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通河县妇女医院客服咨询黑龙江省哈尔滨七院做孕检多少钱Domestic workers家庭女佣Free the maids释放女佣A new treaty aims to stop abuse 旨在禁止虐待的新条约Jun 23rd 2011 | from the print edition WITHOUT them many an economy would grind to a halt: the global army of between 50m and 100m domestic workers, most of them women and children. Yet tucked away in kitchens and nurseries, mainly in the Middle East and Asia, their wages often go unpaid, they are rarely granted any time off, and many face physical and sexual abuse. 全球约有五千万到一亿的家政务大军,如果没有他们,许多经济都会慢慢停下来。他们中的大多数人是妇女和儿童。他们忙碌在中东和亚洲的一些国家的厨房和托儿所,他们常常拿不到应得的报酬,很少有假期,许多人经常遭遇肉体和性方面的虐待。The International Labour Organisation (ILO) hopes to change all this with a new treaty adopted on June 16th at its annual conference. The Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers has been three years in the making. Its goal is to limit working hours, guarantee weekly days off, ensure a minimum wage and protect domestic workers from violent employers.国际劳工组织6月16日在其年会上通过了一项新条约,希望藉此改变所有这一切。《家政工人体面工作协定》已酝酿三年。其目的在于:限制工人的工作时间,保工人每周得到休息,确保最低工资,保护家政人员免受雇主暴力侵犯。Only a few delegates—government officials as well as national representatives of employers and workers—voted against (Swaziland and a couple of employer groups, including the Confederation of British Industry), but there were some notable abstentions. Predictably, they included Malaysia. A series of abuse cases led Indonesia to ban its citizens from going to work there as maids from until May this year. More surprisingly, the British government, too, preferred not to vote either way. It said the treaty would be too onerous, particularly the parts regulating working hours and health and safety.只有几个代表团——雇主、家政工人的政府官员或国家代表——投票反对(斯韦士兰和包括英国行业联合会在内的几个雇主小组),但也有几国弃权,颇为引人注目。其中包括马来西亚,这一点可以预见。因为马来西亚发生了一系列的虐待案件,印尼自年到今年5月,禁止本国公民去马来西来做仆工。最令人感到惊奇的是,英国政府也弃权了。他们认为这项条约太过苛刻,特别是那些涉及工作时间和健康安全方面的规定。201107/144572哈尔滨人民医院电话 Senate Panel Votes to Confirm Bernanke for Second Term美参院委员会批准伯南克提名The Senate Banking Committee has voted to approve the nomination of Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke for a second term as head of the U.S. central bank. The move paves the way for a vote by the full Senate in January. But the committee approval came after two hours of contentious debate, and the committee's ranking Republican was among those voting against Bernanke.参议院委员会投票批准了对美联储主席伯南克第二任期的提名。这为一月份参议院全体投票表决铺平了道路。不过该委员会在批准前还是进行了两个小时的激烈争论。该委员会中也有重要共和党议员投票反对伯南克连任。Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke has cleared a major hurdle in his bid to win a second four-year term. But Thursday's Senate Banking Committee executive meeting turned out to be a roller-coast ride for Bernanke, who was not present, but was subjected to alternating sessions of praise and stinging criticism.美联储主席伯南克已经在争取第二个四年任期方面清除了一个重要障碍。但是星期四举行的参议院委员会常务会议却变成了伯南克的过山车之旅。他没有出席这个会议,但是会间对他的评价交织着褒扬和尖锐的批评。The top-ranking Republican on the committee, Senator Richard Shelby of Alabama, said he would vote against Bernanke, saying the 2008 financial crisis was years in the making, and that Bernanke bears part of the responsibility because he was a member of the Federal Reserve at that time. 该委员会资深共和党人,来自阿拉巴马州的参议员理查德·谢尔比说,他将投伯南克反对票。谢尔比说,2008年金融危机是经多年酝酿发生的,而伯南克对此负有部分责任,因为他当时是美联储的成员。"I strongly disapprove of some of the past deeds of the Federal Reserve while Ben Bernanke was a member and its chairman, and I lack confidence in what little planning for the future he has articulated," he said.