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来源:度优惠    发布时间:2019年10月19日 13:18:21    编辑:admin         

Facebook worked on special software so it could potentially accommodate censorship demands in China, according to a report in the New York Times.据《纽约时报》的一份报告显示,Facebook正致力于研发一种适应中国审查要求的特殊软件。The social network refused to confirm or deny the software#39;s existence, but said in a statement it was ;spending time understanding and learning more; about China.该社交网站拒绝承认或者否认此种软件的存在,但在一份声明中,Facebook称正在花时间以更多地了解和学习中国。No decisions about the company#39;s approach in the country had yet been made, a spokeswoman said.一名发言人表示,该公司还未做出在中国采用此方法的决定。The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a group which campaigns for better privacy online, told the B the project sounded ;extremely disturbing;.电子前沿基金会是一个致力于更好的保护线上隐私的团队,它向B透露,这个项目听起来;很令人不安;。Since 2009, the only way to access Facebook in China has been via a virtual private network - software designed to ;spoof; your real location and avoid local internet restrictions.自2009年起,在中国访问Facebook的唯一途径是通过虚拟专用网络,这款软件的设计旨在欺瞒你的真实位置,避免本地互联网限制。Facebook, which has 1.8 billion active users, is aggressively looking to expand in parts of the world beyond its existing markets.Facebook现在总共拥有18亿活跃用户,在现有市场的基础之上,它正积极寻求向世界其它地方扩张。 /201612/481408。

Home 美国人的家 Home. Few words in the English language have such a special meaning. Home is a place where you can relax, kick back and just be yourself. Just about everyone has a strong opinion of what makes a house a home. And for most people in America, home should be, above all, comfortable. 家。在英文中没有几个字有这样特别的意义。家是一个你可以放松、只要做你自己的地方。大概每个人对于如何把一间屋子变成一个家都非常有主见。对大多数的美国人来说,家最重要的应该是舒适。 Americans like their homes to reflect their personal tastes. Many do-it-yourselfers enjoy fixing up their house and making it more "livable." They often try to create a cozy atmosphere so that when they're at home, they'll really feel "at home." Sofas and lounge chairs may be heavily padded and arranged in groupings conducive to relaxed conversation. The bathroom even receives special attention. Carpeted floors, scented soaps, colorful wallpaper and decorative curtains adorn the "comfort room" in many homes. And on average, Americans have more bathrooms than any other people in the world. 美国人喜欢让家反映出他们个人的品味。许多喜欢自己动手做的人沉醉于修补他们的房子并让它更「适于居住」。他们常试着营造一个温暖而舒适的气氛,这样当他们待在家时,会真的感觉到「毫无拘束」。沙发及安乐椅可能会被铺上厚厚的垫子,并运用不同空间组合的摆设,让坐的人可以轻松的谈话。甚至连浴室也颇费心思:铺有地毯的地板、香气四溢的肥皂、色的壁纸及装饰窗帘,如此就打扮出了许多家庭的「舒之地」。平均来说,美国人拥有的浴室比世界上其它的人都多。 Lisa Marie Odegard, an interior designer in Bozeman, Montana, comments that "a home is a haven. People want an open, easy feeling to make their homes comfortable." For that reason, many new homes now have big, open kitchens and vaulted ceilings. 蒙大拿州柏斯曼的一位室内设计师丽莎?区迪嘉谈到:「家是一个避难所。人们想要一个开放、轻松的感觉来让他们的家变得很舒适。」因为这个原因,现在许多新房子都有大而开放的厨房以及拱形的屋顶。Americans try to make the most of their space, too. The majority of homes have built-in closets and shelves, and people spare no pains to add dressers, filing cabinets and closet organizers to maximize their storage space. Although keeping the house neat is often a constant battle, Americans feel it's a battle worth fighting. 美国人也试着将空间做最佳的利用。大多数的家庭都有壁橱以及架子,人们也不辞辛劳的添加橱柜、文件柜以及壁柜分隔架来加大储藏空间。虽然让房子维持整洁像是一场永无止尽的长期战役,美国人觉得这是一个值得打下去的战役。 