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来源:时空知识    发布时间:2020年01月24日 10:34:00    编辑:admin         

A sobering report released on Monday by the International Energy Agency says air pollution has become a major public health crisis leading to around 6.5 million deaths each year, with “many of its root causes and cures” found in the energy industry.国际能源署(International Energy Agency,简称IEA)周一发布了一份发人深思的报告,称大气污染已经成了一场重大的公共卫生危机,每年导致约650万人死亡,并表示在能源行业找到了大气污染的“很多根本原因和解决办法”。The air pollution study is the first for the agency, an energy security group based in Paris, which is expanding its mission under its executive director, Fatih Birol.这是总部设在巴黎的该能源安全机构首次研究大气污染。在署长法提赫·比罗尔(Fatih Birol)的带领下,国际能源署正在扩大自己的任务范围。The agency, whose 29 members are wealthy, industrialized countries, was founded in response to the Arab oil embargo in 1973 to coordinate international responses to energy issues. It is perhaps best known for its monthly oil market reports that are eagerly awaited by traders.1973年,因为阿拉伯产油国实行石油禁运,国际能源署得到创立,旨在协调国际社会应对能源问题的行动。国际能源署的成员为29个富裕的工业化国家,其最著名的行动或许是每月发布一次的石油市场报告。该报告备受交易员的关注。Mr. Birol, an economist, argues that pressing concerns about climate change and the emergence of countries like China and India as major energy consumers and polluters mean that the agency needs to shift its strategy.身为经济学家的比罗尔认为,有关气候变化的紧迫问题,以及中国和印度等国成为主要的能源消耗国和污染国,意味着国际能源署须调整战略。“To stay relevant,” he said in an interview on Friday, we “need to work much closer with new emerging energy economies.”“要想继续发挥重要作用,”他周五接受采访时表示,我们“需要与新兴能源经济体更密切地合作”。Mr. Birol has been working to build bridges with China in particular, which energy experts say is crucial to the success of global efforts to reduce emissions.比罗尔一直在努力建立与中国的联系。能源专家称,中国对全球减排行动的成功至关重要。“To solve today’s biggest energy problems, the I.E.A. needs to have the world’s most important energy players as part of it,” said Jason Bordoff, director of the Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia University.“要解决当今最大的能源问题,IEA需要让全球最重要的能源市场主体参与进来,”哥伦比亚大学全球能源政策中心(Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia University)主任贾森·尔多夫(Jason Bordoff)说。Environmental issues, Mr. Birol said, are very important to emerging economies like India and China, whose cities are often plagued by choking smog.比罗尔表示,环境问题对印度和中国等新兴经济体非常重要,这些国家的城市经常笼罩着令人窒息的雾霾。Helping these countries solve problems through increasing energy efficiency or filtering out pollutants can make progress on climate change goals. We need to make these countries “understand that their problems are our problems,” Mr. Birol said.帮助这些国家通过提高能源效率或过滤掉污染物的方式解决问题,有助于在气候变化目标上取得进展。比罗尔说,我们需要让这些国家“明白,它们的问题就是我们的问题”。Mr. Birol appears to be well-suited to this approach. Born in Turkey, he obtained his doctorate in energy economics in Vienna and began his career as an analyst at the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, the oil producers’ group, often seen as having an agenda rivaling the agency’s.比罗尔似乎与这种处事方式非常合契。他出生于土耳其,在维也纳取得能源经济学士学位后在产油国组成的石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)担任分析师,开始了自己的职业生涯。石油输出国组织的议程,通常被认为与国际能源署的相悖。Mr. Birol appears to be pushing to make the agency crucial in coordinating a global approach to energy-related efforts. This includes carrying out the global emissions reduction agreement reached in Paris last year. “The world needs a global energy body,” said Neil Hirst, a senior policy fellow at the Grantham Institute at Imperial College in London.