2018年09月20日 08:15:47|来源:国际在线|编辑:医苑面诊
It’s 3:28am. You’re wide awake. You toss and turn, but you can’t sleep. You want to sleep, but you’re mind and body are not cooperating. What should you do?Physical Causes of SleeplessnessThere are a many possible causes for waking up in the middle of the night and being unable to fall back to sleep. It could be physical such as muscle aches, muscles tension, need to go to the bathroom, you left the TV on, your partner is snoring, the dog is snoring, you had too much caffeine or alcohol today, and on and on. For these we can usually figure out the solution:* do some light stretches for muscle aches* take some aspirin/Tylenol/Advil/etc if pain is keeping you awake* move to a different bed* turn off the TV* get up and do something until you’re tired enough to fall back asleepMental Causes of SleeplessnessWhen you’re worried about something, that can be a real bugaboo. If you’ve got something on your mind, it can be hard to sleep. Many times you may not even be aware that you’re worried, much less what you’re worried about. But, in most cases, you will need to address the problem or you probably won’t get back to sleep anytime soon. So what should you do? Follow these steps to relieve your mind of worries and get back to sleep. (Yes, even tough guys like my Dad: Get in touch with your feelings and you’ll sleep better!)1. Signs from our Dreams. If you woke up from a dream, think about it for a moment. What was going on in the dream? What do you think each part represents? Is there something you are afraid of, worried about, or a problem you need to solve?2. What’s on Your Mind? Whether you had a dream or not, ask yourself,* What’s bothering me?* What problem do I need to solve?Maybe you are worried about your health or a loved one’s health. Maybe there is an issue at work that you’ve been avoiding. Maybe you’ve been in an argument with your spouse or a good friend. Or perhaps you’re just feeling scared of dying. (Night time has a pesky way of doing that sometimes.) Or it might just be that your to-do list is so daunting it’s waking you up at night. Whatever it is don’t be afraid to identify it and label it. Thinking about it is not going to make your fears materialize. Not thinking about it is going to keep you from sleeping. Figure it out and you’ll back on your way to some restful zzzz’s.3. Pen, Paper, amp; Solutions. You’re awake anyway, so flip on a light and grab a notebook and pen. Write down the issue that is on your mind. And then write down action steps you can take to resolve your issue..* For problems, write down the steps you will start to take tomorrow. If you don’t know where to begin, write down that you will enlist someone to help you.