谢尔比说:“我对联储过往的某些作法持强烈反对意见,而伯南克那时是联储成员,也是其主席。我对他就未来所做的不详表述缺乏信心。”Republican Senator Jim Bunning of Kentucky mocked Bernanke's naming on Wednesday by Time Magazine as "Person of the Year". The magazine credited Bernanke with saving the ed States from a second Great Depression. 来自肯塔基州的共和党参议员吉姆·邦宁对时代周刊星期三将伯南克命名为年度人物进行了嘲讽。该杂志称赞伯南克使美国免于陷入第二次大萧条。12/92321General Motors Says Its Expansion Plans in India On Track通用汽车称在印度扩展计划上轨道  U.S. automaker General Motors says its expansion plans are on track in India despite the troubles it faces in the ed States. General Motors is among several global auto companies hoping to tap the potential of emerging markets like India.美国通用汽车公司表示,尽管在美国面临重重困难,但其在印度的扩展计划已经上了轨道。通用汽车和全球其他几家汽车公司一样,希望开发像印度这样的潜在的新兴市场。Executives at General Motors in India were enthusiastic when they recently revealed a new version of the compact Spark Chevrolet, which runs on liquefied natural gas.最近,通用汽车在印度的主管们对新推出的一款小型雪佛兰乐驰充满热情。这款汽车以液化天然气为动力。The company, which has filed for bankruptcy in the ed States, says it is business as usual in India. 已经在美国申请破产的通用汽车表示,它在印度的业务一切正常。General Motors entered the Indian market in 2003, and sold nearly 66,000 cars last year - up 10 percent over the previous year. That is still way behind the market leader, Maruti Suzuki, which sells more than 10 times that number. 通用汽车2003年进入印度市场。去年售出近6万6千辆汽车,比上一年增加了10%。这个销售成绩仍远低于当地的汽车业翘楚铃木汽车。铃木汽车的销量是通用汽车的10倍多。General Motors, however, is hoping to expand its footprint in India. Last year, the company commissioned a new plant with a capacity to produce 140,000 cars. It says it is confident of raising funds for its expansion, and has no plans to reduce its 40,000-strong staff in India.然而,通用汽车希望扩大其在印度的版图。去年,通用汽车建成了一座可年产14万辆汽车的工厂。通用汽车表示,它不但很有信心为其扩展计划集资,而且没有减少在印度工作的4万名员工的计划。Yogendra Pratap, editor of the Auto Bild magazine in India, says the company has good reason to be optimistic. Sales are expected to grow strongly in the coming years in a country where only seven out of every 1,000 people own a car, and where the economy is growing despite the global recession.印度汽车杂志的编辑约根德拉.普拉塔普说,通用汽车有理由表示乐观。在这样一个1000个人中只有7个人拥有汽车的国家,未来几年,销售量有希望显著提高。而且,尽管全球经济衰退,印度仍保持着增长势头。"The planning for these companies has always been for the long term, to get market share and be in a position to exploit the market once the market is up and running," said Pratap. "India is still in its infancy, so all these companies want to be positioned right once the Indian car market matures."“对这些公司来讲,它们的计划都是长期的。目的是为了在市场恢复运转时能把握住市场份额并开发市场。印度的汽车市场还处在初期形态。所以这些公司想在印度市场成熟之前占领有利位置。”Like several other automakers, General Motors is pinning its hopes on the compact car segment, which accounts for four out of every five cars sold in India. 和其他几家汽车公司一样,通用汽车把希望寄托在占印度汽车销售80%的小型车市场。Besides the latest version of the Spark, it is introducing a new mini car later this year to compete with other popular small cars.除了最新款的乐驰,今年晚些时候,通用还会推出一款新的迷你车来和其他受欢迎的小型车抗衡。Pratap points out that these cars are very different from the ones General Motors sold in the ed States.普拉塔普指出,这些车和通用汽车在美国出售的汽车非常不同。"They have got a very strong product portfolio to do well in India. They are small cars, they are fuel efficient, they are not the huge suburban kind of trucks they sell in the U.S," said Pratap.“在印度,它们的产品优势非常明显。它们是小型车。它们省油。它们和那些在美国卖的大型卡车完全不同。”General Motors is not the only global automaker which has been making inroads into the Indian market in recent years. Companies such as BMW, Nissan, Honda, Toyota, Ford, Nissan and Audi have also made investments in the country, hoping to gain a foothold in the Indian car market.通用汽车不是全球唯一一家进入印度市场的汽车公司。像宝马、尼桑、本田、丰田还有奥迪都在印度投资,希望能在印度市场占有一席之地。06/74120依兰县中医院挂号预约

