一个农民家庭,三岁时父母死于瘟疫,成为孤儿。随后,拉脱维亚(Latvia)的一位牧师收养了她,直到17岁那年俄军入侵,她被俘虏。日后的故事表明这位传奇女子是非常有价值的战利品,因为相貌出众,她在宫廷里被当作礼物几经转手,最终于1705年送到彼得大帝(Peter the Great)的身边。Somewhat unexpectedly, Peter and Catherine fell in love, and she even managed to save his empire in from the Turks in 1711, offering her jewels as a bribe and allowing the Russians to retreat rather than face annihilation. Their relationship was marred towards the end by Catherine#39;s alleged affair with William Mons, but Peter had him executed and they were able to reconcile just before Peter#39;s death. Catherine was his successor and, despite not really having any political ambition, became the first female emperor of Russia.令人意想不到的是,彼得和叶卡捷琳娜竟然坠入爱河。1711年,彼得陷入土耳其军队的重围(译注:1711年俄土战争,彼得一世亲征普鲁特河),叶卡捷琳娜用珠宝贿赂敌军,帮他突围保住皇位,并令俄军撤退,使其免遭歼灭。叶卡捷琳娜和威廉·蒙斯(William Mons)有婚外情的传闻,险些导致她和彼得关系破裂,但是最后彼得处死威廉,并在自己死前与叶卡捷琳娜重修旧好。叶卡捷琳娜一世成为彼得一世的继任者,虽然她并没有什么政治抱负,但却成为俄罗斯历史上第一位女皇。9.Justin I – Byzantium9.查士丁一世——拜占庭Justin was born in 453 AD and began life as a simple swineherd, enduring poverty and barbarian raids at an early age. At 20 years old he set off on a journey to Constantinople to seek his fortune. He joined the corps of 300, and quickly rose to a position of command. With military power came political power, and he was given the title of Count.查士丁出生于公元453年,早年以养猪为生,生活困顿,常遭野蛮劫掠。20岁那年,他离家前往君士坦丁堡谋生。随后加入一300人的军队,很快就晋升为指挥官。查士丁依靠其军事能力得到政治权力,并被授予伯爵封号。Emperor Anastasius was childless, and when it came to naming his successor he chose to put his faith in God, saying that whoever came into his room next would become emperor. Rather than a member of his own family, however, it was Justin who entered his chambers and became the new emperor when Anastasius died. It was a position he never really wanted, and he made that clear to the Pope by writing to inform him he had been made emperor against his will. An unwilling, unprepared, and uneducated emperor, he ruled for nine years and proved that some men are born great, and others fall into power ass backwards.阿纳斯塔修斯一世(Emperor Anastasius)没有子嗣,他把挑选继任者这件事情交给上帝决断,声明下一个进入自己的房间的人将会成为继任皇帝。然而,阿纳斯塔修斯去世之时,进入他寝宫的并非其亲属,而是查士丁。但查士丁根本不想成为皇帝,还给教皇写信,告诉他自己是被迫登上皇位的。就这样,这位没受过教育的皇帝在毫无准备、毫不情愿的情况下执政9年。他的存在向世人明:有的人生来尊贵,而有的人却阴差阳错获得权利。8.Diocletian – Rome8.戴克里先——罗马Diocletian was the son of a former slave, and was born around 245 AD. He embarked on a career in the army, and through a combination of military skill, ambition, and having the good fortune to be favored by the emperor Carus, Diocletian was able to rise to the rank of commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. When Carus was killed by a bolt of lightning, his sons Numerian and Carinus assumed control of the East and West empires respectively, but it wasn#39;t long before Numerian died.戴克里先是一个奴隶的儿子,生于公元245年。他的传奇人生从军队开始,由于他出色的军事能力、远大的抱负,以及受到罗马帝国皇帝卡鲁斯(Carus)的青睐,戴克里先很快就当上了帝国保卫骑兵营的指挥官。在卡鲁斯死于雷击之后,他的儿子努梅里安(Numerian)和卡里努斯(Carinus)分别统治了东罗马和西罗马,但是没过多久努梅里安就去世了。