People in America keep an eye on the latest trends in interior design. In the 80s, the "country" look dominated the home decorating scene. Rustic furniture and shelves full of old-fashioned knick-knacks created a homey atmosphere reminiscent of rural America several generations back. The 90s have brought in another longing for the past: the retro 50s and 60s look--plain and simple furniture with square backs and arms and block-style legs. 美国人也会注意室内设计的最新时尚。八○年代,「乡村」风貌主导了家庭装潢;摆满旧式风格的小摆设的质朴家俱及架子,创造出一种会令人想起几世代以前以农业为主的美国之家庭气氛。九○年代又带入另一个怀旧情愫:回溯到五○及六○年代风貌--有四方形靠背、把手以及有方正桌脚的朴素、简单的家俱。Some parts of the country have their own regional preferences. In the western ed States, homeowners favor the Navajo Indian style of the Southwest or the cowboy look. In contrast, Easterners prefer French Country or more "fussy" styles. 国内某些地方的人们有他们自己地区性的偏好。在美国西部,屋主们喜欢西南部印地安拿佛和族或是牛仔式的风格。相对的,东部人喜欢法国乡村或是更漂亮的形式。 With all this attention to their homes, you would think Americans place a high premium on housekeeping. In fact, however, keeping house doesn't receive as much attention as it used to. Why? The fast-paced lifestyles of the 90s allow little spare time for dusting, vacuuming and scrubbing the tub. Ironically, however, even though more and more women work outside the home, women still do twice as much house work as men. Modern conve-niences like the washing machine, the vacuum cleaner, and the dishwasher have taken some of the drudgery out of household chores. But in general, Americans these days take their cue from books like How to Avoid Housework. 花了这么多心思在他们的家,你大概会认为美国人非常重视家庭的打理与清洁,但是事实上,整理家务已不像以前一样受重视。为什么?九○年代步调快速的生活方式几乎没有留什么时间撢灰尘、吸尘以及刷洗浴缸。然而,讽刺的是,即使越来越多的妇女在外工作,她们还是比男人多做两倍的家务。虽然像是洗衣机、吸尘器和洗碗机等现代家电已代为处理家事中一些乏味、辛苦的工作。但一般而言,美国人今天已会向「如何避免家务」这类的书来求救。As a result, you might think American homes of the 90s are less than spotless. Witness the fact that sales of household cleaning products have declined in recent years. Besides that, Americans seem to be less persnickety about their housecleaning--especially in areas that nobody sees. Vacuum under the sofa? Dust the baseboards? Are you kidding? Ironically, though, American women seem quite satisfied with their housekeeping, according to a national survey conducted in 1995-96. Besides that, people are designing their homes with low-maintenance features--tile in bathrooms and kitchens as well as marble on countertops--to cut down on the need for frequent cleaning. Even so, more and more people are hiring outside help to clean their houses. A Roper poll found that one in six Americans hired cleaning help last year, up from one in 10 in 1986. One professional housecleaning service, Merry Maids, has grown to over 800 franchises in recent years. 因此,你可能会认为九○年代的美国家庭大概不是一尘不染。由家用清洁产品的销售量在近几年下降便可见一般。此外,美国人似乎对于家庭的清洁比较不那么吹毛求疵了--特别是对那些没有人看到的地方。吸沙发下的灰尘?撢踢脚板?你开玩笑?但可笑的是,根据一九九五/六年做的一项全国性调查,美国妇女似乎对他们的家务整理挺满意。除此之外,人们以较不需要时时清洁的材料来设计他们的家--在浴室及厨房贴磁砖以及做大理石的台面--减少打扫的次数。即使如此,越来越多的人雇用外人协助清理屋子。一项洛普民意调查发现,去年有六分之一的美国雇用清洁务,较一九八六年的十分之一比率上升许多。一个专业性的家务清理务「快乐女佣公司」在最近几年已成长到有八百多家的连锁店。In a pre-Revolutionary War speech in 1761, James Otis made the famous remark that "a man's home is his castle." Americans like their castle to be as comfortable as possible. They would like to have a home they can be proud of, a place they can call their own. Not everyone's home looks like a castle, but "be it ever so humble, there's no place like home." 在一七六一年独立战争前的一次演说中,詹姆士。欧提斯留下了一句名言--「男人的家是他的城堡」。美国人喜欢他们的城堡能够尽可能的舒适,他们都想要有一个引以为荣的家,一个可以属于他们自己的地方。并不是每个人的家都看起来像是一座城堡,但是「即使是非常简陋,但没有一个地方可以比得上家。」 /200804/33702。