* For fears, write down the fear. Write down why it is scary. Write down any action steps you can take to alleviate your fears. If it is something that is unavoidable, write down reason why you are strong enough to handle this. If you have to fake it, then do so! Come up with a “strength mantra” that you’ll use to fall back asleep. Some suggestions are “I am strong” or “I am calm” or “I turn it over to God/Universe/Fate.”4. Stretch and Breathe. Once you have your issue worked out, do some soothing simple stretches either in bed or on the floor. A great one to do is the child’s pose. Sit on your knees and fold forward with arms outstretched. You will feel a wonderful release in your arms, shoulders, and back. After that do any stretches that you sense would feel good. Then lay down and take several long slow breaths in and out. Breathe in for a count of 8, hold for 8, and breathe out for a count of 16. This will help slow down your body and mind.5. Mantra. Lay down in a comfortable position in your bed, and use your “strength mantra” or some other calming, soothing mantra to help you sleep. Here are some good ones:* Mmmmmmm* Om* Ahhhh* So SleepyFor some people saying a particular prayer, such as “Hail Mary’s” can be very helpful with falling asleep. The idea is to quiet your mind by focusing on a simple word or your breath. Be kind, gentle and patient with yourself. Sleep will come. Let your thoughts be like clouds in the sky. Just watch them go by without attachment. Keep returning to your mantra and your breath.6. When All Else Fails. If you can’t fall asleep after a long period of time, consider getting up and starting to work on your solutions. If you have too much energy, then it makes sense to get up and do something with your time. Follow your instincts about what you should do. Don’t worry about losing sleep for one night. You can handle this.Prevention is the Best Medicine for a Good Night’s SleepTo ensure a good night’s sleep in the future, consider these tips.* Take it easy on the caffeine. Either eliminate it or limit to morning only. The effects of caffeine last for 9 hours, so you do the math.* Have a bedtime ritual that is calming. You could before bed, plan your day for tomorrow, write in your journal, meditate, listen to soothing music, or anything else that helps your mind to slow down.* Turn off the TV at least 30 minutes before bedtime. TV is a stimulant so establish a routine that helps you turn it off. You’ll fall asleep better.* Listen to your body. If you feel tired, go to bed. Don’t torture your self by not getting enough sleep.* Listen to your mind. If there is something on your mind before bed time, write about it in a notebook or talk to someone about it. Come up with solutions that you can work on tomorrow. 现在是凌晨3点28分。你仍然一丝睡意全无。你在床上辗转反侧,可仍旧不能入眠。你很想入睡,但你的思想和身体却不能同你的意愿协调一致。你该怎么办?失眠的生理因素有很多可能的因素,导致午夜惊醒,随后不能再次入睡。可能是生理的原因,比如肌肉的疼痛,肌肉的拉伤,去卫生间的需要,电视还在开着,与你同屋的人在打擤,你的在打呼噜,你今天喝了太多的咖啡或饮了太多的酒,等等等等。如果是上述原因导致无法睡眠,我们通常都有解答的办法:· 如果是肌肉有痛感,做一些轻微的伸展运动· 如果是身体的疼痛使你不能入睡,吃一些阿司匹林、羟苯基乙酰胺、雅维止痛药· 换一张床去睡· 关掉电视· 起来活动活动,直到你感到非常疲惫,可以倒头就睡失眠的心理因素如果你的心里有忧虑的事情,那么这的确会困扰的你睡眠。如果你心里一直在想着某些事,那么你很难安睡。许多时候,你可能甚至不知道你在担忧,更不知道你所忧虑的是些什么。然而,大多数情况下,你有必要弄清楚你的困扰究竟是什么,否则你可能什么时候都无法很快入睡。那么你要怎么做呢?依照以下步骤,放下你的担忧,安然入睡。(不错,即使像我父亲这样的人也不难做到以下这几点:探知你的内心,你会睡得更好!)1. 从我们的梦里找寻蛛丝马迹。如果你是在梦中惊醒,仔细回想一下。梦里发生了什么?你认为梦里每一部分内容都代表着什么?是不是有什么是你害怕的,是你担心的,或者一个你急需解决的问题?2. 你在想什么?不管你有没有做梦,问问自己,· 在担心什么?· 什么问题需要解决?或许你在担心你的健康,或是你爱人的健康。或许是你工作中的问题亟待解决。或许是你和你的爱人、也许和好友发生了什么争执。或许你因为害怕死亡而恐惧。(有时在夜间往往更容易产生这种恐惧。)也许只是由于,你想要做的事情的清单很让你为之怯步,因此使你夜晚无法入睡。不管你担心的是些什么,毋须害怕,找到它,弄清楚它。