哈尔滨女性带环多少钱Fish oil supplements are a popular way to increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are thought to have a wide range of beneficial effects, particularly for cardiovascular health. But are they effective in preventing cancer? A new study suggests the answer is … maybe.Women in the study — 35,000 of them — were asked in a questionnaire whether they used fish oil supplements. Six years later, those who did were much less likely to have had breast cancer."We found that women who were using fish oil at the time that they entered the study had a 32 percent lower risk of breast cancer than women who did not use fish oil supplements," said study leader Emily White of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.She says there's good reason to suspect that omega-3 fatty acids might protect against cancer. "There's a strong evidence that cancer is related to inflammation. So fish oil fits into that mechanism, since it is an anti-inflammatory drug."Despite the evidence, White doesn't think her study alone justifies a recommendation that women start taking fish oil capsules."No, I don't think that a single study can lead to public health recommendations to start taking supplements," she says. "Really, we need randomized trials, where people are assigned to take a supplement versus not, to answer whether a pill would be useful to take for cancer prevention."White explained that in a randomized trial, participants would be randomly assigned to either take the supplements or not.By contrast, her study is what is known as an observational study, where participants themselves decide, in this case, whether to take a fish oil supplement, and then the researchers observe them to see who develops cancer. But the women who chose to use a supplement could be different in many other ways from those who didn't.White and her colleagues did try to factor those differences into their analysis, but scientists generally prefer a randomized study, and researchers at Harvard are now organizing one to study the effects of both omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D.White's paper is published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers amp; Prevention. 用鱼油营养补充剂,是增加欧米加-3脂肪酸摄取量的一种常用方式。欧米加-3被认为对健康有广泛的益处,特别是有益于心血管健康。但是,这些好处是否也包括预防癌症呢?一项新的研究显示,是“也许”。 参加研究的3万5千名女性首先被问及她们是否用鱼油。6年之后,用鱼油的女性罹患乳癌的比例比不用鱼油的女性要低得多。 主持这项研究的埃米莉·怀特说:“我们发现,这些研究开始时就在用鱼油营养补充剂的妇女罹患乳癌的风险,比不用鱼油的妇女低百分之32。”怀特在弗雷德·赫钦森癌症研究中心工作。 她说,有理由设想欧米加-3脂肪酸可能有助于预防癌症:“有非常有力的据,明癌症和炎症有关。而鱼油是一种抗炎剂,因此可见它在其中的作用。” 尽管有这个据,但怀特并不认为仅仅靠她的研究,就足以建议女性开始用鱼油胶囊。 她说:“我不认为仅仅根据一项研究,就可以提出用鱼油营养补充剂的公共卫生建议。实际上,我们需要做随机临床试验,随机指定参与研究的人用或不用营养剂,由此得到营养补充剂是否有助于预防癌症的。” 怀特说,在随机试验中,参与研究者被随机指定用或不用营养剂。 她的研究方法与此相反,那是一种观察式的研究。由参与者自行选择要不要用鱼油补充剂。然后研究人员观察她们,注意谁会患癌症。不过,选择用鱼油补充剂的妇女,也可能和不用鱼油的妇女,还有许多其它方面的不同。 怀特和她的同事们曾经尝试把各方面的不同因素纳入分析研究。不过,科学家们通常更愿意采用随机研究的方式。哈佛大学的研究人员也正在准备展开对欧米加-3 和维生素D的效果的研究。201007/110004哈尔滨哪做人流做的好 吉尔吉斯斯坦临时政府正计划审判被罢免的总统巴基耶夫、他的某些家人和前政府官员。这个月早些时候发生的暴力行动推翻了巴基耶夫政府,导致 八十多名抗议者死亡。