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2018年02月20日 11:37:09|来源:国际在线|编辑:好诊疗
Clean energy清洁能源Let the sun shine让阳光普照大地The future is bright for solar power, even as subsidies are withdrawn尽管补贴不再,太阳能的未来一片光明FORTY-FIVE minutes west of Las Vegas, dejected sinners may encounter a sight to lift their sunken hearts: a sea of 347,000 mirrors, reflecting the rays of the desert sun on to boilers mounted on three 460-foot towers. The Ivanpah solar-thermal plant (pictured), which opened in mid-February, is the largest of its kind in the world. Fully ramped up, it will deliver around 377 megawatts (MW) of power to 140,000 homes in southern California. Its backers compare it to the nearby Hoover Dam; an astronaut claims to have spotted it from the international space station. It is a striking sight, even if the heat from its heliostats has roasted dozens of unfortunate birds alive.距45分的地方,心情沮丧的罪人会看到一幅能照亮他们沉没的心的奇观—34.7万面镜子组成的海洋反射着沙漠太阳的光至三个高达460英尺的塔上的热水器。于二月中旬开始运行的伊凡帕太阳能热电厂(如图所示)是目前世界上最大的太阳能热电厂。开足马力,该电厂能为加利福尼亚南部14万居民提供377兆瓦的电力。其持者将它比作附近美国最高的水坝胡弗水坝。甚至有宇航员说他能在国际空间站找到这个太阳能热电站。尽管电站的定日镜反射的热量硬是将数十只活生生的飞鸟烤熟了,这依然是一道令人叹为观止的风景。Solar power in America is growing rapidly, albeit from a small base (see chart). Last year it represented 29% of new electricity capacity, behind only natural gas at 46%. Solar output has more than doubled during Barack Obamas time in office; GTM, a research firm, reckons it will grow another 26% in 2014. The Department of Energy wants solar to provide 27% of Americas electricity by 2050, up from less than 1% today.虽然太阳能在美国起点低(见下面图表),但发展迅捷。去年太阳能发电占新增电力的29%,仅落后于占46%的天然气发电量。既奥巴马上任以来,太阳能的产出翻了不止一番。全球决策大本营这个调查机构称太阳能发电在2014年将新增26%。美国能源署希望太阳能发电能够由目前提供的不足1%的电力发展到能够在2050年前提供美国27%的电力。Though dazzling, Ivanpah and large plants like it will not generate much of this growth. The federal loan guarantees that allowed their creation have expired. More important are photovoltaic solar cells, a rival technology that converts sunlight directly to electricity. Their cost has fallen so quickly that in many places retail electricity customers are saving money by placing panels on top of their houses or businesses; 200,000 have done so in the past two years. And there is a lot of room to grow. “Theres no market saturation in any state; not even close,” says Lyndon Rive of SolarCity, a solar-installation firm. Even David Crane, the boss of NRG, co-owner of Ivanpah, says that photovoltaic installations are the future.尽管目前风头正盛,伊凡帕以及像它一样的大公司却不能从这样的增长中获益太多。因为作为用于保障他们创造的联邦贷款到期了。更重要的是光电太阳能电池,它是一种关键的技术能直接将太阳光转化成电力。由于该产品的价格急速下跌,许多地方的零售电力的客户将太阳能板安装在他们的屋顶或厂房房顶来发电来节省开。过去的两年已经有20万人这么做了,并且其增长的空间很大。来自太阳城一家太阳能设备安装公司的 Lyndon Rive称“目前不管在哪个州,都没有市场达到饱和,甚至是接近饱和。”甚至作为伊凡帕共有者的NRG能源电力的 David Crane也声称未来是光伏发电装置的天下。Last year sun-soaked California accounted for over half of Americas new photovoltaic installations. That, say solar fans, shows that the sector can thrive even after it loses its subsidies. (The .2 billion California Solar Initiative, which gave cash to homes or firms that went solar, has largely expired.) Solar is also blossoming in unexpected places like Massachusetts and North Carolina.去年,饱受太阳炙烤的加州,其新增的光伏发电装置安装的数量超过整个国家数量的一半。太阳能的持者称这表明即便没有补贴,太阳能发电也会前途无量。