Diocletian won support by killing Aper, the man suspected of having a hand in Numerian#39;s death, in front of all the troops, and was rewarded with the title of Emperor of the East. Carinus was none too pleased with his brother being succeeded by a bodyguard, and moved to meet Diocletian in battle. Unfortunately for Carinus, his unpopularity led to his own men killing him, and put Diocletian to assume control of the entire Roman empire.当着所有军队,戴克里先杀掉了被怀疑与努梅里安之死有关的艾派(Aper),因此而获得持,并被拥戴成为东罗马帝国的皇帝。卡里努斯不满自己哥哥的皇位被一个侍卫继承,于是与戴克里先兵戎相见。不幸的是,卡里努斯因为不得人心,被自己的人所刺杀,从而使得戴克里先统治了整个罗马帝国。审稿:张茜 Freya然 校对:CMX /201507/386026顺城妇幼保健院男科医院在那儿 抚顺治疗包皮断裂多少钱

抚顺矿务局职工医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱Recently, a friend showed me her mobile phone, with a despairing sigh. The screen was a mosaic of photos of a goggle-eyed baby, taken from every conceivable angle, sometimes holding chirpy, handwritten messages. “It’s overwhelming my inbox!” she muttered, explaining that four months earlier she had become a grandmother to the infant, who lived in a different city. A decade ago, that would have meant she only saw the baby every month — say, over a holiday meal.最近,一位朋友带着一声绝望的叹息,把她的手机给我看。屏幕上是一个睁大眼睛的婴儿各个角度照片的拼接图,有的照片还附带了快活的手写信息。“这塞满了我的收件箱!”她嘟囔着,解释说屏幕上是她那4个月前刚出生的孙子。孩子和父母在另一个城市生活。若是换到10年前,她只能一个月见到孩子一次,比如在节日聚餐的时候。But not in 2015. In the past month, the doting parents have taken to dispatching baby photos to all their friends and family on a daily basis. And now — to her utter bewilderment — my friend has been asked to send text messages to the infant. The idea is that these “texts” can be posted online to show that the grandparents are constantly thinking about their new grandson, and thus enable the family to “connect”. “It’s crazy,” she giggled, explaining that she didn’t want to cause offence but could not quite bring herself to send texts to a four-month-old. “What do I do?”但在2015年,情况不同了。上个月,宠爱孩子的父母开始每天向所有的朋友和家人发送孩子的照片。而现在,让我的朋友非常迷惑的是,他们要求我的朋友给孩子发文字消息。这其中的想法是,这些“文字”能够公布到网上,以彰显祖父母时刻在思念着他们刚出世的孙子,从而让整个家庭“联系起来”。“这太疯狂了,”她咯咯直笑,解释说她不想惹恼家人,但她真的没办法给一个4个月大的婴儿发送文字消息。“我该怎么办呢?”It is a peculiarly 21st-century dilemma. As linguists and anthropologists know well, the way that human families define themselves and communicate with each other has changed numerous times over the millennia. But the past decade has produced a shift in the pattern of family communications that is more speedy and intense than anything seen before.这是一个21世纪特有的窘境。语言学家和人类学家非常了解,千年以来,人类家庭诠释自身以及成员间互相沟通的方式发生了无数次改变。但在过去十年,家庭沟通方式发生的转变比以往任何一次都要迅速和剧烈。Never mind the fact that the internet has suddenly linked the entire globe; social media and mobile phones have enabled us all to disappear into cyber space, colliding and connecting — however we choose. That is not just reshaping work but altering domestic space, creating new forms of cyber family traditions, even during the holidays.不必担心如下事实:互联网在突然之间将全球连接在一起;社交媒体和手机让所有人消失在网络空间之中,发生不受我们自身控制的相互碰撞和连接。