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广州长安不孕不育医院检查排卵番禺妇幼保健院电话号码是多少A viral phenomenon dubbed the #39; somersault kiss#39; is sweeping the Chinese Internet, prompting the nation#39;s public security bureau to intercede on behalf of the country#39;s not-so-acrobatic enthusiasts. Weibo一种名为“翻跟头亲亲”的现象正风靡中国互联网,甚至促使中国公安部治安发微警告中国运动神经并不发达的动作模仿者。For the past week, Chinese couples, friends and coworkers have been attempting the maneuver in bedrooms, dorms and parking lots across the country and uploading their results to the Internet. Like #39; planking#39; and other absurd Internet trends, the phenomenon has quickly caught on, in no small part because the ungainly flailings of those attempting it make for such sympathetic watching. 过去一周,中国全国各地的很多夫妻、朋友、同事一直在卧室、宿舍、停车场尝试“翻跟头亲亲”的动作并将视频上传到网上。和“平板撑”等奇怪的网上流行趋势一样,这一现象迅速风靡,很大程度上是因为动作尝试者的笨拙表现引来同情的目光。In a well-executed performance of the stunt, a partner grasps the wrists of a somersaulter who crouches, bent double, before performing a neat somersault and getting pulled up into the arms of the partner, who in turn gives him or her a kiss. 在动作顺利完成的情况下,一个人抓住翻转者的手腕,翻转者蜷起身子、大幅度弯腰、干净利落地空翻一周后与合作者拥抱接吻。Poorly done, it ends up with at least one of the pair getting knocked off-kilter, crumpled on the ground, or kicked in the face--much to the amusement of many Internet users, who have compiled round-ups cataloguing failures. 但如果动作完成不好,两个人中至少会有一个人失去平衡、摔在地上,或踢到另一个人的脸;这让很多互联网用户忍俊不禁,他们还编制了动作失误集锦。Even the country#39;s public security bureau has felt compelled to weigh in. This week, it issued a warning on one of its official Weibo accounts, which is dedicated to the fight against the #39;Four Blacks#39; (mostly a crackdown on the counterfeit industry and assorted vices), as well as the #39;Four Harms,#39; that is, harm to people, families, society and the country. 就连中国公安部也认为不得不出面干预。本周,“公安部打四黑除四害”官方微就此发布警告。四黑是指“黑作坊”、“黑工厂”、“黑市场”和“黑窝点”等制假售假等违法犯罪活动,四害是指害百姓、害家庭、害社会、害国家。#39;This move requires a strong degree of arm strength, wrist strength, lower-back, stomach and back-muscle strength, as well as coordination,#39; a message posted by the department#39;s #39;Fight the Four Blacks, Eliminate the Four Harms.#39; 公安部“打四黑除四害”专项行动办公室发布的一条微称,“该动作需要极强的臂力、腕力、腰腹及背部肌肉力量和协调能力,否则极有可能伤及颈椎、腰椎和头部,请不要轻易尝试。不要用生命秀恩爱喔!”#39;Otherwise there#39;s a high risk of injury to your vertebrae and head. Please do not rashly try this. Don#39;t use your life to make a show of your love!#39; 这条微还附有摇手指的动画图标,以及几条显示动作失败致人摔倒在地的短视频。The department#39;s post was accompanied by an animated wagging finger, as well as several choice clips of failed maneuvers resulting in people sprawled on the ground. 这里有更多相关内容,但请注意,中国很多人因此导致膝盖和肘部受伤,所以不要轻易尝试。 /201404/290494广州长安不孕不育妇科在线 A drop in testosterone levels around 50, 000 years ago led the the development of art and tools, researchers believe.有研究人员认为,5万年前人体睾丸素水平的降低促进了人类艺术和工具领域的发展。They say the drop, which led to a change in the shape of skulls, coincided with a blossoming in culture.他们称,睾丸素的下降改变了人类的头骨形状,在此同时文化得到了繁荣发展。The two could be linked, as humans developed a more co-operative outlook as levels dropped.两者的联系在于睾丸素水平的下降让人类的面孔更利于合作。Modern humans appear in the fossil record about 200, 000 years ago, but it was only about 50, 000 years ago that making art and advanced tools became widesp.