时间:2019年06月21日 03:03:26

Turkey and the Kurds土耳其和库尔德人Hunger and thirst饥饿和干渴A hunger strike causes new tension between Turkey and its Kurds绝食抗议引发土耳其和库尔德人间新的紧张局势What happens if they start dying? The question weighs ever more heavily as hundreds of Kurds in prisons across Turkey continue the hunger strike they launched on September 12th. Human-rights activists are saying that many have reached “a critical threshold.”如果他们开始死亡会怎么样?由于关押在土耳其各地监狱的数百名库尔德人自9月12日开始绝食抗议,现在仍在继续,这个问题变得愈加严峻。人权积极分子表示,其中很多人已经到了“生死边缘”。The hunger strikers, surviving on sugar water and vitamins, vow to keep up their fast until the ruling Justice and Development (AK) party meets their demands for greater linguistic rights and better prison conditions for the leader of the separatist Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), Abdullah Ocalan. Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the Turkish prime minister, has responded with threats to reintroduce capital punishment, to which Mr Ocalan was sentenced after his capture in 1999 (and which AK abolished when it took office in 2002, in line with European Union demands.)靠着糖水和维生素维持生命的绝食抗议者们发誓要继续绝食,直到执政的正义与发展党满足他们的要求,为分裂势力库尔德工人党领导人阿卜杜拉·奥贾兰提供更大的话语权和更好的监狱环境。而土耳其总理雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安则以威胁重新启用死刑作为回应——奥贾兰在1999年被捕后被判处死刑(为了符合欧盟的要求,正义与发展党于2002年上台后废除了死刑)。Mr Erdogan has ridiculed the strikers, growling “let them continue” at a recent AK meeting. When five MPs from the pro-Kurdish Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) said they would join in, a breezy prime minister noted “some of them are in serious need of dieting.” Yet the government has conceded one demand with a new bill to allow Kurds to use their mother tongue in court. The EU’s ambassador in Ankara, Jean-Maurice Ripert, said this could “create the space for political dialogue.”埃尔多安在最近一次正义与发展党的会议上嘲笑绝食抗议者,怒吼道“让他们继续”。来自亲库尔德的和平民主党的五名议员表示将加入绝食抗议后,埃尔多安仍旧安然自若,称“这有些人很需要节食”。但是政府已就库尔德人的要求做出让步,一项新法案将允许库尔德人在法庭上使用母语。欧盟驻土耳其代表让-莫里斯·里佩尔表示,这能“为政治对话创造空间”。The Kurds are unlikely to stop their hunger strike until Mr Ocalan is granted access to his lawyers as they demand. Mr Ocalan’s status is shrouded in mystery. He has not met the lawyers for 15 months. The government claims this is because the ferry that carries them to his island prison south of Istanbul has broken down. Nobody believes this, not least because Mr Ocalan’s younger brother visited him in September. He returned saying the PKK leader was unkempt and was upset by the escalation in PKK violence that prompted Mr Erdogan to scupper secret peace talks.但库尔德人很可能会继续绝食抗议,直到他们能够让奥贾兰能见到律师。奥贾兰的状况罕有人知晓。他已经15个月未和律师见面。政府声称这是由于轮船故障使得律师无法前往奥贾兰在押的伊斯坦布尔南面的岛上监狱。不过没人相信这种说法,因为奥贾兰的弟弟九月还看望过他。他回来后说,这位库尔德工人党的领袖衣容不整,而且因库尔德工人党的暴力活动愈演愈烈导致埃尔多安中止秘密和谈而情绪低落。Yet the younger Mr Ocalan shed no light on whether it was his brother who is shunning the lawyers or the government that is blocking their visits. Proponents of the first theory speculate that Mr Ocalan will not see the lawyers (or ask the PKK to end its violence) unless the government moves him from solitary confinement to house arrest. Backers of the second idea think the government wanted to break the links between Mr Ocalan and his fighters (the lawyers carried messages) in hopes of triggering a leadership struggle that would fracture the PKK.但奥贾兰的弟弟并未说明究竟是奥贾兰在回避律师,还是政府不允许他见律师。持前一种观点的人猜测,政府只有把奥贾兰从单独监禁转为软禁,奥贾兰才会和律师见面(或呼吁工人党停止暴力活动)。后一种观点的持者则认为政府是想割裂奥贾兰和库尔德工人党之间的联系(因为律师可以传递消息),以期在党内引发领导权争夺,从而导致党派分裂。