要这样想:它不可能使你恐惧的事情真的发生。不要那样想:它会使你持续失眠。找到你担心的是什么,你会恢复安然的睡眠。3. 笔,纸,和解答。总之你已经醒了,那么就打开灯,取出笔记本和笔。写出你心里想的事情。再写出你能解决这些问题的实际方法……· 对于那些问题,写出你会在明天着手实施的步骤。如果你不知道从哪里开始,那么写出你会向哪些人寻求帮助。· 对于那些恐惧,写出你所害怕的是什么。写出它为什么使你恐慌。写出你能够减轻这种恐惧的每个实际行动。如果你怕的是不可避免的事情,那么就写出你为什么有这么强大的能力,足以应对这一恐惧。如果你必须要假装自己很强大,那么就这样捏造吧!想出那些“力量之魔咒”,你可以依靠它来安然入睡。你可以写“我很强大”或“我非常镇静”或“我把它交给上帝、宇宙、命运来对付它。”4. 伸展身体,放松呼吸。一旦你明白了不能入睡的原因是什么,就可以在床上或地板上做一些简单的身体伸展运动。最好的办法就是保持孩童的姿势。跪着坐下来,双臂伸展,身体向前合拢。你会觉得手臂、肩膀、后背完全舒展,感觉非常舒适。随后,自己觉得怎么舒就做什么样的放松伸展。然后躺下来,做几次深呼吸。吸气的时候数到8,屏住呼吸数到8,呼气的时候数到16。这样会帮助身心放缓。5. 魔咒。用一种非常舒的姿势躺在床上,用你的“力量之魔咒”或其他一些能使你平静、宽慰的魔咒来帮助你入睡。这里有一些很好的例子:· 嗯……· 哦嗯……· 啊……· 睡吧睡吧对于那些吟诵特殊祈祷的人来说,例如,祈祷“万福玛利亚保佑”,会帮助他们入睡。这样做是为了使你的思想集中到一些简单的词语或是你的呼吸,从而使之得到平静。对待自己,心绪要平和、轻柔、耐心。这样睡意就会来临。让你的思绪如同天空的云朵。你只需看着它们来来去去无牵无挂。保持念你的魔咒,保持留意你的呼吸。6. 如果以上的做法全都没有效果。如果你经过很长时间仍然不能入睡,那么可以考虑从床上起来,着手寻找自己的解决方法。如果你确实有极大的精力,那么就应该起来,用你目前的时间做一些事情吧。追随你的本能,做你应该做的事。不必担心失去一个晚上的睡眠。你能够应对这些许的疲惫。睡一个好觉,最好的药物治疗就是预防。为了确保未来的夜晚不会失眠,考虑做到以下几点。· 不要摄取过多的咖啡因。或者是不再喝,或者是只限于早晨饮用。咖啡因的药力影响持续9个小时,因此你需要计算哪个时间饮用不会影响睡眠。· 就寝时间遵循一定的规律,会让你心定神宁。上床以前你可以阅读,可以计划你明天的事情,写你的日记,思考,听轻音乐,或者做其他能帮助你的心情放缓的事情。· 就寝前至少30分钟,关上电视。电视对观众是一种刺激,因此在就寝前养成一种规律,帮助你按时把它关掉。这样你会睡得更好。· 倾听你的身体。如果你感到疲惫,就上床睡觉。不必因为没有睡够而折磨自己。· 倾听你的思想。如果上床就寝以前,你的脑海中想着什么事情,就把它写在笔记本上,或者和别人谈论。找出解决的办法,明天能够依照实施。 /200806/42586Imagine a place where driverless cars roam the streets, intelligent electricity grids regulate the power and everything is built from the ground up to the specifications of the ideal “smart” city.想象一下这个地方,无人驾驶汽车行驶在街上,智能电网调节电力,一切都按照理想的“智能”城市的规格从一张白纸开始建设。This idealised place has been getting a lot of attention in Silicon Valley of late. Y Combinator, the region’s best-known tech incubator, is the latest to dream, announcing a research project aimed at stimulating ideas and designs that it hopes to use in a real-world location.这种理想之地最近在硅谷获得极大关注。硅谷最著名的科技孵化器Y Combinator是最新的梦想家,宣布实施一个研究项目,旨在激励有望在真实世界用得上的创意和设计。It is far from alone. From Google co-founder Larry Pageto libertarian venture capitalist Peter Thiel, ideas like this have had plenty of currency. Y Combinator says it wants to to speed up the adoption of technologies for ordinary people, not just build “crazy libertarian utopias for techies”.Y Combinator绝非唯一一家有此类想法的公司。从谷歌(Google)联合创始人拉里#8226;佩奇(Larry Page)到信奉自由意志主义的风险投资家彼得#8226;塞尔(Peter Thiel),此类想法颇有市场。Y Combinator表示,它希望加快普及面向普通人的技术,而非仅仅是“为技术迷建造疯狂的自由意志主义乌托邦”。This hankering is prompted by more than a passing bout of California dreaming. It reflects a deeper issue that the tech industry faces as it moves into a new phase — and one that will have real-world implications for investors.推动这种言论的不仅仅是转瞬即逝的加州梦想。它反映出科技行业进入新阶段面临的更深层次的问题,这个问题将对投资者产生切实的影响。Companies like Google and Facebook — where Mr Thiel was the first outside investor — made their fortunes at a time when the digital and physical worlds were largely separate. But technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence are breaking down that barrier, pushing algorithms deeper into the functioning of the everyday world.谷歌和Facebook这类公司——塞尔是Facebook第一个外部投资者——是在数字和真实世界基本上分离的时候异军突起的。但机器人和人工智能等技术打破了数字和真实世界之间的壁垒,推动算法深入日常世界的运行。