由化石推断,现代人类最早出现在大约20万年以前,但直到5万年前,人类才开始普遍地进行艺术创造与制造高级工具。#39;The modern human behaviors of technological innovation, making art and rapid cultural exchange probably came at the same time that we developed a more cooperative temperament, #39; said lead author Robert Cieri, a biology graduate student at the University of Utah who began this work as a senior at Duke University.犹他州大学生物学研究生罗伯特·西里在杜克大学年本科四年级的时候就开始了这项研究工作,作为研究论文的主要作者,他说道,“现代人类的科技创新行为、艺术创造和频繁的文化交流很可能出现在我们性格更利于合作的同时。”The study in the journal Current Anthropology, which is based on measurements of more than 1, 400 ancient and modern skulls, makes the argument that human society advanced when people started being nicer to each other, which entails having a little less testosterone in action.《当代人类学》杂志上发表的这项研究测量了1400多个古代和现代人头骨,论了当人类睾丸素水平下降,变得越来越友善的同时,人类社会也获得了进步。Heavy brows were out, rounder heads were in, and those changes can be traced directly to testosterone levels acting on the skeleton, according to Duke anthropologist Steven Churchill, who supervised Cieri#39;s work on a senior honors thesis that grew to become this 24-page journal article three years later.杜克大学人类学家史蒂文·丘吉尔称,人类渐渐不再有粗壮的眉骨,头部变得更加圆润,这些变化与睾丸素水平直接相关。丘吉尔为西里的本科毕业论文导师,西里三年后在自己毕业论文的基础上发表了这次长达24页的论文。 /201408/321023KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia — When he organized a get-together for dog lovers and their canine-averse neighbors, Syed Azmi Alhabshi thought he was doing a public service.吉隆坡,马来西亚——赛义德·阿兹米·阿拉巴什(Syed Azmi Alhabshi)组织喜欢的人和他们讨厌的邻居们进行聚会,他觉得自己是在组织一场公益活动。But after hundreds of people showed up to the event, billed as “I Want to Touch a Dog” on Facebook, and when pictures started circulating on the Internet of Muslim women in head scarves happily hugging dogs, Mr. Syed Azmi became an unwitting protagonist in the latest chapter of Malaysia’s culture wars.但是没想到上千人参加了那个活动,他们在Facebook上打出“我想摸”的宣传语,戴头巾的穆斯林女人开心拥抱小的照片开始在网上流传,赛义德·阿兹米无意中成了马来西亚文化斗争最新篇章的主角。In the week since the event, Mr. Syed Azmi, a pharmacist, has received more than 3,000 messages on his phone, many of them hateful and a dozen of them threatening physical harm. The police advised him to stay at home.赛义德·阿兹米是个药剂师。在那个活动之后的一周里,他收到了3000多条短信,其中很多是表达仇恨情绪,有十几条是威胁对他进行人身伤害。警察建议他待在家里。Malaysia’s Muslim leaders, who cite Islamic scriptures stating that dogs are unclean, lashed out at him in the news media. “I feel the anger, and it is real,” he said in an interview.马来西亚的穆斯林领袖们引用伊斯兰经文称,是不干净的,在新闻媒体上猛烈抨击他。“我非常真切地感受到他们的愤怒,”他在一次采访中说。Over the past two weeks, Muslim leaders in Malaysia have denounced Halloween as a “planned attack” on Islam and Oktoberfest parties as a public vice “the same as mass-promoted adultery.”在过去两周里,马来西亚的穆斯林领袖们将万圣节斥为对伊斯兰教“有计划的攻击”,称慕尼黑啤酒节是聚众淫乱,“和大肆鼓动通奸是一样的”。The culture wars have waxed and waned in multicultural Malaysia in recent years as conservative Muslim groups have pushed back against what they describe as libidinous and ungodly Western influences in a country that has rapidly modernized and become more cosmopolitan.近些年,在具有多元文化的马来西亚,这样的文化之争此起彼伏,因为保守的穆斯林团体开始反抗他们所谓的淫荡、邪恶的西方文化对这个国家的影响。这个国家正在快速现代化,变得更具世界性。