If so, the strategy has failed. Mr Ocalan’s grip may be weaker but he continues to be revered by millions of Kurds. Giant images of the mustachioed PKK leader can be seen throughout Kurdish towns in neighbouring Syria, where an affiliate called the PYD seized control after the withdrawal of President Bashar Assad’s troops. Turkey has been lobbying America for a no-fly zone over northern Syria in hopes of squashing the PKK’s expanding influence. Wary of wading into further Middle Eastern misadventures the Americans have said no. But in a show of support NATO is expected, at Turkey’s request, to deploy Patriot missiles in the province of Kilis, which borders Syria.如果真如后一种观点所想,那土耳其政府的这一招已经失败了。奥贾兰对库尔德工人党的掌控可能有所削弱,但他仍然为广大库尔德人所崇敬。在邻国叙利亚,库尔德人聚居的城镇在阿萨德总统的军队撤出后由隶属于库尔德工人党的民主联盟党接管,在那里,这位蓄八字胡的库尔德工人党领袖的大幅肖像随处可见。土耳其一直劝说美国在叙利亚北部设立禁飞区,以图遏制库尔德工人党日益扩大的影响力。而唯恐在中东的泥潭里越陷越深的美国人没有同意。但为了表示持,在土耳其的要求下,北约将在与叙利亚交界的土耳其基利斯省部署爱国者导弹。The Turkish president, Abdullah Gul, says the missiles would defend Turkey against a possible chemical-weapon attack. Western diplomats suggest that, contrary to reports in the Turkish press, the Patriots could not create a no-fly zone for Syrian rebels and refugees, but are “mostly about making the Turks feel loved.” Turkish tanks remain on hills facing a PYD-held town this week after PKK sympathisers fired shots into the air during a funeral last month. If the stand-off with hunger strikers persists, more funerals will follow.土耳其总统阿卜杜拉·居尔表示,北约部署的爱国者导弹可使土耳其免遭化学武器的打击。而西方国家的外交官们所持看法与土耳其媒体的报道相左,他们认为,爱国者导弹并不能为叙利亚叛军和难民创造禁飞区,而“主要是让土耳其人感受到关爱”。上月,在民主联盟党控制的城镇上举行了一场葬礼,库尔德工人党的持者们在葬礼上向天鸣,此后一直到本周,土耳其的坦克部队就一直部署在那座城镇对面的山丘上。如果土耳其政府与绝食抗议者继续僵持下去,更多葬礼将接踵而至。翻译:孙齐圣译文属译生译世 /201608/462480

On Friday, fire officials said that a wildfire has continued to advance near the coast of Santa Barbara, California, ripping through over 1,400 acres and forcing homeowners to flee. 周五,消防官员称大火已经持续推进,靠近加利福尼亚圣巴巴拉海岸,覆盖1400余亩,迫使房主逃离。About 140 homes and ranches are at risk in the coastal canyons of an area that hasnt seen a fire this big in 60 years. 沿海峡谷约140户家庭和农场面临危险,该地区60年未见如此大火。According to the Santa Barbara County Sheriffs Office, mandatory evacuations were called late Thursday for the communities of El Capitan, Refugio, Venadito and Las Flores canyons. 据圣巴巴拉县警长办公室称,周四晚些时候要求埃尔卡皮坦、雷富希奥、维纳帝托和拉斯弗洛雷斯峡谷社区强制撤离。The so-called Sherpa Fire, which began Wednesday afternoon and has been driven by 40 mph wind gusts, is being fueled by hot and dry weather.所谓的Sherpa大火于周三下午开始,在40英里每小时的风力下推动,炎热和干燥的天气助长燃烧。译文属。201606/449883

The best and worst states for small business小本生意的旺市与淡市Red tape blues繁文缛节让人忧郁Small businesses fret less about taxes than over-regulation小本生意担心监管过度问题多过税收IAN TONER, an architect in Philadelphia, recently went to city offices for a permit to build a stoop for a clients home. The city, he learned, had just imposed new requirements:he would have to get maps from gas, electric, water and other utilities to ensure the stoop would not disturb their underground lines and then resubmit his application. A process he thought would take a day took more than two weeks.最近,费城建筑师伊恩·托纳前往市政府办公室为其客户获得房屋门廊建设许可。伊恩了解到,费城刚刚颁布了新的要求:申请者得提交天然气、电气、水气等公司的地图,确保门廊不会影响地下线,然后重新提交申请。他原本以为这个过程只需花费一天,而事实上却花了大概两个礼拜。Thats not all. Other new rules require that he prove that his builder has general liability, workerscompensation and car insurance, and has paid all his taxes. Four times a year he must set aside a half day to ensure he is paying the states and citys myriad taxes correctly. Mr Toner doesnt question the need for rules and taxes; what galls him is the time and hassle involved in complying with them. “The information exists all over the place and the burden is on me not just to gather it but interpret it. Im not going to leave here because of this, but theyre all things that could turn a person off of coming here.”