这不仅重塑了我们的工作环境,也改变了我们的家庭空间,创造出新形式的网络家庭传统,甚至是节日传统。For many people, this shift seems frightening. Last month, for example, Newmarket Holidays, one of the UK’s largest tour operators, conducted a survey of grandparents that showed that more than three-quarters thought that their relationship with their grandchildren was different from the relationship they had with their own grandparents — and that more than half feel that the difficulty in sharing Christmas traditions is due to computer games taking the attention of their grandchildren. Another third blamed mobile phones and TV for distracting the kids and undermining the type of traditional Christmas activities that the grandparents thought were crucial to maintain family ties (such as talking, playing board games or singing songs).对很多人来说,这种转变似乎很可怕。比如,英国最大的旅行社之一Newmarket Holidays上个月对祖父母进行了一项调查。结果显示,超过四分之三的受调查者认为他们与孙辈的关系不同于他们和自己的祖父母的关系,超过一半的受调查者感到与孩子分享圣诞节传统存在困难,原因是电脑游戏占据了孙辈们的注意力。另有三分之一的受调查者指责手机和电视让孩子分心,削弱了他们认为对维系家庭关系起关键作用的圣诞节传统活动(比如聊天、玩棋盘游戏或者唱歌)。Other surveys in the US reflect this concern. Between half and two-thirds of adults today say that children are too obsessed with social media, and fear that the rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets is creating a more individualistic, alienated society. It is little wonder, then, that one of the fastest-growing categories of self-help books is the one which tells people how to maintain social connections — and quality family time — in the face of this digital onslaught. No doubt some of those books have been handed around as Christmas presents (along with a vastly bigger mountain of electronic gadgets).美国的一些其他调查也反映了这种忧虑。现在有一半到三分之二的成年人认为儿童对社交媒体过于沉迷,他们担心电子玩意儿的迅速普及正在造就一个人们更强调个性、彼此更疏远的社会。所以,这也难怪增长最快的一类自助图书,是教人们如何在这种数字攻势下维持社会关系、保和家人一起度过宝贵时光的书。毫无疑问,一些人将这种书作为圣诞礼物(与大得多的一堆电子器件一起)送给家人朋友。But while it is easy for parents (like me) to worry that iPads, iPhones and Instagram are undermining the family, it is not always that simple. As Danah Boyd, a digital anthropologist, points out, our cyber behaviour needs to be viewed in a much bigger social context. Take the oft-cited concern that electronic media are separating children from their parents (or grandparents). To a casual observer, this might seem self-evident, given how much time children tend to spend online, roaming cyber space or chatting with friends.但是,尽管父母们(比如我)很容易担忧iPad、iPhone和Instagram正在削弱家庭关系,可事情并不总是那么简单。数字人类学家丹纳#8226;伊德(Danah Boyd)指出,我们在网络上的行为需要放到一个大得多的社会背景下进行理解。一个常被提及的忧虑是,电子媒体正使孩子与他们的父母(或者祖父母)的关系更为疏远。以此为例,对一般的观察者来说,考虑到孩子们在网络漫游或者与朋友聊天等在线活动上花了多少时间,这一点似乎是不言而喻的。But, as Boyd points out, what children are doing online today is simply an extension of what they used to do in the real world. In the past, kids often wandered the streets (or woods and fields) with relative freedom, and used that time to explore boundaries and congregate with friends. But now that this has been curtailed by protective parents, children are roaming in cyber space instead. While Twitter or Instagram might be new, what is not new is the idea that teens want to escape — even at Christmas.