Hence the dream of an idealised place that is both open to — and safe for — experimentation. But it is little help to present-day tech companies, which will have to make their products function in today’s world.因此人们梦想有这样一个理想之地,它对前沿实验既是开放的,也是安全的。但这对当前的技术公司没有什么帮助,这些公司将不得不让它们的产品在当今世界运行。Last week’s news of a fatal accident involving Tesla Motors’ autonomous driving technology is a case in point. The first death of a person at the wheel of a car that was operating under its own control raises difficult ethical and regulatory issues.最近涉及特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)自动驾驶技术的致命车祸是一个很好的例子。第一例自动驾驶死亡事故引发了棘手的道德和监管问题。From the purely rationalistic position taken by Tesla boss Elon Musk, one death after the 130m miles of autonomous driving his vehicles have clocked up is better than the average fatality rate on US roads. Even before this, “the better-than-human threshold had been crossed”, Tesla declared in a defensive blog post on Wednesday.从特斯拉老板埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)所采取的纯理性的角度看,自动驾驶行驶超过1.3亿英里以来才发生一例车祸死亡,在安全记录上优于美国道路交通的平均致命事故率。特斯拉发布的一篇采取守势的文称,甚至在该事故发生之前,“自动驾驶就已跨过了比人工驾驶更安全的门槛”。On the other hand, if it is found that the technology resulted in a death that an attentive driver would ily have avoided, it would be a setback. It also would raise the question of whether the messy human world, where streets were not designed for robots and other drivers make mistakes, can ever be made safe for driverless vehicles.另一方面,如果人们发现,自动驾驶技术导致了一起专心驾驶的司机本可轻松避免的死亡事故,那将是一个挫折。它也将令人质疑,杂乱的人类世界——街道并非为机器人设计,其他驾驶者会犯错——究竟能否被改造得对无人驾驶汽车安全。This puts US regulators in an unenviable position as they consider how to respond. And what goes for cars may one day go for many other everyday situations, as algorithms are embedded in more objects.美国监管者正在考虑如何做出回应,他们的处境不令人羡慕。随着算法被植入更多物体,汽车发生的情况,有朝一日也可能发生在其他许多日常场合。With its threat of punitive damages through the court system, the US can be a risky place for product experimentation. Mr Musk said on Wednesday that the crash had not yet led to any product liability suits. But regulators may still be cautious. Driverless-cars development is aly threatened by fragmented state-level regulation, and the Tesla crash certainly won’t help.由于可能被法庭判决付惩罚性损害赔偿金,在美国进行产品试验风险很大。马斯克最近表示,此次事故还没有导致任何产品责任诉讼。但监管者仍可能采取谨慎态度。无人驾驶汽车的发展已经受到各自为政的各州监管的威胁,特斯拉的撞车事故当然不会有帮助。The danger for tech is that it ends up like the pharmaceuticals industry, which has complained for years about a supposedly risk-averse regulatory system that adds huge costs and delays to new drugs that might offer benefits. Yet drug development has not been driven offshore, despite repeated warnings. The US is still the world’s richest drugs market, so it makes sense to persevere.高技术的风险在于,它最终就像制药行业一样,后者多年来抱怨:厌恶风险的监管体系增加了巨额成本,并拖延了可能造福于人类的新药上市。然而药物研发并未被挤出境外,尽管有人再三警告。美国仍然是全球最富裕的药物市场,因此坚持是明智的。The same might not be true of technologies like driverless cars and drones. China is racing to capitalise on the technology and Baidu — whose expertise in deep learning stems partly from Silicon Valley — has a goal of getting to mass production in five years.无人驾驶汽车和无人机等技术可能不会这样。中国正在抢着利用这种技术,百度(Baidu)制定了在5年内大规模生产的目标——该公司在深度学习上的专长部分源于硅谷。