(加州太阳能计划得到22亿美元的补助,用于补贴那些使用太阳能的家庭和公司,如今这一补助绝大部分已到期。)此外,在人们想不到的像马赛诸塞州和北卡罗来纳州这样的地方太阳能发电也如花般绽放。A bigger test will come in 2017, when the federal governments solar-investment tax credit drops from 30% to 10% (unless Mr Obama can convince Congress otherwise). Still, says Shayle Kann at GTM, this will be no “death knell”; it will simply eliminate some marginal projects. And by then there may be a revival of Ivanpah-style solar-thermal plants, as energy-storage technologies improve and utility firms look to them to provide steady power throughout the day.更为严峻的挑战将在2017年拉开序幕。那时,联邦政府的太阳能投资税收抵免将由现在的30%骤降至10%,除非奥巴马总统能够说国会不这么做。即便如此,GTM调查机构的Shayle Kann 声称,这也不是太阳能 发电的“死亡钟声”,而仅仅是终止一些边际项目。随后,随着储能技术的发展以及公共事业公司采用这一技术为全天提供稳定的电力,像伊凡帕这样的太阳能热电站还会再次兴盛起来。Yet even if solar power is a boon to consumers, it threatens some utilities. Energy has traditionally been generated centrally, distributed over power lines and sold to consumers. Distributed solar power—generated from rooftop panels—undermines that model (see article). The Edison Electric Institute (EEI), a trade group, warns that distributed generation could do to energy companies what the internet did to newspapers.但是,尽管太阳能电力对消费者有利,它却威胁到其他的公共事业。传统的能源供应是集中式的,通过电线输送到用户家中。分散的太阳能电力是通过人们屋顶的太阳能板发电的,将会颠覆这一传统模式(见文章)。贸易集团爱迪生电力协会警告称,分散发电对能源公司的冲击就如同互联网对新闻报纸产业的冲击一样。Bet your bottom dollar赌上所有的身家Regulations are adapting to this shift: all but seven states have adopted net-metering policies, which credit solar-enabled homes and businesses for the excess energy they feed back into the grid. At least 22 states allow consumers to buy the electricity produced by solar panels that a third party installs on their homes. This lets people take advantage of solars savings without having to pay the hefty up-front installation costs. In 2013, third-party-owned systems accounted for most solar installations in California, Arizona, Colorado and Massachusetts.立法正在适应这一转向:除了7个州以外其他各州都颁布了电价扣减政策,允许安装了太阳能的家庭和企业在太阳能自足之后将多余的电并入电网。至少22个州允许消费者购买第三方安装在他们屋顶的太阳能电池板产生的电。这使得人们不用付高额的前期安装费用就能享受到太阳能带来的实惠。2013年,第三方太阳能系统覆盖了加州、亚利桑那州、科罗拉多州及马萨诸塞州太阳能安装业务的几乎全部的份额。Some utilities grumble that customers who benefit from net metering escape the costs of maintaining the grid they depend on. Last year Arizona Public Service, the states biggest electric firm, urged regulators to slash the savings that new solar customers would derive from net metering. After a fierce campaign their call was rejected, though the regulator approved a small solar surcharge. Georgia Power also proposed a fat tariff; it too was defeated.某些公共事业单位抱怨从电价扣减政策中获益的消费者逃避用于维护他们赖以为继的电网的费用。去年,亚利桑那公共务公司,盖州最大的电力公司敦促监管者严厉批评新增的太阳能电力消费者通过电价扣减政策而得到的储蓄。经过激烈的争夺,尽管监管者比准了小额的太阳能额外费,他们的呼声最终被驳回。佐治亚电力公司也建议要加重赋税,但也被驳回。Julia Hamm of the Solar Electric Power Association identifies three ways regulators could help utilities cope with these changes. First, they could demand monthly infrastructure fees from solar users. Second, they could list every component of value separately rather than wrapping the cost of infrastructure maintenance, for instance, into usage charges. Third, they could split energy used and consumed into separate transactions, meaning that a solar customer sells all his energy to a utility before buying what he needs.