但是,就如伊德指出的,今天的孩子们在网络上做的事情不过是过去他们在真实世界里做的事情的延伸。过去,孩子们经常相对自由地在街道上(或者树林和田野中)漫游,并且花时间探索边界,与朋友们聚在一起。但现在,想保护孩子的父母限制了这些活动,因此孩子们转而在网络空间中漫游。尽管Twitter或者Instagram或许是新事物,但青少年哪怕是在圣诞节的时候都想要逃离,这种想法却并不是新鲜事。Similarly, while the rise of social media might undermine the type of family traditions that grandparents say they love, it is also creating new links. Parents today can monitor what teenagers are saying to each other far more closely than before. Kids can talk — or Skype or FaceTime — with their relatives all over the world on Christmas Day. Family news or holiday snaps can be shared on social media platforms.类似的,尽管社交媒体的兴起或许削弱了祖父母喜爱的一些家庭传统,但同时也创造了新的关联。当今的父母们可以更严密地监控青少年谈话的内容。孩子们可以通过Skype或者Facetime在圣诞节这天与世界各地的亲人聊天。家庭新闻或者节日照片能够在社交媒体平台上分享。Then there is the innovation of sending “texts” to babies. To some people (such as my friend) that might sound bizarre; to others (like my friends’ children) it seems normal. Either way, the key point is this: in today’s cyber world we have extraordinary freedom to reshape our family web as we choose. And that is rather an inspiring development to consider — particularly as another holiday season draws to a close. 6还有关于给婴儿发送“文字”的新颖做法。对一些人(比如我的朋友)来说,这听上去可能很怪异,但对另一些人(比如我朋友的子女)来说,这或许很正常。不管怎样,关键点是在今天的网络世界里,我们有很大的自由,按照自己的心意重塑家庭网络。这是一种值得我们思考的、令人相当鼓舞的新情况,尤其是在下一个节假日到来之前。 /201501/354732 If there#39;s a single identifiable moment when Jewish Christmas—the annual American tradition where Jews overindulge on Chinese food on December 25—transitioned from kitsch into codified custom, it was during Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan#39;s 2010 confirmation hearing.如果有什么标志性的时刻来表明犹太人的圣诞节——这是一种年度性的美国传统,美国犹太人会在12月25号这天大吃特吃中国食物——从低级趣味转变成一个既定的传统的话,那这个时刻就非大法官艾蕾娜·卡根2010年的一次审议听会莫属了。During an otherwise tense series of exchanges, Senator Lindsey Graham paused to ask Kagan where she had spent theprevious Christmas. To great laughter, she replied: ;You know, like allJews, I was probably at a Chinese restaurant.;在这次看似紧张的听会上,参议员Lindsey Graham询问卡根她是怎么庆祝前一年的圣诞节的。她的回答是:“你知道,像所有犹太人一样,我可能在一家中国餐馆里吃中餐。”她的回答引起了人们的大笑。Never willing to let a moment pass without remark, Senator Chuck Schumer jumped in to explain,;If I might, no other restaurants are open.;而从来不会让一个时刻留有空白的参议员Chuck Schumer则马上解释道,“如果是我,我也会这么干,因为其他餐馆都没开。”And so goes the story of Jewish Christmasin a tiny capsule. For many Jewish Americans, the night before Christmasconjures up visions, not of sugar plums, but plum sauce slathered over roastduck or an overstocked plate of beef lo mein, a platter of General Tso#39;s, and(maybe) some hot and sour soup.所以小空间里的犹太人圣诞节就是这样展开的。对于许多美国犹太人来说,圣诞夜让人充满了想象,并不是想象小糖果,而是撒上梅子浆的烤鸭亦或满满一盘的牛肉捞面,一盘左宗棠鸡,以及或许还有一些热酸汤。But Schumer#39;s declaration that Jews and Chinese food are as much a match of necessity as sweet and sour are, is onlyhalf the wonton. The circumstances that birthed Jewish Christmas are also deeply historical, sociological, and religious.