Putting feelings into words makes sadness and anger less intense, U.S. brain researchers said on Wednesday, in a finding that explains why talking to a therapist(1) -- or even a sympathetic(2) bartender -- often makes people feel better.They said talking about negative feelings activates a part of the brain responsible for impulse control."This region of the brain seems to be involved in putting on the brakes(3)," said University of California, Los Angeles researcher Matthew Lieberman.He and colleagues scanned the brains of 30 people -- 18 women and 12 men between 18 and 36 -- who were shown pictures of faces expressing strong emotions.They were asked to categorize(4) the feelings in words like sad or angry, or to choose between two gender-specific names like "Sally or Harry" that matched the face.What they found is that when people attached a word like angry to an angry-looking face, the response in the amygdale(5) portion of the brain that handles fear, panic and other strong emotions decreased."This seems to dampen(6) down the response in these basic emotional circuits in the brain -- in this case the amygdala," Lieberman said in a telephone interview.What lights up instead is the right ventrolateral(7) prefrontal(8) cortex(9), part of the brain that controls impulses."This is the only region of the entire brain that is more active when you choose an emotion word for the picture than when you choose a name for the picture," he said.He said the same region of the brain has been found in prior studies to play a role in motor control."If you are driving along and you see a yellow light, you have to inhibit one response in order to step on the brake," he said. "This same region helps to inhibit emotional responses as well."The researchers did not find significant differences along gender lines, but Lieberman said prior studies have hinted at some differences in the benefits men and women derive from talking about their feelings."Women may do more of this spontaneously(10), but when men are instructed to do it, they may get more benefit from it," he said. 周三,美国大脑科学家称:将悲伤和愤怒转化成语言人就会感觉好很多。此发现能解释为什么当人们和心理医生、甚至是有共鸣的酒吧招待诉说心里话后心情会舒畅些。科学家说谈心能够刺激大脑中负责控制冲动的部分。加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶研究员Matthew Lieberman说:“大脑的这一部分似乎能够停止某些脑部活动。”他和同事们让18到36岁间的18名女子和12名男子分别观看面部照片,并用语言描述出这些面部情绪,同时对他们进行脑部扫描。受测者要用“难过”或者“生气”这两个词来描述不同照片,或者用性别特点分明的“Sally”或“Harry”来描述。科学家发现,当人们看着愤怒表情说“生气”一词时,他们脑中负责恐惧、惊慌和其他强烈情绪的扁桃体状物质的反应便会降低。Lieberman在电话采访中说:“语言似乎能压制大脑的这些基本情绪通路的反应—在这里是指扁桃体状物质”。相对的,大脑中负责冲动的右外腹前额皮层会变得活跃。当人们为图片选择一个情绪词汇时,右外腹前额皮层是唯一一个比选择人名时活跃的脑部区域。他说在此前的研究中发现,此区域还负责动作控制。他说:“如果开车时看到黄灯,你必须作出反应踩刹车。此区域同样可以反应阻止某些情绪”。研究人员称并为发现男女在此有区别,但是Lieberman说之前的研究曾显示谈心对于男女来说是不一样的。“女人本能地谈心,男人则往往是被提示才会谈心,但是一旦男人开始谈,他们能比女人得到更多的释放感”。 /200805/37921。