There are at least two things Silicon Valley could do to help itself. One is to pay more attention to designing the new interactions between humans and “intelligent” machines. Tesla warns its drivers to keep their hands on the wheel at all times, but it also brags that its technology is better than a human driver — the kind of mixed message that makes it harder for the humans still in the loop to know exactly when and how they may be called on to override the technology.硅谷至少可以做两件事来自助。一是更加致力于设计人类与“智能”机器之间新的互动。特斯拉警告,驾驶者必须时刻将手放在方向盘上,但它也夸口称,其技术比人类驾驶者更加优越,这种混杂信息让仍然“在环”的人类更难知道自己何时以及如何被要求接手,取代无人驾驶技术。The second is to do more to educate users about both the benefits and the risks of robotics and AI. That would help to ensure an appropriate response to the shortcomings of the technology — especially when, inevitably, a human dies due to the acts or omissions of a robot.二是采取更多举措来教育用户,让他们明白机器人和人工智能带来的益处和风险。这将有助于确保对技术缺陷做出正确回应,尤其是在人类不可避免因机器人的行为或遗漏而死亡的时候。 /201607/455312

The Australian computer scientist claiming to be the enigmatic founder of bitcoin has backtracked on promises to prove his identity, claiming he did not have the “courage” to do so in the face of intense scrutiny.自称是比特币神秘创始人的澳大利亚计算机科学家已收回明自己身份的承诺,称在严密关注之下他没有“勇气”这样做。Craig Wrighthad promised to provide evidence to support his claim earlier this week to have created bitcoin in 2008 using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. The announcement by the self-styled security expert sparked scepticism among tech experts globally, given the enduring mystery surrounding the creation of the crypto currency.克雷格#8226;赖特(Craig Wright)在本周早些时候称,他在2008年化名“中本聪”(Satoshi Nakamoto)创造了比特币,他曾承诺要提供据持这一说法。这位自称网络安全专家的公告引发了全球科技专家的怀疑,因为围绕这种加密货币的创造仍疑云密布。In a blog post on his website entitled “I’m sorry”, Mr Wright said he was “not strong enough” to face allegations about his qualifications and character that were emerging. He said he would not now publish the proof that he has access to the keys to the digital currency.赖特的网站上发表了一篇标题为“对不起”的客文章,他在文中表示自己“不够坚强”,无法面对不断浮出水面的关于他的资历和性格的指控。他表示,他现在不会公布自己能够获取比特币秘钥的据。He acknowledged this would damage his supporters, including Gavin Andresen, the former chief scientist at the Bitcoin Foundation who has more recently begun to question his initial backing of Mr Wright’s claim.他承认这会伤害到他的持者,其中包括比特币基金会(Bitcoin Foundation)前首席科学家加文#8226;安德烈森(Gavin Andresen),安德烈森近日开始质疑自己最初对赖特声明的持。Jon Matonis, a founder of the Bitcoin Foundation, also supported Mr Wright. Yesterday, he appeared to stand by the Australian entrepreneur with a tweet that said: “There won’t be an on-chain signing from early bitcoin blocks, but there also won’t be another Satoshi.”比特币基金会创始人乔恩#8226;马托尼斯(Jon Matonis)依然持赖特。昨天他在Twitter上发消息称,继续信任这位澳大利亚企业家:“不会出现早期比特币区块链的签名,但也不会出现另一个中本聪。”Mr Wright said in his post: “They were not deceived but I know that the world will never believe me now.”赖特在文中写道:“他们没有受骗,但我知道世界从此不再相信我。”Mr Wright seems to suggest in the blog that he is sill standing by the claim, which is likely to fan speculation on the identity of the anonymous founder.赖特似乎在文中暗示他仍坚持这一声明,这可能会激起对匿名创始人身份的猜测。“I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me. But as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. I cannot.”“我曾相信我可以抛弃多年的匿名和隐藏。但随着本周事态的发展,随着我准备发表访问最早秘钥的据,我垮掉了。我没有这个勇气。我做不到。”Mr Wright had said he could show a transfer of bitcoin from “an early block” and “independently verifiable documents” after earlier evidence he provided was questioned as it bore similarity to a 2009 bitcoin transaction.由于赖特较早前提供的据被质疑与2009年一笔比特币交易相似,他曾表示可以展示从“一个早期区块”转移比特币,并提供“可独立验的文档”。 /201605/441904