Kyrgyzstan's interim government is planning to put on trial the deposed president, some members of his family and former officials following the violence earlier this month that toppled the Bakiyev administration and left more than 80 protesters dead.The leaders of the self-appointed provisional government are vowing to bring members of the former administration to justice. The deputy interim leader in charge of security, Azimbek Beknazarov, says arrest warrants have been issued for family members and allies of the ousted president, Kurmanbek Bakiyev. Beknazarov says the former president himself will face trial for the April 7 killings in the capital, as well as for other crimes, such as abuse of power. Interim government officials say they are investigating 200 crimes allgedly committed by members of the previous government. Bakiyev, facing strong pressure from the government which replaced him as well as the international community, fled the country after negotiations involving diplomats. The Kyrgyz interim government says, with Bakiyev's depature, it now hopes wanted former high-ranking government officials will turn themselves in voluntarily.They are accused of corruption and, in some cases, human rights violations. Hundreds of loyalists to the former president are continuing to demonstrate in his southern stronghold. Reports from Jalal-Abad say protesters scuffled with the interim interior minister and broke into a regional government office Saturday.The self-appointed provisional government here in the capital says Bakiyev faxed, from Kazakhstan, his resignation as president and it will seek his extradition for trial from wherever he tries to take refuge. While the interim leadership attempts to take full authority in this mountainous and impoverished country of 5.3 million people, it is promising to quickly restore democracy. Officials say they plan to unveil a draft of a new constitution in days and hold nationwide elections within six months.201004/101762齐齐哈尔医学院附属第三医院新地址

哈尔滨南岗区处女膜修复多少钱Smaller is more beautiful更小,却更美丽Many other cities are battling problems almost as acute as Detroit’s很多其他城市正在积极应对和底特律一样急迫的问题THE five kinds of heirloom tomatoes on Joanna Lehrman’s and Roxanne Adair’s farm look delicious. Their tiny two-acre (0.8 hectare) farm also has a buzzing beehive and a hoop house, which protects produce in the winter. It is just a short walk from downtown Flint, a gritty struggling Michigan city. Until about a year ago the land was 16 abandoned residential lots along Beach Street, filled with rubbish, broken pieces of concrete and burnt trees. According to Doug Weiland, who runs the Genesee County Land Bank, a third of all Flint’s parcels are abandoned. Even seemingly stable neighbourhoods have boarded up houses.在琼娜-勒曼和洛克森-艾黛儿的农场种植的五种看起来非常好吃。除此之外,在他们的农场里还有一个嗡嗡作响的蜂巢和冬天保护作物的大棚。从弗林特 – 一个在密歇根州常年与风沙作战的城市的闹市区到他们面积约两英亩(合0.8公顷)的小型农场只要走很短的一段路。直到一年以前,这块地还是沙滩街边上16个废弃的住宅用地,上面堆满了垃圾,破碎的混凝土块还有烧焦的树干。据乔纳斯郡土地的经营者道格-维兰德说,弗林特三分之一的土地被荒芜了。甚至看起来稳定的区域房子也被钉上了木板封起来了。Flint is one of many cities in America’s rustbelt, like Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Youngstown and Rochester, which have seen dramatic drops in population over the past half century or so. When manufacturing left these cities, so did their residents. In 1968, General Motors, which was founded in Flint, employed 80,000 employees there. Today, there are only 6,000. The city’s population has halved since 1960, falling from 197,000 to just over 100,000; proportionately, it has suffered nearly as badly as Michigan’s largest city, Detroit. Many unable to sell were forced to abandon their houses. Others lost their homes to foreclosure. The rustbelt cities of the Midwest and north-east have been in decline for decades, but it has taken decades for many of them to accept that no one was coming to save them.弗林特是处在锈带的众多城市的其中之一,其他城市像底特律,克里夫兰,水牛城,匹兹堡,杨斯敦和罗切斯特,都在过去的大约半个世纪内,经历了人口大幅下滑。