In a bar in Beijing or an underground rail carriage on the Shanghai Metro, the sight of WeChat, the addictive chat app developed by Tencent Holdings, is ubiquitous. But when you spy it over the shoulder of your neighbour on the Metro, chances are they are messaging colleagues rather than friends.无论是在北京的酒吧,还是在上海地铁的车厢内,随处可以看到有人正在使用微信(WeChat)——由腾讯控股(Tencent Holdings)研发的令人沉迷的聊天应用。但是,如果你在地铁上斜眼偷看旁边乘客的手机,你很可能看到他们正在给同事发微信,而不是给朋友发微信。At almost every Chinese workplace, WeChat has become the primary means of communication. Conversations through WeChat group messages have replaced email, files can be shared in the app, and group voice calls can replace meetings.几乎在中国每一个工作场所,微信都已经成了主要的沟通方式。微信群聊已经取代了电子邮件,人们可以通过微信共享文件,同时群组语音通话可以代替开会。But there are some big drawbacks: WeChat messages do not have the legal status of a written email, message history can be hard to access and the security of corporate information can be a concern.但是,其中也有一些比较大的缺点:微信消息不具有电子邮件的法律效力,消息记录很难获得,同时企业信息安全也可能成为顾虑之一。Tencent has set out to fix this, with Enterprise WeChat. The app has all the usual chat features, plus some extras: employees can ask for time off, file expenses or even clock in to show they are at work. Security has been upgraded and companies must register before employees can use the service.腾讯打算用企业微信(Enterprise WeChat)来解决这些问题。这款应用拥有所有的一般聊天功能,同时还有一些附加功能:员工可以在上面请假、报销、甚至考勤。安全方面也进行了升级,企业必须先注册,然后员工才能使用该务。What Tencent is trying has echoes of Facebook at Work, a programme for workplace communication launched last year. Unlike Facebook, whose users mostly use the platform for personal communication, WeChat aly had a big corporate user base before the app: it now needs to get them to move over to the updated version.腾讯目前的尝试类似于Facebook at Work,后者是去年推出的工作交流软件。Facebook的用户大多使用该平台进行私人交流,微信与之不同:它在推出企业版之前已经拥有了庞大的企业用户基础,现在需要把这些用户迁移至这个更新版本中。Once they do, Enterprise WeChat may help Tencent solve a different problem: how to make more money from WeChat, which despite having 700m users has never generated big profits.一旦用户开始使用企业微信,它或许有助于腾讯解决另一个问题:如何利用微信赚更多钱。尽管微信拥有7亿用户,但是从未产生过巨额利润。Enterprise WeChat is free but that could change. Workplace chat apps in Silicon Valley have garnered some rich valuations (such as Slack, valued at .8bn) off the idea that companies will pay handsome subscription fees for their service.企业微信目前是免费的,但是这一点有可能改变。出于企业将为务付可观订阅费的想法,硅谷研发的一些工作聊天应用得到了高昂的估值(比如Slack,得到了38亿美元的估值)。 /201605/441565。

A lot of big claims are made about the transformative power of artificial intelligence. But it is worth listening to some of the big warnings too. Last month, Kate Crawford, principal researcher at Microsoft Research, warned that the increasing power of AI could result in a “fascist’s dream” if the technology were misused by authoritarian regimes.关于人工智能的变革威力,人们提出了很多大胆的设想。但我们也有必要听听一些严重警告。上月,微软研究院(Microsoft Research)首席研究员凯特?克劳福德(Kate Crawford)警告称,如果被威权政府滥用,威力与日俱增的人工智能可能会酿成一场“法西斯梦”。“Just as we are seeing a step function increase in the speed of AI, something else is happening: the rise of ultra-nationalism, rightwing authoritarianism and fascism,” Ms Crawford told the SXSW tech conference.克劳福德在SXSW科技大会上表示:“就在我们看到人工智能的发展速度呈阶梯型上升时,其他一些事情也在发生:极端民族主义、右翼威权主义和法西斯主义崛起。”The creation of vast data registries, the targeting of population groups, the abuse of predictive policing and the manipulation of political beliefs could all be enabled by AI, she said.她表示,人工智能可能带来庞大的数据登记册、针对特定人口群体、滥用预测型警务以及操纵政治信仰。Ms Crawford is not alone in expressing concern about the misapplication of powerful new technologies, sometimes in unintentional ways. Sir Mark Walport, the British government’s chief scientific adviser, warned that the unthinking use of AI in areas such as the medicine and the law, involving nuanced human judgment, could produce damaging results and erode public trust in the technology.