Altruism(1), one of the most difficult human behaviors to define, can be detected in brain scans, U.S. researchers reported on Sunday.They found activity in a specific area of the brain could predict altruistic behavior -- and people's own reports of how selfish or giving they are."Although understanding the function of this brain region may not necessarily(2) identify what drives people like Mother Theresa, it may give clues(3) to the origins of important social behaviors like altruism," said Scott Huettel, a neuroscientist(4) at Duke University who led the study.They set up an experiment in which they put 45 college students into a functional magnetic(5) resonance(6) imaging scanner, which can take real-time images of brain activity.They gave the students various games to play, and told them that winning earned cash for either themselves or for a charity. The students had chosen the charities beforehand(7) from a list, the researchers report.The students reacted differently depending on whether they won for themselves or for charity with the ones who described themselves as altruistic responding more strongly."The game involved reacting as fast as one can to the appearance of a target; if one responds fast enough, then money was earned," Huettel said.The task was fairly simple, and the students did not give up any payments to themselves to give to the charities. But it cost enough effort that Huettel believes it did represent altruistic intent."Conversely, trying to watch people in their daily lives would make data collection nearly impossible. So, we settled on(8) self-reports as a good, albeit(9) imperfect, measure."Huettel believes it is valid(10) to try to assess altruism scientifically."It is hardly the case that all altruistic acts come from people who are religiously faithful; there are undoubtedly many altruistic atheists(11)," He said."And, a religious explanation would have considerable(12) difficulty explaining why some animals help others of their species at significant cost or danger to themselves."Next his team hopes to test children, and find out how and when altruism develops. 周日,美国研究人员称,最难解释的人类行为之一—利他主义可以通过脑部扫描探测。他们发现脑部一块特殊区域的活动能预示利他主义行为—身体自己汇报自私度或者利他度。本研究组长、杜克大学神经学家Scott Huettel说:“尽管对这部分脑功能的认识还无法解释到底是什么可以让人们像德兰修女一样,但却能让我们更加靠近诸如利他主义这样的重要社会行为的根源。”研究人员将45位大学生送入能够实时记录脑部活动的功能磁共振成像扫描仪。他们让学生们玩不同的游戏,并每次让他们选择赢的钱是留给自己还是捐献福利机构。游戏开始前学生们可以从列表上选择受捐赠的福利机构。选择不同受益者,游戏结果大大不同,同时自称是利他主义者的学生的反应更为强烈。Huettel说:“其中一个游戏是让学生目击突然出现的目标,如果反应够快就能赢钱。”任务都很简单,学生们在此过程中不会有任何金钱损失。但是Huettel认为学生付出的努力足可以代表他们的利他意图。“相反地,通过观察人们的日常生活搜集数据几乎是不可能的。所以,我们认为自我汇报是一种虽然不完美,但还不错的方法。”Huettel认为这是评估利他主义的科学有效途径。他说:“并非所有的利他行为都来自有宗教信仰的人;毫无疑问太多无神论者同样是利他主义者。”“而且,宗教无法解释为什么有些动物会付出很大代价、冒很大风险帮助同类。”下一步,他的团队希望测试儿童,试图发现利他主义行为是从何时、如何发展的。 /200805/39176

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