The dispute over touching dogs has underlined the fault lines in what has increasingly become a country polarized between members of the Malay majority, who are overwhelmingly Muslim, and ethnic Chinese, Indians and other minorities, who are typically Christian, Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist.摸争议突显了这个国家占主体的马来人和华裔、印度裔等少数民族之间的分裂,前者大多是穆斯林,后者大多信奉基督教、印度教、锡克教或佛教。The dog controversy joins the decades-old disputes over the availability of pork, the imbibing of alcohol and the pressure on Muslim women to wear conservative clothing.几十年来,在围绕供应猪肉、饮酒以及迫使穆斯林女人穿保守装等争议之后,成为最新的争议对象。Although many Muslims in other countries do not view touching dogs as forbidden, conservative Islamic groups here say the Shafie school of Islamic jurisprudence that they follow views dogs as unclean and requires the faithful to undergo a ritualistic wash if they come into contact with canines.虽然其他国家的很多穆斯林并不把摸视为禁忌,但是马来西亚的保守伊斯兰团体称,他们追随的伊斯兰法系沙菲派(Shafie school)认为不干净,要求信徒与犬类接触后进行仪式清洗。The Malaysian authorities described the “I Want to Touch a Dog” event as an offense to Islam. Othman Mustapha, the director general of the federal Islamic Development Department, which has the official mission of protecting the “purity of faith,” said the event was a challenge to the authority of religious leaders.马来西亚当局把“我想摸”活动称为对伊斯兰教的冒犯。马来西亚联邦伊斯兰发展局(Islamic Development Department)局长奥斯曼·穆斯塔法(Othman Mustapha)说,这个活动是对宗教领袖权威的挑战。该局的官方使命是保护“信仰的纯洁性”。The religious authorities in Malaysia have the power to crack down on practices they view as going against Islam, but Muslim law is selectively enforced and highly politicized. Many Malaysian Muslims own dogs, drink alcohol in public and have very westernized lifestyles.马来西亚的官方宗教机构有权打击他们认为反伊斯兰教的行为,但是穆斯林法律只是被选择性执行,具有强烈的政治性。在马来西亚,很多穆斯林养,公开饮酒,生活方式很西化。Criticism of the dog event has led to a backlash by a small but vocal group of moderate Muslims in the country who view the strictures of the religious authorities as oppressive.对摸事件的批评导致该国虽小而有话语权的现代穆斯林群体进行强烈反击。他们认为宗教当局的苛责是一种迫害。“All we are getting these days is how to hate an ever-growing list of people and things,” Marina Mahathir, the daughter of a former prime minister and a leading liberal voice, wrote in a newspaper column published last week. “How much energy are we to spend on hate? And how does hating anything and everything make us happy and better Muslims?”“如今我们听到的都是如何去憎恨越来越多的人和事,”前总理的女儿、自由主义倡导者玛丽娜·马哈迪(Marina Mahathir)上周在报纸专栏上写道,“我们还要在仇恨上花多少精力?仇恨一切怎么可能让我们变成快乐的、更好的穆斯林?”Mr. Syed Azmi, the pharmacist, said he thought he had his bases covered. Before the event, he contacted and received acknowledgment from the state religious authorities.赛义德·阿兹米说,他本以为自己已经考虑得很周到了。在举办活动之前,他与国家宗教官方机构取得联系并获得许可。He also invited an Islamic scholar who showed Muslims how to conduct the ritual washing after they had touched the dogs.他还邀请一位伊斯兰学者向穆斯林们演示摸之后如何进行仪式清洗。“I expected it to be in the news, but not to the point where people would get so angry,” said Mr. Syed Azmi, who is Muslim.“我当时是期望这个活动能上新闻,但我没想到人们会如此愤怒,”赛义德·阿兹米说。他也是一位穆斯林。 /201411/341219天河做宫腔镜多少钱