比罗尔似乎正在推动国际能源署在协调以一种全球性的方式开展能源相关行动上发挥重要作用。这包括执行去年在巴黎达成的全球减排协议。“世界需要一个全球性的能源机构,”伦敦帝国学院格兰瑟姆研究所(Grantham Institute at Imperial College)高级政策研究员尼尔·赫斯特(Neil Hirst)说。Mr. Birol said that through relatively low-cost actions, like adopting more ambitious clean air standards and more effective policies for monitoring and enforcement, countries could make major strides in reducing pollution over the next quarter-century.比罗尔表示,在接下来的四分之一世纪里,通过成本相对较低的行动,如采用更有魄力的清洁空气标准和更有效的监督与执法政策,相关国家可在减少污染方面取得重大进展。China, for instance, needs to retire polluting coal-fired power plants and to establish stricter standards for motor vehicles.比如,中国须关停煤电厂,并建立更严格的机动车标准。Such changes could produce big benefits. In India, the proportion of the population exposed to a high concentration of fine particles, a type of pollution, would fall to below 20 percent in 2040, from 60 percent today. In China, it would drop to below one quarter, from well over one half.这类改革可能会带来巨大的好处。到2040年,印度接触高浓度细颗粒物这种污染的人口比例,将从现在的60%下降至20%以下。在中国,这个比例将从现在的远超一半下降至不到四分之一。 /201606/451477。

B News – A Bill Leak cartoon published in The Australian newspaper depicts an Aboriginal man who has forgotten his son#39;s name. Indigenous groups said the cartoon was ;ugly, insulting and embarrassing;. But the paper#39;s editor said the cartoon brought a ;crucial issue; into the public domain.B新闻 – 发表在《澳大利亚人报》上的比尔.利克的卡通画描绘了一个忘记儿子名字的男人。土著人团体说,卡通画“丑陋,侮辱人,令人难堪”。但该报编辑说,卡通画把一个“紧要问题”带入了公众领域。In the cartoon, a police officer is shown bringing an Indigenous child to his father, saying: ;You#39;ll have to sit down and talk to your son about personal responsibility.; The father, who is barefoot and holding a beer can, asks: ;What#39;s his name then?;画中显示一名警官把一个土著儿童带到其父面前说:“你得坐下来跟你儿子谈谈个人责任的问题。”赤着脚,拿着个啤酒罐的父亲问道:“那他叫什么名字?”The cartoon comes in the wake of debate about the Northern Territory#39;s juvenile justice system and high incarceration rates among Indigenous youth. It appears to be a response to comments from Indigenous leader Noel Pearson, who said that Aboriginal people needed to take more responsibility for the behaviour of their children.这幅卡通画出现之前,刚刚发生过有关澳大利亚北方领地的少年司法制度和土著青年中高监禁率的辩论。卡通画似乎是对土著领袖诺埃尔.皮尔逊的作出的回应 – 皮尔逊说,土著人需要对他们孩子的行为负起更多责任。The SNAICC, a non-governmental group for Indigenous children and families, called the cartoon ;disgusting, disrespectful, and hurtful;, adding: ;Those involved in publishing such a clearly racist cartoon should be ashamed and should issue a public apology to all Australians.;为土著儿童和家庭务的非政府组织“全国土著和岛民儿童保育秘书处”(SNAICC)称这幅卡通画“讨厌,无礼,伤人”,还说:“那些参与刊登这样一幅种族歧视明显的漫画的报纸应当感到羞耻,应当对全体澳大利亚人作出公开道歉。”The Australian newspaper typically takes a right-wing position on social affairs, favouring individual responsibility and free-market economics over government spending and intervention. But it dedicates substantial resources to Indigenous affairs.《澳大利亚人报》通常在社会事务上采取右翼立场,偏向个人责任和自由市场经济,而不是政府出和干预。但它为土著人事务奉献了大量资源。The newspaper#39;s editor-in-chief, Paul Whittaker, stood by the cartoon, saying too many people skirted around issues in Indigenous affairs. ;Bill Leak#39;s confronting and insightful cartoons force people to examine the core issues in a way that sometimes reporting and analysis can fail to do,; he said in a statement.该报主编惠特克持这幅卡通画,说太多的人回避土著人事务中的问题。“比尔.利克直面问题,富于洞察力的画以一种报道和分析有时无法做到的方式促使人们去审视核心问题。” /201608/461923。