美国太阳能电力协会的Julia Hamm 提出三种解决方案帮助公共事业公司面对当前的变化。第一,公共事业公司每月向太阳能使用者收取基础设施使用费。第二,单独列出每个组件的价值而不是将基础设施维护费均摊到电价中。第三,他们可以将使用的能源和消耗的能源分开处理,即太阳能消费者将其生产的电卖给公共电力公司然后再向他们购买他们需要的电。Yet those last two proposals leave unanswered the question of what rate utilities should pay customers for their power—or more broadly, what the price of solar, with all externalities factored in, ought to be. And more battles loom; Californias regulator must make an important decision on net metering this month. Further ahead the growth of distributed solar will pose other threats to the utilities traditional business model. “Net metering is just the pointy edge of the wedge,” says Adam Browning of Vote Solar, an advocacy group.然而后面的两个提议依然没有解决公共电力公司应该按照什么样的比例购买消费者家多余的电的问题,或者更明确的说,考虑到所有的外部因素,太阳能电的价格应该怎样确定。这一问题似乎一直都若隐若现。这个月,加州的监管者必须就电价扣减这一问题作出重要的决定。分散的太阳能发电的进一步发展将会对公共电力公司传统的商业模式构成其他威胁。“电价扣减仅仅只是楔子最尖锐的部分(电价扣减只是利用太阳能问题中最尖锐的问题,还有其他的问题)”拥护太阳能的 Adam Browning 如是说。Still, while user-generated solar power makes utilities skittish, many have rushed to embrace it on the supply side. In 2013 they installed roughly 4,100MW of solar capacity, up from 2,390MW in 2012. Renewable portfolio standards, which in 30 states force utilities to generate a certain share of their electricity from clean sources, are part of the reason. But so is hard economics: low installation and labour costs, clean power delivery at peak midday hours and a hedge against fuel-price volatility.尽管用户产生的太阳能电力让公共电力公司愤怒,许多人依然会挤着去供应自家发的电。2013年人们安装的太阳能发电板所发的电量由2012年的2390兆瓦上升到4100兆瓦。可再生能源发电配额制,30个州要求公共电力公司生产一定份额的清洁能源电力是人们蜂拥安装太阳能电池板的原因之一。对于理性的经济而言也是如此:安装费用低,人力资源消耗低,在中午用电高峰期输送清洁能源以及可以抵御波动的石油价格。Many of these gains have aly been banked. Photovoltaic modules have become slightly dearer lately; costs will rise further if the Commerce Department heeds protectionist calls by some domestic manufacturers and expands tariffs on imports from China and Taiwan. Yet solar firms are not short of ideas to cut costs elsewhere: third-party financing, for example, or securitising pools of solar leases to reduce financing costs. For makers and users of solar power, the future looks bright.这些收益都已经存入。近来光伏模块价格稍有上涨。如果商务部注意到国内生产商的贸易保护电话并且加重从中国和台湾进口光伏模块的关税,安装太阳能板的成本将进一步上涨。然而太阳能公司有的是办法从其他方面削减成本:第三方融资,比如说对太阳能租赁的抵押来降低融资的成本。对制造商和用户而言,太阳能的未来前途璀璨,一片光明。译者:占文英 译文属译生译世 /201602/425174

Jennife Aniston and Abraham Lincoln who is here with us today.今天Jennifer Aniston和Abraham Lincoln在这里All righ,So here we go,talking aobut what happened this morning.好 现在 让我们谈谈今天早上发生的事Hey,this is your call.We are gonna talk about if you really feel,I mean.嘿 这是你的决定 如果你真的觉得有必要我们可以谈谈What do you have to say about it?Lets just show them.Lets not talk about it.你对这个该怎么解释? 先给他们看 我们先不说Lets just show it.Jen?Hi.Hi.What are you doing here?Its 8 a.m. in the morning.先让他们看 詹妮弗? 你好 你好 你在这里干嘛?现在可是早上八点呐oh,Yeah.Here is your paper?Oh,thanks.对的 给 你的报纸 谢谢Listen.So Im co-hosting Ellen today And I know you did it.听着 是这样的 我今天要和艾伦一起主持 我知道你和她一起主持过And you were so good and I just,just need a lot of advice.Some advice?你做的那么棒 我来向你请教些经验 经验?Maybe you should show up at somebodys house at 8 oclock in the morning.如果你要早上八点出现在别人家门口And you should call first.W...What are you talking about?我想你应该先打电话通知一下的 什...