随着制造业离开了这些城市,城市的居民也随之离开了。在1968年,通用汽车在弗林特,也就是它成立的地方,雇佣了80000名员工。而今天,只剩下了6000名。城市的人口数相较于1960年的197000己经下降了一半,至100000出头。与此相类似的是密歇根最大的城市底特律,它的情况一样糟,许多人卖不出被强制将房子闲置。另一些人失去了他们的家并丧失了赎回权。中西部和东北部的锈带城市在过去的几十年里都有不同程度的衰落,但是他们花了几十年才接受这样一个事实,即没有人会来拯救他们。These cities—many with acres of abandoned property—are finally and desperately trying to come up with stabilising plans. This is no easy task with a poor, ageing and dwindling tax base, expensive health and pension legacy costs, reduced commercial activity, high unemployment and high crime. Some of the problems of shrinking cities are so fundamental that there is no quick fix. For instance, the need to diversify was long ignored. Many of the rustbelt’s cities were single industry towns. Some were single company towns, like Kodak in New York’s Rochester or GM in Flint.这些有着大量闲置土地的城市拼命努力要想出稳定计划。这在当前不良,陈旧,萧条的税务基础,昂贵的医疗和退休及遗赠成本,萎靡的商业活动,高失业率和犯罪率的情况下并不是一件容易的任务。这些萎缩城市的一些问题是那么地基础以至于不能够很快地得到解决。譬如说,多样化的需要一直被忽略。很多锈带城市属于那种单一的工业城镇。而一些则是属于单一公司的城镇,像柯达所在的纽约罗切斯特或是通用汽车所在的弗林特。Flint is in the middle of developing a 20-year master plan, the first since Jack Kennedy was in the White House. The old thinking was to sell tax-foreclosed property to whomever, even speculators. The new thinking is that land is an asset for the city. Since its creation in 2002, the Genesee County Land Bank has had the power to take control of and to redevelop vacant, abandoned or tax-delinquent properties. Neighbours are encouraged to buy abandoned adjacent property for as little as . Alternative land use is encouraged. Ms Adair and Ms Lehrman own three of their farm’s lots, which they bought for 0 each from the Genesee County Land Bank. The rest they lease. The land bank has been a model for other cities and states, like Ohio and Georgia. Just this summer, Andrew Cuomo, New York’s governor, signed a bill allowing land banks.弗林特正在制定一个20年的总体规划,这也是自从肯尼迪入主白宫之后的第一次。老的想法是把那些没收的房产卖给任何想买的人,即便是投机商。而新的想法是,土地是城市的财产。自从2002年成立以来,乔纳斯郡土地就拥有权力控制并再发展那些 空置的,废弃的,或是因未缴纳地税而被没收的地产。邻居们被鼓励以至少50美元的价格购买边上被闲置的地产。将这些地产挪作他用也是被鼓励的。艾黛儿女士和勒曼女士拥有构成她们农场地块中的三块,其中每一块都是她们花了100美元从乔纳斯郡土地购取的,余下的土地则是租赁的。这家土地已经成为其他城市和州(例如俄亥俄和佐治亚)的一个榜样。就在这个夏天,纽约州长安德鲁-郭沫签署了允许土地存在的法案。Pittsburgh is often pointed to as a model for other shrinking cities. Its revival since its steel industry collapsed in the early 1980s is partly thanks to good long-term planning. Under the leadership of Tom Murphy, a three-term mayor, more than 1,000 acres of abandoned, blighted industrial land in Pittsburgh was cleaned up and is now thriving commercial, retail, residential and public space. Once lined with factories the city’s waterfront has been given over to parks. Mr Murphy oversaw the development of more than 25 miles of new trails alongside the river and urban green space. He helped develop public-private partnerships which leveraged .8 billion in economic development.匹兹堡通常被指认为是其他萎缩城市的一个榜样。它的重整旗鼓要追溯到80年代前期,也就是其钢铁工业溃败的开始。这也要归功于一个好的长期计划。在连任三届的市长汤姆-莫非的领导下,匹兹堡超过1000英亩废弃的衰落的土地被清理干净,今天它们以商业区,零售店,住宅区和公共用地的方式兴盛着。曾经林立着工厂的滨江区现在让位给了公园。莫非先生监督了超过25英里的河边小道以及城市绿地的建设。他帮助建立了公共-个人的关系体系,这也让他借到了48亿美元用于经济建设。As well as land, there are other assets, such as institutional “anchors”, even in the poorest of cities. Anchors can be hospitals and universities, arts organisations, and foundations (the Mott and Ford Foundations have been especially helpful to shrinking cities). Cleveland has its famous Clinic. Detroit Medical Centre, the Henry Ford Hospital and Wayne State University provide the same service for Detroit (see article).和土地一样,就算是最穷的城市也有其他的财产,像一些机构的“锚”。