On a single day last month, capitalism as we know it took a triple blow from some unlikely sources. 在上月的某一天里,我们所认知的资本主义受到了令人意想不到的三位人士的抨击。Mario Draghi, president of the European Central Bank, Christine Lagarde, managing director of the International Monetary Fund, and Donald Tusk, president of the European Council, all decried a system they claimed had neglected the security of its weakest members.欧洲央行(ECB)行长马里奥.德拉吉(Mario Draghi)、国际货币基金组织(IMF)总裁克里斯蒂娜.拉加德(Christine Lagarde)以及欧洲理事会(European Council)主席唐纳德.图斯克(Donald Tusk)全都谴责资本主义制度,他们宣称资本主义忽视了最弱势的社会成员的安全。That these three prominent champions of economic liberalism — all of whom work for institutions seen as part of an out-of-touch elite — are now critiquing capitalism is a reaction to the political mood of 2016. 这三位经济自由主义的杰出捍卫者——他们所工作的机构都被视为隶属于高高在上的精英阶层——如今正在批评资本主义,这是对2016年政治情绪所做出的反应。This mood has led the UK to turn its back on the EU and to a broader rise of anti-globalisation political movements around the world — notably in the US, where Donald Trump has put protectionism at the heart of his presidential campaign.这种情绪导致英国选择脱离欧盟,并使得反全球化政治运动在全球范围内更为广泛的兴起,特别是在美国,唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)把保护主义作为其竞选的核心纲领。For the first time since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the system Mr Draghi and his peers helped build is under threat. 自柏林墙倒塌以来,德拉吉及其同僚们帮助创建的制度首次面临威胁。Those in power, and large swaths of the electorate, are fearful of what could follow.那些当权派以及许多选民担心后续的发展。The Corruption of Capitalism helps explain why we are where we are. 《资本主义的衰败》(The Corruption of Capitalism)帮助解释了我们为何会面临现在这种状况。The author, Guy Standing, is a professor at the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies — an institution known for its opposition to the promotion of liberalism that has characterised mainstream economic thought.作者是伦敦大学(University of London)东方与非洲研究学院(School of Oriental and African Studies)的教授盖伊.斯坦丁(Guy Standing)。该学院以反对宣扬自由主义——主流经济思想的特征——而闻名。While the his perspective is leftwing, many of the author’s ideas for fixing he author has to fix the system — such as a universal basic income, where all citizens receive regular payments from the state whether or not they work — are receiving more attention from the mainstream. 尽管斯坦丁的观点有些左倾,但他提出的许多解决资本主义问题的想法——比如统一的基本收入,即所有公民接受政府发放的定期津贴,无论他们工作与否——越来越受到主流社会的关注。The result is a timely book, which though flawed in parts isin others a compelling .这本书出得非常及时,尽管有些地方存在瑕疵,但仍令人手不释卷。Standing explains how capitalism has been corrupted as the security of the many has been weakened to embolden strengthen the position of those who hold the bulk of society’s wealth. 斯坦丁解释了资本主义是如何被搞得衰败的,因为许多人的安全遭到削弱,却强化了那些拥有社会大量财富的人的地位。Today, he explains, we have a rigged system that leaves those without much property with few rights.他解释说,如今我们的体系受到操纵,使得那些没有多少财产的人也没什么权利。He borrows from John Maynard Keynes’ critique of the rentier class — broadly, those who live on income from property, including patents and copyright, and investments. 他借用了约翰.梅纳德.凯恩斯(John Maynard Keynes)对食利阶层的批评——大体上这是指那些依靠财产(包括专利和著作权)及投资所产生的收益生活的人。And like Keynes, he wants to see the euthanasia end of the rentier on the grounds that the system they have created is both inefficient and grossly unfair. 与凯恩斯一样,他希望看到食利阶层终结,原因是他们创建的体系既没有效率,又极其不公平。