克劳福德并不是唯一对强大的新技术被错误使用(有时以意想不到的方式)感到担忧的人。英国政府首席科学顾问马克?沃尔波特(Mark Walport)警告称,在医学和法律等涉及细腻人类判断的领域不假思索地使用人工智能,可能带来破坏性结果,并侵蚀公众对这项技术的信任。Although AI had the potential to enhance human judgment, it also risked baking in harmful prejudices and giving them a spurious sense of objectivity. “Machine learning could internalise all the implicit biases contained within the history of sentencing or medical treatment — and externalise these through their algorithms,” he wrote in an article in Wired.尽管人工智能有增强人类判断的潜力,但它也可能带来有害的偏见,并产生一种错误的客观感觉。他在《连线》(Wired)杂志的一篇文章中写道:“机器学习可能会内部化在量刑或医疗历史中存在的所有隐性偏见,并通过它们的算法外部化。”As ever, the dangers are a lot easier to identify than they are to fix. Unscrupulous regimes are never going to observe regulations constraining the use of AI. But even in functioning law-based democracies it will be tricky to frame an appropriate response. Maximising the positive contributions that AI can make while minimising its harmful consequences will be one of the toughest public policy challenges of our times.就像一直以来的情况那样,识别危险仍然要比化解危险容易得多。没有底线的政权永远不会遵守限制人工智能使用的规定。然而,即便在正常运转的基于法律的民主国家,框定适当的回应也很棘手。将人工智能可以做出的积极贡献最大化,同时将其有害后果降至最低,将是我们这个时代最艰巨的公共政策挑战之一。For starters, the technology is difficult to understand and its use is often surreptitious. It is also becoming increasingly hard to find independent experts, who have not been captured by the industry or are not otherwise conflicted.首先,人工智能技术很难理解,其用途往往带有神秘色。找到尚未被行业挖走、且不存在其他利益冲突的独立专家也变得越来越难。Driven by something approaching a commercial arms race in the field, the big tech companies have been snapping up many of the smartest academic experts in AI. Much cutting-edge research is therefore in the private rather than public domain.受到该领域类似商业军备竞赛的竞争的推动,大型科技公司一直在争夺人工智能领域很多最优秀的学术专家。因此,很多领先研究位于私营部门,而非公共部门。To their credit, some leading tech companies have acknowledged the need for transparency, albeit belatedly. There has been a flurry of initiatives to encourage more policy research and public debate about AI.值得肯定的是,一些领先科技公司认识到了透明的必要性,尽管有些姗姗来迟。还有一连串倡议鼓励对人工智能展开更多政策研究和公开辩论。Elon Musk, founder of Tesla Motors, has helped set up OpenAI, a non-profit research company pursuing safe ways to develop AI.特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)创始人埃隆?马斯克(Elon Musk)帮助创建了非盈利研究机构OpenAI,致力于以安全方式开发人工智能。Amazon, Facebook, Google DeepMind, IBM, Microsoft and Apple have also come together in Partnership on AI to initiate more public discussion about the real-world applications of the technology.亚马逊(Amazon)、Facebook、谷歌(Google) DeepMind、IBM、微软(Microsoft)和苹果(Apple)也联合发起Partnership on AI,以启动更多有关该技术实际应用的公开讨论。Mustafa Suleyman, co-founder of Google DeepMind and a co-chair of the Partnership, says AI can play a transformative role in addressing some of the biggest challenges of our age. But he accepts that the rate of progress in AI is outstripping our collective ability to understand and control these systems. Leading AI companies must therefore become far more innovative and proactive in holding themselves to account. To that end, the London-based company is experimenting with verifiable data audits and will soon announce the composition of an ethics board to scrutinise all the company’s activities.谷歌DeepMind联合创始人、Partnership on AI联合主席穆斯塔法?苏莱曼(Mustafa Suleyman)表示,人工智能可以在应对我们这个时代一些最大挑战方面发挥变革性作用。但他认为,人工智能的发展速度超过我们理解和控制这些系统的集体能力。因此,领先人工智能公司必须在对自己问责方面发挥更具创新和更主动的作用。