这些锚可以是医院和大学,艺术机构和基金会(莫特和福特基金会对萎缩城市的帮助特别大)。克里夫兰有其有名的医疗务。底特律医学中心,亨利-福特医院和韦恩州立大学为底特律市提供同样的务。Changing attitudes is essential. The American Assembly at Columbia University, which recently published a report on post-industrial cities, used the term “legacy cities” as “shrinking” and “resizing” can have negative connotations. Youngstown, a steel town, was devastated when its mills closed: over 30 years it lost more than half its population and thousands of jobs. It adopted a plan in 2005 which demanded accepting it is a smaller city. This is crucial, says Dan Kildee of the Centre for Community Progress. “Then you can get people’s minds to focus on what’s next and not what has been lost.” And there is hope. Bruce Katz of the Brookings Institution has long believed these cities will once again be the engines of their regional economies. Pittsburgh, for instance, reinvented itself as a successful tech and health hub, even as its population continues to fall. As Aristotle put it, “a great city should not be confounded with a populous one.”改变态度是必须的。哥伦比亚大学的美国集会最近发表了一则后工业城市的报告,其中使用了“遗留城市”。因为“萎缩”和“尺寸调整”可能会有负面的涵义。钢铁城市杨斯敦在工厂关闭之后就荒芜了:在超过30年的时间里,它的人口数下降了一半以上,损失了数以千计的就业岗位。它在2005年采用了一项计划,该计划要求它必须接受这样一个事实,即它不再像过去那么大了。这是很关键的,社区发展中心的丹-基尔迪说“这样你就能让人们把焦点移到什么是接下来要做的而不是我们损失了什么。”希望是有的。布鲁金斯学院的布鲁斯-凯兹一直相信这些城市将会再次成为区域经济发展的引擎。举例说,匹兹堡已经转型成为一个成功的科技和健康医疗中心,即使是在人口持续下降的情况下。就像亚里士多德说的“伟大的城市不一定是人口多的城市。”201111/159865 Analysts Say Swing States Hold Key to US Election美大选一争高下 摇摆州举足轻重In the final days of the U.S. presidential election campaign, candidates Barack Obama and John McCain will focus on a relatively small handful of states that will provide the margin of victory on Election Day, November 4. 在美国总统竞选的最后日子里,候选人巴拉克·奥巴马和约翰·麦凯恩将会把竞选活动的重点集中在为数不多的几个州上,在11月4号的选举中如果赢得这几个州将会让候选人以较大优势获胜。In the 2000 election, Democrat Al Gore won more popular votes than his Republican opponent, then Texas governor George Bush. But Mr. Bush won the election because he defeated Gore in the electoral vote tally. 在2000年的选举中,民主党候选人阿尔·戈尔赢得的选民票数超过了共和党对手、当时的德克萨斯州州长乔治·W 布什。不过,布什得到的选举人选票超过了戈尔,从而赢得总统选举。Each state has a certain number of electoral votes based on the number of Senate and House members who represent that state in Congress. Each state has two senators, but the number of House seats for a given state depends on population. 根据在国会中代表各州的联邦参议员和众议员的人数,每个州都有一定数量的选举人票。每个州有两名参议员,但是众议员人数则要根据某一州的人口而定。California, the largest state, has 53 House members and two senators, for a total of 55 electoral votes. Wyoming, one of the smallest states, has only three electoral votes, taking into account its two U.S. senators and one House member. 美国第一大州加利福尼亚州有53名众议员,2名参议员,总的选举人票是55张。怀俄明州等美国最小的州,各有2名参议员和1名众议员,考虑进这个因素,这些州各自总共只有3张选举人票。As they campaign in the final days, both Barack Obama and John McCain will try to cobble together enough electoral votes to get to the magic number of 270 to clinch the presidency. 巴拉克·奥巴马和约翰·麦凯恩在大选之前最后这些天竞选时,都会争取拿到更多的选举人票,以便确保得到赢得总统选举所需的270张选举人票。American University expert Curtis Gans says each candidate looks at the electoral map of the country differently. 美利坚大学专家科蒂斯·甘斯认为,两位候选人在看待美国各州选举人票分布图的时候各有不同角度。"Every candidate in this polarized country at this point starts with a number of states that are clearly their states to win, and a number of states that are their states to lose," Gans said. 甘斯说:“在这个选民两极分化的国家里,每位候选人在这种情况下都会从明显取胜的州或可能会失败的州着手。”As in most presidential elections, the candidates wind up focusing on a relatively small handful of so-called swing or battleground states, states where the race is close and states that have enough electoral votes to make a difference in the outcome of the election. 