这还不是全部的。其他新的条例要求,申请者还要明建筑工人享有责任保险、劳工补偿以及汽车保险,并且全部交过税。一年四次,他得留出半天时间来确保他准确付了州政府以及市政度各种繁杂的税。托纳先生并不是在纠结这些条例和税收的必要性;让他觉得受到羞辱的是遵守背后所花费的时间与麻烦。“信息随处可见,我所承受的压力不仅仅是去收集这些信息,更多的是去解释。我不打算因为这个就离开,但是那些却是阻碍人们来此的力量。”Americas states and cities have traditionally tried to attract businesses by offering them tax breaks and other cash incentives. Yet there may be a more effective way, and one which puts no strain on stretched budgets: make life simpler.沿袭传统,美国的州和城市通过税收减免政策和其他的现金奖励措施来尽量吸引招商。但是,或许还有另外一种更有效的方法,不对紧张的预算施压,即生活更简单。Thumbtack, a website that matches customers to businesses, and the Kauffman Foundation, a think-tank, asks thousands of small businesses annually about local requirements for hiring, regulations, zoning, licences, health insurance and training. They have enough data to compile (somewhat subjective) “business climate” grades for 38 states and 82 cities.美国一家本地务网上交易市场—Thumbtack(图钉),以及发挥智囊团作用的考夫曼基金会每年会向成百上千小本生意打听情况,询问当地对于招聘、规章制度、分区制、健康保险以及上岗培训的一些要求。他们有足够的数据对美国38个州以及82个城市编译“商业环境”(有点主观)。One surprising finding is how little local tax rates matter. Nearly two-thirds of respondents say they pay their “fair share” of taxes, which the survey-takers reckon means they dont feel over- or undertaxed. But many complain about the difficulty of complying with complex regulations: this was a strong predictor of how small businesses rank their states.令人吃惊的是,当地税收无关痛痒。近六成受访者称,他们付问卷者认为的不高也不低的税收。但是许多人抱怨遵循复杂法规的难处:这是一个很强烈地预兆,表明了小本生意如何去评价他们所在的州。To be sure, low-tax states such as Texas generally score well, while high-tax states such as California and Illinois flunk their tests. This may be because the kind of politicians who like high taxes also like bossing people around. But not always. Minnesota, a high-tax state, earns a respectable “B” for business climate, partly because it is easy to start a business there. Washington and Florida, both low-tax states, earn a “C” and a “C+”. Entrepreneurs fault Washingtons harsh zoning laws and gripe that in Florida new firms must jump through hoops like dolphins at SeaWorld.可以肯定的是,像德克萨斯州这样低税收的地方通常排名靠前,评价高;相比而言,想加州和伊利诺斯州这样高税收的却未能得民心。或许是因为喜欢高税收的政治家们很喜欢发号施令。但也有的特例,比如,明尼苏达州税收高,却赢得了一个令人尊敬的“B”级商业环境等级;可能是因为这里创业很容易。像华盛顿和佛罗里达这样低税收的,却分别得了一个“C”和一个“C+”。企业家把责任归咎于华盛顿苛刻的分区制,还抱怨佛罗里达州的新公司就像海洋世界里海豚跳铁圈一样。The lesson for politicians is: “no matter what else you do, make things easy,” says Jon Lieber of Thumbtack. “This may seem obvious but a lot of governments dont do it right. Dont require a plumber to spend two days at city hall pulling permits when he could be doing jobs.”来自图钉的约翰·烈说,政治家得到的教训是:“不管你做了什么,简化它们。”他继续说,“这看起来显而易见,但很多政府官员却无法做到。不要指望水管工会花两天的时间在市政厅请求许可,特别是在他们还可以做别的事的时候。”Too often, state websites are confusing and bureaucrats unhelpful. Dennis Kessler, an accountant in New Jersey, says he usually cant get through on the telephone to the relevant department. When he does, the information is often misleading or incomplete. He recently spent 30 hours trying to help a client change its corporate status without getting a different federal tax-identification number—only to discover that this is impossible.州政府网站时常让人费解,而且官僚们常常无所用处。新泽西的会计丹尼斯认为,通常,他无法打通相关部门的电话。当他打通的时候,回馈的信息往往是让人误解的或者不完整。最近,他花了30个小时帮助一名客户在未获得不同的联邦纳税人识别号的情况下去改变法人地位,但最后他发现一切都是徒劳的。