你在说什么?We used to work into each others apartment all the time.I mean we are friends.我们以前经常相互串门啊 我们可是老友呐I know.That was just a TV show,you know.我知道 可那毕竟是个电视剧呀We havent actually seen each other in a pretty long time like 8 years.你知道我们大概有八年那么长的时间没见了吧What?No.David.Thats not true.Its Matthew Whatever,listen.不 不 大卫 这不是真的 我叫做马修 不管啦 嘿 听着I just dont know as many dumb jokes as you我不知道无聊低级的笑话Oh,you really?you thought those were dumb jokes?Sweetie...真的吗?你真的认为我说的那些是低级的笑话? 亲爱的Ellen is really nice.Shes really funny.Youre gonna do great.I know.I know.艾伦人很好 很幽默 你们会合作的很好的 这我知道I just wanna know it is scripted or is it improvised?我只想知道节目是有稿子的还是需要即兴发挥?Yes!Y..To what? Yes to what?Come on,you gotta give me something to go on.对呀 对?是哪个?那个对呀? 嘿 你总得把话说完Oh dont say GO ON.Oh Im sorry.Yeah Youre gonna be great.别跟我提生活向前冲 哦 不好意思 你会很出色的You are really smart.You are beautiful.You are sexy.你这么聪明 这么漂亮 又这么性感I konw.I know.But,it just Whats happening down here.我懂的 但是只是...发生什么事了? /201604/437309

Its never too late for fence-mending.Thats certainly the case with the Ford family and the foundation that bears its name.Detroit News business columnist Daniel Howes has been speaking with Ford Foundation CEO Darren Walker.Ford and the Ford Foundation had been at odds for years until they fell out completely in 1976. Henry Ford II claimed that the people running the board had no understanding of capitalism and how the fruits of it funded the foundation.Instead of spending money on Detroit and southwest Michigan, as had been intended by Henry Ford and his son, Edsel, the foundation was more interested in the developing world. So much so that the foundation with .3 billion in assets dwindled its contributions to Detroit to a handful of millions by the mid-1990s.But in 2006, Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox went after the foundation and reminded it of its obligation to the area in which they were incorporated.Within a year, after a series of administrative subpoenas, the foundation upped its donations in Michigan, starting with a million commitment to what became the ;New Economy Initiative.;The Ford Foundation continued its investment on Detroit with a yearly contribution of -15 million until the ;Grand Bargain.;And now, for the first time since 1948, the trustees of the foundation will be holding a meeting in Detroit.Martha Ford, owner of the Detroit Lions, will be hosting a dinner at The Henry Ford Museum. The foundations trustees will be in Detroit to meet with Mayor Mike Duggan and Gov. Rick Snyder, among others, to learn more about the city.;I think its very emblematic of whats happening in Detroit, in general. I think you now have both political and business leadership that understands what has happened in the past but is less encumbered by the past,; says Howes.201506/379344