但是Schumer认为犹太人和中国食物的搭配就好比酸甜的搭配,这种看法其实只对了一半。犹太人圣诞节期间之所以会吃中国食物,这其实还有历史、社会学和宗教方面的原因。The story begins during the halcyon days of the Lower East Side where, as Jennifer 8. Lee, the producer of The Search for General Tso,said, ;Jews and Chinese were the two largest non-Christian immigrant groups; atthe turn of the century.这个故事还要从下东区(纽约市曼哈顿区沿东河南端一带,犹太移民聚居地)的平静的日子里开始说起,来自这里的Jennifer 8. Lee(她是《寻找左宗棠鸡》的制作人)说,“世纪之交之时,犹太人和中国人是两最大的非基督徒移民团体”。So while it#39;s true that Chinese restaurants were notably open on Sundays and during holidays when other restaurants wouldbe closed, the two groups were linked not only by proximity, but by otherness.Jewish affinity for Chinese food ;reveals a lot about immigration history and what it#39;s like to be outsiders,; she explained.中国餐馆确实在周天或者假期的时候还开着,而其他餐馆一般都是关门。中国人和犹太人不仅是因为靠近而产生联系,还因为二者之间的差异性而产生联系。犹太人对中国食物的喜爱“披露了有关移民历史的很多内容以及作为局外人是怎样的一种感受,”她解释道。Estimates of the surging Jewish population of New York City run from 400,000in 1899 to about a million by 1910 (or roughly a quarter of the city#39;s population). And, assome Jews began to assimilate into American life, they not only found acceptance at Chinese restaurants, but also easy passage into the world beyond Kosher food.据估计,在纽约的犹太人口从1899年的40万上升到1910年的大约100万(或者说纽约市总人口的将近四分之一)。随着一些犹太人开始融入美国生活,他们不仅发现自己可以在中国餐馆里受到认可和接纳,而且还能在中餐馆里轻易的吃到犹太食品以外的其他食物。;Chinese restaurants were the easiest placeto trick yourself into thinking you were eating Kosher food,; EdSchonfeld, the owner of RedFarm, one of the most laureled Chineserestaurants in New York, said. Indeed, it was something of a perfect match.Jewish law famously prohibits the mixing of milk and meat just as Chinese foodtraditionally excludes dairy from its dishes. Lee added:“在中国餐馆里,你会非常容易的以为自己吃的就是犹太食物(符合犹太教教规的食物),”RedFarm的所有者Ed Schonfeld如是说,这是纽约最著名的中餐馆之一。二者之间在某种程度上确实是天作之合。众所周知,犹太律法是禁止把奶制品和肉类放在一起的,而中国食物传统上也不包含奶制品。Jennifer 8. Lee补充道:If you look at the two other main ethniccuisines in America, which are Italian and Mexican, both of those combine milkand meat to a significant extent. Chinese food allowed Jews to eat foreigncuisines in a safe way.如果你看看美国另外两个主要的少数族裔餐饮,即意大利和墨西哥,你会发现他们会把牛奶和肉放在一起。而犹太人在吃中国食物时,既能吃到异国风情的食物,又不用担心这些食物是否符合犹太教规。And so, for Jews, the chop suey palaces anddumpling parlors of the Lower East Side and Chinatown gave the illusion ofreligious accordance, even if there was still treifgalore in the form of pork and shellfish. Nevertheless, it#39;s more than a curiositythat a narrow culinary phenomenon that started over a century ago managed togrow into a national ritual that is both specifically American andcharacteristically Jewish.所以,对于犹太人来说,纽约下东区和唐人街里的(美式中国菜)炒杂烩菜和饺子店给他们一种宗教和谐之感的幻觉,尽管不符合犹太教规的食物也会以猪肉和壳类海鲜的形式出现。无论如何,100年前的一个小小的烹饪现象演变成了如今的一个全国性的节日,即犹太人的圣诞节——这是美国人的,更是犹太人的。