Licensing rules are a headache. In theory, they protect the public from incompetence, which is useful if you are hiring a doctor. But increasingly they protect incumbents from competition—the requirement to have a licence raises an occupations wages by 18%, according to Morris Kleiner and Alan Krueger, two economists. In the 1950s less than 5% of workers required state licences; now 35% do.许可管理是一件很头痛的事。经济学家莫里斯和奥兰认为,理论上讲,这些制度保障了大众,特别是当你雇佣了一名医生,它们可以避免无能医生。渐渐地,这些制度保护现任者不受竞争力的影响;即对执照的要求使得工资上涨18个百分点。在20世纪50年代,不到5%的工人需要明,现在增加到35%。Some make no sense. Celeste Kelly, a horse lover, began offering horse massage, a subject she had studied privately, in 2006; she charges per session. In 2012 the Arizona State Veterinary Medical Examining Board ordered her to “cease and desist” or face heavy fines and possible criminal charges. According to the Institute for Justice (IJ), a libertarian law firm which is suing the board on her behalf, Arizona does not require vets to learn massage, and Ms Kelly may offer it for free; she simply cant charge for it unless shes a vet. “Veterinarians I know think its ridiculous,” she complains. “Its their political arm that has crafted legislation to be self-protective.”一些制度纯属无稽之谈。骑马爱好者克莱斯特·凯里开始提供为马的务,这项务是她于2006年个人研究的;一次55美元。2012年,亚利桑那州兽医医学研究委员会要求凯里停止这项务,否则将面临高价罚款以及牢狱之灾。据司法部部门,一家持自由论的律师事务所帮助凯里控告该委员会,亚利桑那州并没有要求兽医要学,而且凯里也可能会免费提供该务;除非她是兽医,不然她不能收费。凯里抱怨道,“我所认识的兽医觉得这很荒唐。这是他们获得自保的政治手段。”State licensing regimes vary widely. Louisiana requires licences for 70% of low-wage occupations, according to IJ, including barber, bartender and cosmetologist. In Wyoming, it is a more modest 24%. In Hawaii, licences require an average of 724 days of experience and education; in Pennsylvania, 113. Enforcement is uneven, too.许可体制变化莫测。依据司法部门,路易斯安那州要求包括理发师、酒保以及美容师在内的占70%的低收入职业持有许可明。在怀俄明州,该比例较少,为24%。在夏威夷州,执照获得的资格要求是工作经历加教育经历724天;在宾夕法尼亚州,113天。执行过程更是入目不堪。Changes to regulations have little effect on economic growth in the short run—cyclical influences such as the state of the housing market or the fortunes of a particular industry (high-tech in California, oil in Texas) matter more. But in the long run, business-friendliness makes a difference: one study found that states that rank better on indices of taxes, costs and regulations enjoy stronger job growth, after filtering out the influence of industry composition and the weather. Globally, countries that rank higher in the World Banks surveys of the ease of doing business grow faster.从短期看,条规的变化对经济增长无影响,而周期性的影响因素比如房地产市场的状态或者一个特定行业的财富积累(加州的高科技,德克萨斯州的石油),却更重要。但是,从长期看,商业友好型却有不同:一项研究发现,排除行业类别组成与天气因素影响,税收、成本和监管指数排名较前的州享有更强的就业增长。全球范围内,在世界一项关于做生意的方便性的调查中,排名更靠前的过家发展更快。Lowering barriers to entry for new businesses gives consumers more choice and cheaper prices. A gourmet-food-truck fad began in Los Angeles with Korean tacos in 2008, and has thrived because the city is flexible about where such trucks can park. By contrast, Chicago forbids food trucks from operating within 200 feet of a bricks-and-mortar restaurant, and requires them to have a GPS to ensure compliance, which makes life very hard for them in the downtown business district.降低创业的门槛让消费者享有更多的选择,更实惠的价格。一股美食车潮因2美元的韩国烤肉于2008年在洛杉矶流行开来,这是因为洛杉矶这座城市随处可适应美食车。相比而言,芝加哥却禁止快餐车停留在实体餐厅的200英尺范围内,还要求他们配有GPS定位以确保他们遵守了上述条例,而这一切让市中心商业区的人们生活艰难。Businesses lobby for lots of things they should not have: handouts from the taxpayer, handicaps imposed on their rivals. But it is hard to find fault in their plea for simpler rules, swifter bureaucratic decisions, government websites that a normal person can navigate and officials who actually answer the phone.企业为了许多不属于他们的东西四处游说:纳税人的救济金,给对手造成的障碍。然而,我们很难去指责他们想要简单条例、更迅速的官僚决策、普通人可以使用的政府网站以及可以接通电话的官员。