为此,这家总部位于伦敦的公司正在尝试可验的数据审计,并将很快宣布一个道德委员会的构成,该委员会将审查该公司的所有活动。But Mr Suleyman suggests our societies will also have to devise better frameworks for directing these technologies for the collective good. “We have to be able to control these systems so they do what we want when we want and they don’t run ahead of us,” he says in an interview for the FT Tech Tonic podcast.但苏莱曼指出,我们的社会还必须设计更好的框架,指导这些技术为集体利益务。他在接受英国《金融时报》Tech Tonic播客的采访时表示:“我们必须能够控制这些系统,使他们在我们希望的时间做我们想做的事,而不会自说自话。”Some observers say the best way to achieve that is to adapt our legal regimes to ensure that AI systems are “explainable” to the public. That sounds simple in principle, but may prove fiendishly complex in practice.一些观察人士表示,做到这点的最佳方法是调整我们的法律制度,确保人工智能系统可以向公众“解释”。从原则上说,这听上去很简单,但实际做起来可能极为复杂。Mireille Hildebrandt, professor of law and technology at the Free University of Brussels, says one of the dangers of AI is that we become overly reliant on “mindless minds” that we do not fully comprehend. She argues that the purpose and effect of these algorithms must therefore be testable and contestable in a courtroom. “If you cannot meaningfully explain your system’s decisions then you cannot make them,” she says.布鲁塞尔自由大学(Free University of Brussels)法律和科技学教授米雷列?希尔德布兰特(Mireille Hildebrandt)表示,人工智能的危险之一是我们变得过度依赖我们并不完全理解的“不用脑子的智慧”。她认为,这些算法的目的和影响必须是可测试而且在法庭上是可争论的。她表示:“如果你无法有意义地解释你的系统的决定,那么你就不能制造它们。”We are going to need a lot more human intelligence to address the challenges of AI.我们将需要更多的人类智慧来应对人工智能挑战。 /201704/505680。

Catherine Zeta-Jones, it would seem, has a similar attitude to shampoo and conditioner.While most of us have to make do with a handful of fragrant soapy foam, the Welsh actress smears on truffles and caviar.At ?200 a time, just for the fish eggs, looking good does not come cheap.But she credits the gourmet delights for giving her long brown tresses an unbeatable shine."Catherine discovered the caviar treatment last summer and was astounded by the difference it made to her hair," said a source."She has an incredibly rich and vibrant natural hair color but the creamy, almost oily nature of caviar really brings this out, making the color even richer and making it so much more glossy."The eggs are packed with omega-3 fatty acids necessary for the formation of structural proteins. It is these proteins that repair dry and damaged hair and smooth over any split ends."Miss Zeta-Jones's hair is washed with a truffle-based shampoo, then smeared with the caviar and which is combed through and left to set.Unlike many fad treatments, caviar is actually proven to work as a conditioning therapy. The essential fatty acids it contains produce collagen and keratin, two proteins vital for the appearance of sleek hair.In 2005, the former Darling Buds Of May star was voted the celebrity with the "best dressed" hair in a nationwide survey by Sunsilk and London's City University. 对于喜欢洗牛奶浴的(埃及女王)克利奥帕特拉来说,普通的水一定不能满足她的要求。凯瑟琳·泽塔-琼斯对于洗发水和护发用品的要求与此如出一辙。我们大多数人也就用用一般的洗发水,而这位威尔士影星则用松露和鱼子酱。她一次护发用的鱼子酱就需要200英镑--看来美丽是要付出代价的!而泽塔-琼斯则将她那一头极有光泽的褐色秀发归功于这一美食。一位消息人士说:“凯瑟琳去年夏天发现鱼子酱护发品之后,便十分惊讶于这种东西给头发带来的变化。”“多油的鱼子酱使她原本色泽饱满、自然鲜亮的秀发更加饱满、亮泽。”“鱼子酱中富含的多不饱和脂肪酸是合成结构蛋白所需的主要物质。而结构蛋白的作用就是修复干枯、受损发质以及消除分叉。”泽塔-琼斯用富含松露的洗发水洗发,然后抹上鱼子酱、将其梳匀后再晾一会。与很多流行的护发用品不同的是,鱼子酱被明具有护理治疗的功效。它所富含的基本脂肪酸所产生的胶原质和角蛋白两种蛋白质是使头发光滑亮泽的主要物质。2005年,这位曾出演过电影《五月花》的女星在Sunsilk公司和伦敦城市大学联合开展的一项全国性的调查中,被评为“头发最美”的名人。 /200803/29227。