;Clearly this whole thing with Chinese foodand Jewish people has evolved,; Schoenfeld said. ;There#39;s no question.Christmas was always a good day for Chinese restaurants, but in recent years,it#39;s become the ultimate day of business.;“显然,中国食物和犹太人之间的关系在不断的演变着,”Ed Schonfeld说。“毫无疑问,一直以来圣诞节对中国餐馆来说都是个好日子,但是最近几年,从根本上变成了一个商业日。”But there#39;s more to it than that. Ask a foodpurist about American Chinese food and you#39;ll get a pu-pu platter ofhostilerhetoric about its inauthenticity. Driving the point home, earlier this week,CBS reportedon two Americans who opened a restaurant in Shanghai that featuresAmerican-style Chinese dishes like orange chicken, pork egg rolls, and, yes,the beloved General Tso#39;s, all of which don#39;t exist in traditional Chinesecuisine. The restaurant gets it name from another singular upshot ofChinese-American fusion: Fortune Cookie.不仅如此。如果你问一个食物纯粹主义者有关美式中国食物到底怎样,他可能会抱怨说美式中国食物的不正宗。还有,本周早些时候,哥伦比亚广播公司对两名在上海开了一家餐馆的美国人进行了报道,这家餐馆主营美式的中国食物,包括香橙鸡,猪肉蛋卷,以及受人喜爱的左宗棠鸡,在传统的中国菜肴中,这些菜都是没有的。餐馆的名字也非常具有中美融合的特色:福饼。Schoenfeld, whose restaurant features anegg roll made with pastrami from Katz#39;s Deli, shrugs off the idea thatAmericanized Chinese food is somehow an affront to cultural virtue. ;Adaptationhas been a signature part of the Chinese food experience,; he said. ;If youwent to Italy, you#39;d see a Chinese restaurant trying to make an Italiancustomer happy.;Schoenfeld店里的特色菜是鸡蛋卷五香烟熏牛肉,五香烟熏牛肉来自著名的Katz#39;s Deli,他认为美式中国食物并非是对文化美德的侵犯。“适应当地是中国食物历史中的重要组成部分,”他说。“如果你去意大利,你就会看到那里的中国餐馆也在尽量的让自己的客人满意。;I would argue that Chinese food isthe ethnic cuisine of American Jews.;“我想说的是中国食物是美国犹太人的民族风情美食。”That particular mutability has a meaningfullink to the Jewish experience, the rituals of which were largely forged inexile. During the First and Second Temple eras, Jewish practice centered around templelife in Jerusalem. Featuring a monarchy and a high priesthood, it bears littleresemblance to Jewish life of today with its rabbis and synagogues.这种特别的易变性和犹太经验之间有一种意味深长的关联,犹太经验的仪式大部分是在流放中形成的。在第一和第二圣殿期间,犹太人的实践主要以耶路撒冷的圣殿生活为中心。在一个君主政体和一个大祭司的显著特点下,以前的犹太人生活与如今的具备拉比和犹太教会堂的犹太人生活几乎没有共同点。So could it be that Chinese food is amanifestation of Jewish life in America? Lee seems to think so. “I would arguethat Chinese food is the ethnic cuisine of American Jews. That, in fact, theyidentify with it more than they do gefilte fish or all kinds of the EasternEurope dishes of yore.”所以,中国食物是如今美国犹太人生活的一种表现?至少Lee是这么认为的。“我想说的是中国食物是美国犹太人的民族风情美食。对于犹太人来说,中国食物比鱼丸冻或者所有其他的东欧饮食都更受到他们的认同。Over the centuries, different religiouscustoms have sprung up and new spiritual rituals have taken root, many of whichdraw on the past. Jewish Christmas, in many ways, could very much be seen as amodern affirmation of faith. After all, there are few days that remind AmericanJews of their Jewishness more than Christmas in the ed States.几个世纪以来,不同的宗教风俗如雨后春笋般涌现,而新的精神仪式已经扎根,其中很多以过去为基础。从许多方面看,可以将犹太人的圣诞节看成是对信仰的现代性肯定。毕竟,在美国,很少有其他日子能像圣诞节那样让美国犹太人想起自己所具备的犹太性了。 /201412/350446抚顺铝厂职工医院割包皮多少钱新抚区医院男科医院在那儿

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