Clearing away old rules is hard. Their benefits tend to be concentrated (eg, when they protect incumbents); their costs dispersed (slightly higher prices affect all consumers, but only a little). States and cities can, however, slow the pace at which new rules proliferate, for example by estimating their economic impact before enacting them. Last year Iowas governor vetoed a bill that would have required licences for drug-abuse counsellors, and Arizona made life easier for firms operating in multiple cities with separate sales taxes by limiting them to one tax form and one audit.废除老规矩是很难的。老规矩的受益者们往往很集中(当要保护现任者的时候);所需成本分散(稍高的价钱会影响所有的消费者)。然而,州政府以及市政府却可以放慢新规则的制定速度,例如,在制定之前可以先评估其经济影响。去年爱荷华州的官员投票通过一项法案,其内容要求吸毒人员的顾问持有执照;亚利桑那州放宽对公司的要求,通过限制公司只有一个税种和一种审计,允许其在多个城市付单独的销售税。The difficulty is that many rules purport to protect the public: from shoddy services, dangerous products or even death. Even if the cost is high and the risk remote, no politician wants to be accused of compromising public safety. Last year Mike Pence, Indianas Republican governor, vetoed the licensing of diabetes educators and anaesthesiologist assistants, on the grounds the new rules would raise barriers to business and require additional bureaucracy. But a year later, he signed into law a modified version of the measure, minus the extra bureaucracy but otherwise much the same.许多条例制定出来是为了保护民众免受赝品、危险的产品以及死亡的威胁,而这恰恰也是难点。即使成本高,危险遥不可及,没有一个政客愿意因为危害公共安全而被起诉。去年,印第安纳州共和党州长麦克·彭斯投票糖尿病教育者以及麻醉学者助理的许可,理由是新的法规会给商业活动造成困难,并会增加额外的官员。但是一年以后,他签署了一份修改版的法案,减少多余的官僚机构,其他方面则一样。译者:黄柳 译文属译生译世 /201507/386068

On the morning of the 12th March 1938, German soldiers crossed the border into neighboring Austria.1938年3月12日上午,德国士兵们浩浩荡荡越过边境进入邻国奥地利。They were greeted not with bullets and guns, but with roses and carnations, so much so that the action became known as the Blumenkrieg, the war of flowers.这个国家迎接的不是子弹和,而是玫瑰和康乃馨,后世之人称此为花的战争。During my ten years at party conferences or at rallies with Adolf Hitler, I certainly witnessed my share of enthusiasm, but the degree of enthusiasm that was prevalent in Austria at that time was not only surprising to us but also quite unbelievable.在我与阿道夫·希特勒10年生涯的党会议或集会中,我当然看到他传递给我的热情,但热情的程度,当时在奥地利的流行不仅让我们惊讶也觉得不可思议。The Austrian government, destabilized by the Nazis for years, had finally succumbed to Hitlers bullying and offered no resistance.面临纳粹多年施压的奥地利政府终于屈于希特勒的欺凌并且毫无抵抗之力。Most of the Austrian people, envying what they saw as the economic success and prestige that Hitler had brought to Germany, now welcomed their German neighbors.大多数嫉妒希特勒带给德国经济上的成功和声望的奥地利人现在欢迎他们的德国邻居。Hitlers first great gamble of expansion had paid off.希特勒的第一大似的扩张终于尝到了甜头。201503/361512

Berlin.Capital of Germany today,just as it was capital of Germany in the 1930s,when Adolf Hitler was Chancellor.柏林,现时德国首都,20世纪30年代,希特勒出任总理时德国首都也在柏林。In 1937, Hitler lived and worked at a building on this site.1937年,希特勒在这里一栋大楼中生活工作。This was the Old Reich Chancellery.这是当时的德国总理府。And here, Hitler spent much of his time alone in his bedroom where he would listen to what he called his ;inner conviction;.希特勒经常独自在卧室里聆听他所谓的内心信念。Often, Hitler would not emerge from his bedroom until lunchtime.他通常到午餐时间才出来。For central to his charismatic leadership, was the idea that he made all the big decisions entirely on his own.他相信作为魅力领袖就要独自作出全部重大决定。Hitler was always certain that he was right.希特勒始终确信自己是对的。He didnt even like to other peoples advice.他甚至不喜欢别人发表意见。In 1935, a leading Nazi sent Hitler a paper on youth issues and received this reply from Hitlers adjutant.1935年,一名纳粹高官递交希特勒一篇关于青年人的文章后,他从希特勒副官那里收到如下回复。 译文属201512/417628

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