Those at the bottom of the many he Standing calls the precariat — the class of workers most exposed to the insecurity produced bytypical of this era of rentier capitalism driven by globalisation, has produced.斯坦丁将那些处于底层的人称为无保障无产阶级(precariat),这是指在全球化造就的食利资本主义时代典型的最没有安全保障的劳动者。The book is divided into chapters looking at the various ways in which the interests of the rentier class have been promoted to the detriment of the rest. 该书分为几个章节,分析了为促进食利阶层的利益而损害其他人利益的各种方式。There are weaknesses in some of the arguments.其中一些观点的理由并不充分。For the author, the autonomy of central banks to set monetary policy as they see fit as they see fit highlights how little control normal most people have over the forces of finance. 在作者看来,央行可以按照自己认为合适的方式制定货币政策,这种自主权突显出大多数人对金融力量完全没有控制力。Yet he neglects to mention that one of the reasons independence was granted was because is the fact that government control over interest rates had led to double-digit inflation across in advanced economies. The experience of rampant inflation in the 1970s and early 1980s. 然而,他没有提到赋予央行独立性的理由之一是,在上世纪70年代和80年代初,政府对利率的控制导致发达经济体的通胀率达到两位数。Racing price rises — and the high interest rates needed to bring them under control — had the most vicious effect on society’s most vulnerable. 价格不断上涨——以及为控制通胀出台的高利率政策——对社会弱势群体的影响最为有害。But on the gross unfairness of housing policy in the UK, one of the more egregious examples of the power of the rentier, Standing’s the arguments resonate.但就英国住房政策的不公而言——这是表明食利者权力的更为恶劣的例子之一——斯坦丁的观点引发了共鸣。It is on labour conditions in the era of dark Satanic apps, where data are used to monitor and control a workforce that has little in thewith little by way of employment rights, that Standing — a former employee of the International Labour Organization — the author is at his most prescient.最能体现作者远见的是讲述邪恶应用时代的劳动条件的部分——在这个时代,资本家用数据来监督和控制劳动者,连保障就业权利的样子都不做。Towards the end of the book, Standing, a former employee of the International Labour Organization, writes that the precariat’s vulnerability today is everyone’s tomorrow. 斯坦丁曾经在国际劳工组织(International Labour Organization)任职,他在该书结尾处写道,无保障无产阶级脆弱的今天就是所有人的明天。On that he is surely right.就这一点来说,他无疑是正确的。As even those who helped create it acknowledge, the system as it stands cannot last. 就连帮助创建了资本主义的人也承认,这一制度照这样下去不可能长久。While Mr Draghi and Ms Lagarde may feel uneasy about the crushing of the rentier class, At the AUTUMN’S International Monetary Fund’sMF’s October meeting all the talk was of a more inclusive system.在IMF的10月会议上,大家都在谈论创建一种更具包容性的制度。One hopes that some of what Standing writes is heeded and the system can be reformed in favour of the many before it is too late.人们希望,斯坦丁在书中提出的一些观点会受到重视,以有利于众人的方式改革资本主义制度,以免悔之晚矣。While a book such as this is perhaps not quite the right place to stress the benefits of capitalism, one only need to look at some of the political forces now on the rise to see that much worse systems could exist than that we now have.尽管这样的书或许并不适合强调资本主义的益处,但人们只需看看现在崛起的一些政治力量就会发现,有些制度可能比我们当前实行的制度更为糟糕。 /201610/474178。