Europe Ireland’s budget欧洲 爱尔兰的财政预算Light at the end of the tunnel一线希望Ireland’s sixth austerity budget爱尔兰的第六次收缩预算Since mid-2008, successive governments have taken 25 billion euro ( billion) out of the Irish economy in tax rises and spending cuts, the equivalent of 16% of economic output in 2011. On December 5th Michael Noonan, the finance minister, removed another 3.5 billion euro when he presented the country’s sixth austerity budget.从2008年中至今的历届政府已经通过增加税收和裁剪开,将财政缩减了250亿欧元(330亿美元),这个数目相当于2011年经济总产出的16%。在12月5日,财政大臣迈克尔·诺南颁布该国的第六次收缩预算,进一步削减了35亿欧元。This is the latest instalment of an austerity plan that the government hopes will achieve two goals. One is to enable Ireland next year to leave the 67.5 billion euro bail-out programme with the European Union, IMF and European Central Bank (ECB) agreed in 2010 and regain access to market funding. The other is to reduce the budget deficit to below 3% of GDP by 2015. At 8.2% Ireland’s budget deficit is still one of the highest in the EU.凭借这最新一期的财政收缩计划,政府旨在达成两个目标。其一是使爱尔兰能在明年脱离欧盟,国际货币基金组织和欧洲央行在2010年达成的675亿欧元经济救助计划,并再次入市融资。其二便是在2015年前将预算赤字降低到国内生产总值的3%以下。目前,爱尔兰8.2%的赤字比率仍然高居欧盟前列。In his budget measures, Mr Noonan broadened Ireland’s narrow revenue base. He focused on higher-income earners. Wealthier pensioners will feel the pain: the cap on tax relief for pension contributions will be lower and better-off pensioners (those over 70 with incomes over 60,000 euro) are hit by higher social charges. A modest residential-property tax has been introduced against the background of a collapse in house prices. Many new homeowners are in negative equity, with a growing number in arrears on their mortgage payments.在诺南的预算方案中,他扩大了爱尔兰狭窄的课税基础。他把矛头对向高收入者。领取高额养老金的人会遭遇沉重打击:对养老金的税收减免限额会更低,富裕的养老金领取者(年过70,收入超过60,000欧元)要承担更高的社会费用。为应对房价崩溃的大背景,一项适度的住宅物业税应运而生。许多新的房主都陷入了负资产的困境,拖欠抵押贷款的现象越来越频繁。The government is relying on economic growth to meet its ambitious budget targets for 2013. It is forecasting 1.5% GDP growth for next year, which seems optimistic given Ireland’s dependence on an export-led recovery to achieve it. That may prove difficult with the euro zone in recession and a weakening British economy. Another concern is the sustainability of Ireland’s public debt, which is expected to hit 118% of GDP this year. Almost a third of it is accounted for by state support for distressed banks. Discussions with the ECB on restructuring the promissory notes that the government issued to cover 30 billion euro in losses, mostly at Anglo Irish Bank, have continued for more than a year without success. The government’s hopes that the new European Stability Mechanism could be used to take over state-owned Irish banks in a debt-equity swap, have also been disappointed.政府希望借助经济增长来实现它野心勃勃的2013年预算计划。据估计爱尔兰明年国内生产总值的增长达到1.5%,考虑到爱尔兰依靠出口导向型的经济复苏来实现这一目标,形势一片大好。但萧条的欧元区以及脆弱的英国经济还是会给这一目标带来困难。另一个隐忧是公共债务的持续性,该债务预计会在今年达到国内生产总值的118%。其中接近三分之一用于资助处境窘迫的。与欧洲央行关于重组本票事宜进行的商谈已经持续一年有余而无所进展,那些本票是政府为弥补主要由盎格鲁-爱尔兰所造成的300亿欧元损失而发行的。政府关于新的欧洲稳定机制通过债权转股权接管爱尔兰国有的希望也落空了。The government’s major achievement in 2012 has been the sharp reduction in bond yields onIreland’s sovereign debt, which reflects its success in meeting all the targets set in the EU/IMF programme. In January Ireland takes over the six-monthly presidency of the EU. Haggling in Brusselsis likely to absorb much of the attention of Irish ministers, leaving less time for pressing national concerns—such as debt relief.政府在2012年取得的主要成就就是大幅削减了爱尔兰主权债务的债券收益率,这也反映了它成功地达成了欧盟和国际货币基金组织所设立的目标。从一月开始,爱尔兰接任为期半年的欧盟轮值主席国。在布鲁塞尔的唇舌战可能转移爱尔兰大臣的大量注意力,这样留给他们处理国内忧患——比如减轻债务——的时间少之又少。翻译:袁航译文属译生译世 /201609/465630

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