正如大多数总统选举那样,候选人最后都要集中精力攻克几个州,它们是人称的摇摆州或者候选人争夺激烈的州,这些州的选情非常接近,而且(赢得这些州的)选举人票足以改变总统选举结果。Larry Sabato directs the Center for Politics at the University of Virginia. 维吉尼亚大学政治中心主任拉里·萨巴托说:"Out of the 50 states, about 40 of them are almost predetermined, and we can call them today. So, the focus is on ten competitive states, relatively competitive," Sabato explained. "Some of them are complete toss-ups, could go in either direction. I think Ohio and Virginia are in that category. Others may be leaning one way or another. So, we tend to focus on these states because they are the ones in the end who determine who is going to be president." “美国50个州里,有大约40个州差不多都能提前确定选举人票的归属,现在就能预测。因此,重点是那10个竞争相对激烈的州。其中几个州完全说不准,持谁的可能性都有。我认为,俄亥俄州和维吉尼亚州就属于这一类。其它州可能不是持民主党就是持共和党候选人。因此,我们会把重点放在这些个州,因为谁会入主白宫,这些州的选票最终会起作用。”For example, Republican presidential candidates tend to do well in the deep South and the Plains states. Democrats do well in the Northeast, along the Pacific coast and in the upper Midwest. 比如,共和党总统候选人会在美国最南部的一些州和美国平原地区的州得到高的持率。民主党候选人在东北部各州、太平洋沿岸各州以及最西部的几个州持率不错。That leaves 10 to 12 swing states where both campaigns are competitive, states that will provide the margin of victory on November 4. 这样,就有10到12个摇摆州是双方必争之地。在11月4号的大选中,这些州将对候选人获胜起决定作用。Dennis Johnson is a political expert at George Washington University. 乔治·华盛顿大学政治问题专家丹尼丝·约翰逊说:"When you think about the strategy of an election, the most important number is 270. And that is the number of electors that will get you over the top (to win the presidency). And, any combination of states that has 270, that is the magic number that you are really looking for," Johnson said. “如果你考虑选举战略的话,最重要的数字是270。就是选举人票数,谁得到这些票数谁就能当总统。不论通过哪几个州,只要(加起来)选举人票数之和是270票,这就是候选人的确想要争夺的神奇票数。”Recent polls give Democrat Barack Obama an edge in some of the larger swing or battleground states, states like Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and Indiana. 最近的民意调查显示民主党的奥巴马在包括宾夕法尼亚、俄亥俄、密西根以及印第安纳等几个较大的关键州取得领先地位。Obama has been leading even in Florida, the state that gave President Bush his narrow victory over Al Gore in 2000. 奥巴马甚至在佛罗里达领先,布什总统在2000年总统选举中正是在佛罗里达州以微弱的多数击败戈尔的。Obama is also doing well in states like Nevada, Colorado and even North Carolina, all of which have tended to vote Republican in recent years. 奥巴马还在内华达、科罗拉多、甚至是北卡罗来纳等州的民调中成绩良好,这些州在最近几年都倾向于投票给共和党。Tom DeFrank is Washington bureau chief of the New York Daily News and a longtime observer of U.S. politics. 迪法兰克是纽约日报华盛顿分部的领导人,他也是长期研究美国政治的观察家。"These are states that are usually Republican, for the most part, and states that McCain has to win," DeFrank said. "And so, Obama has an easier path. He has got a better electoral map and he has got momentum on his side and it would take a string of things to go McCain's way for this trend to be reversed. It could happen but it's not likely at the moment." 他说:“这些州通常是属于共和党的,至少它们大半如此,而这些州也是麦凯恩必须要赢得的州。所以,奥巴马已经较早赢得了优势。他的竞选版图形势大好,他的阵营动力十足,而麦凯恩必须做一连串的工作才能扭转这种趋势。这种情况有可能发生,但在目前看来似乎不太可能。”National polls are important in the closing days of the presidential race. But experts will be keeping a close eye on the race in several individual key states on election night, as they watch to see which of the two candidates will get to the magic number of 270 electoral votes first. 全国性的民意调查对总统选举的最后几天十分重要。不过专家会在选举当晚特别注意那些关键州,他们将会看到两个候选人谁先拿到决定胜负的270选举人票。200810/53928五常市中医院生殖中心五常市无痛人流一般多少钱

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