Japan’s automotive industry is making an international push for the custom of the world’s least vocal road users: the dead.日本汽车业正向海外拓展一项业务,这项业务的顾客为世界上最沉默的道路使用者——逝者。Mitsuoka, best known for its roaring supercars, is wooing emerging Asian markets with a sales pitch for its more sedate ,000 Type 5 hearses.以生产轰鸣的超级跑车而闻名的光冈汽车(Mitsuoka),正力争向亚洲新兴市场推销其更为安静的、售价7万美元的Type 5灵车。Japan’s battle for the funeral dollar was on display at Endex, the country’s largest end of life industry trade show in Tokyo last week. 在上周东京Endex展览(日本最大的殡葬产业展)上,上演了一场殡葬生意争夺战。Japan may boast one of the world’s oldest populations, but its domestic bn funeral industry is in decline: mourner numbers are dwindling and graves are shrinking.日本人可能是全球最老龄化的人口之一,但其国内200亿美元的殡葬产业却在走下坡路,送葬者人数不断减少,坟墓也在不断收缩。Indeed, pricey real estate — the driver of ever smaller final resting places — made compact graves-stones the hit product of the show. 事实上,昂贵的地价——导致墓地面积越来越小——使得紧凑型墓碑成为此次展览上的热门产品。Nobuko Inada, a tombstone wholesaler, bemoaned the fact that where once the Japanese spent between ¥3m (,000) and ¥5m on a tombstone, the average was now between ¥1m and ¥3m.墓碑批发商Nobuko Inada感叹,以往日本人在墓碑上的花费在300万日元(合3万美元)到500万日元之间,现在的平均花费则为100万到300万日元。Demographics in today’s Japan mean there are more funerals than before, but they are being held on a smaller and cheaper scale. 日本现在的人口结构意味着,葬礼数量超过以前,但葬礼规模和花费却小于从前。Some 8 per cent of elderly Japanese now opt for no funeral at all, according to an estimate by Japan’s largest firm of undertakers, taking a toll on hearse sales — now 550 a year, one-third of which are sold by Mitsuoka and Kawakita.据日本最大的殡仪公司估计,现在约8%的日本老人根本不想举办葬礼,这对灵车销售造成打击——现在每年的销量为550台,其中三分之一为光冈和Kawakita销售。Beyond Japan, the industry is looking up. 在日本以外,丧葬业前景向好。Like Mitsuoka, Kawakita has turned its attention to exports as Asia’s rising middle classes demand a classier final journey for their loved ones and environmental regulators clamp down on the smoke-belching small trucks and minivans deployed by undertakers.和光冈一样,Kawakita也已将注意力转向出口——亚洲日益庞大的中产阶级想让亲人更体面地走完最后一程,环境监管机构也在打击殡仪业者使用的、废气排放严重的小卡车和小型货车。Efforts so far have been modestly rewarded: nine high-end hearses have been sold abroad since 2015, though Mitsuoka expects more explosive growth when China trades in its hearse fleet for something more luxurious.这些向海外拓展的努力到目前为止成效不大,2015年以来仅有9辆高端灵车销往海外,不过光冈预计,随着中国灵车升级换代,销量会有爆炸式增长。We are in negotiations in Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia and Hong Kong and are expecting orders from those, said Takanari Kawakita, the president of Kawakita. Kawakita的总裁Takanari Kawakita表示:我们在台湾、印尼、马来西亚和香港都有项目在洽谈中,有望从这些地区获得订单。In those countries, we are seeing a big shift from carrying coffins in micro-bus style vehicles to the more traditional van-type hearses.在这些国家我们看到运载灵柩的车辆正在发生很大的转变,从微型客车转向更传统的厢式灵车。Hearse makers are not the only funeral players eyeing growth potential in Asia. 灵车制造商并不是着眼亚洲丧葬业增长潜力的唯一殡葬业参与者。Japanese coffin makers, who have come under increasing pressure to produce high-quality, non-traditional caskets that feature the favourite hobbies, locations and spectator sports of the deceased, said they were expecting a substantial pick-up in overseas demand.日本的灵柩制造商也表示他们预期海外需求将大幅增长,该行业面临着越来越大的压力,要生产高品质、非传统式骨灰盒,展示死者的爱好、最喜欢的地方和最喜欢观看的运动项目。So too do companies that offer engineering solutions for securing tombstones in quake-prone countries.那些可为地震频发国家的墓碑提供抗震工程方案的企业也将眼光投向了海外。Nor is it just humans. 丧葬业的眼光还不仅局限于人类。One exhibit closely scrutinised by foreign buyers at the Endex show was a range of portable crematoriums that can be installed in vehicles to allow delivery of roadside pet funeral services.外国买家在Endex展会上密切关注的一项展览是可以安装在车辆上的各种便携式焚化炉,让人们能够在路边为宠物举办葬礼。 /201609/463867。