中山不孕不育大医院;Almost all other animals are clearly observed to partake in sleep, whether they are aquatic, aerial, or terrestrial,; wrote Aristotle in his work On Sleep and Sleeplessness. But do other animals dream? On that the Greek philosopher also had an opinion. In The History of Animals, he wrote: ;It would appear that not only do men dream, but horses also, and dogs, and oxen; aye, and sheep, and goats, and all viviparous quadrupeds; and dogs show their dreaming by barking in their sleep.; His research methods may lack sophistication, but Aristotle may not have been too far off the mark.亚里士多德在文章《论睡和醒》中写道:“人们清楚地观察到,几乎所有的动物都会睡觉,不论是水生、陆生还是在空中飞翔的动物。”但是动物会做梦吗?在这个问题上,这个希腊哲学家也有自己的看法。在专著《动物志》中,他写道:“看来不只人会做梦,马、、牛也都会做梦;同样,绵羊、山羊以及所有的胎生四足动物也都会做梦;并且,在睡眠中吠叫就是做梦的表现。”亚里士多德的研究方法也许不够完善成熟,但和事实或许也已经相去不远了。We certainly can#39;t ask animals if they dream, but we can at least observe the evidence that they might. There are two ways in which scientists have gone about this seemingly impossible task. One is to look at their physical behaviour during the various phases of the sleep cycle. The second is to see whether their sleeping brains work similarly to our own sleeping brains.我们当然不能直接问动物它们是否做梦,但我们至少可以观察到它们可能做梦的据。对于这个看似不可能的任务,科学家们已经尝试了两种方法。一种是观察动物在睡眠周期各个阶段中的身体行为,另一种是观测动物和人类在睡眠时的大脑状态是否相似。The story of how we worked out how to peer into the minds of sleeping animals begins in the 1960s. Back then, scattered reports began to appear in medical journals describing people acting out movements in their dreams. This was curious, because during so-called REM sleep (rapid eye movement), our muscles are usually paralysed.人们从上世纪60年代开始研究如何窥探动物睡眠时的大脑活动。那时,医学杂志上开始零星出现描述人在睡梦中“表演”动作的报告。这在当时是很新奇的,因为在所谓的REM(rapid eye movement快速眼球运动)* 睡眠中,我们的肌肉通常是处于麻痹状态的。Researchers realised that inducing a similar state in animals could allow them to probe how they dream. In 1965, French scientists Michel Jouvet and J F Delorme found that removing a part of the brainstem, called the pons, from a cat#39;s brain prevented it becoming paralysed when in REM. The researchers called the condition ;REM without atonia; or REM-A. Instead of lying still, the cats walked around and behaved aggressively.研究者们意识到,如果能引导动物产生和人类相似的状态,那么他们就可以探查动物是如何做梦的了。在1965年,法国科学家米歇尔·朱费(Michel Jouvet)和J·F·德罗尔姆(J F Delorme)发现,如果把猫脑中脑干的脑桥部分移除,就可以防止其在REM睡眠中出现麻痹状态。研究者把这种情况称作“REM肌张力缺失现象消失(REM without atonia)”或REM-A。在这种情况下,猫不会静静地躺着,反而会四处走动并表现出攻击性。This hinted they were dreaming of activities from their waking hours. And studies since have revealed similar behaviour. According to veterinary neurologist Adrian Morrison, who has written a review of this research, cats in REM-A will move their heads as if following stimuli. Some cats also show behaviour identical to predatory attacks, as if they were chasing mice in their dreams. Similar dream activity has been seen in dogs.这表明,猫正在做醒时活动的梦。自那以后的研究也都揭示了相似的行为表现。根据兽神经学家阿德里安·莫里森(Adrian Morrison)对这项研究的评述,处于REM-A状态中的猫会像有刺激物一样摇晃脑袋。一些猫还会表现出等同于捕食性攻击的行为,就像它们在梦境中追逐老鼠一样。而也表现出了相似的梦中活动。Some humans have been found to ‘act out’ their dreams too – if they suffer from a condition called REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder. ;Punching, kicking, leaping, and running from the bed during attempted dream enactment are frequent manifestations and usually correlate with the reported imagery,; according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD). Injuries are common among these people and those sleeping with them, the ICSD adds.一些人类也被发现有“表演”梦境的行为——如果它们患上了“REM睡眠行为障碍”。根据国际睡眠障碍分类(ICSD)描述,“这种情况的常见表现是表演出梦境中的行为,如拳打脚踢、跳跃奔跑,并且通常能与报告中描绘的画面对应。”ICSD还补充道,这些人常会自伤或伤及同床者。Physical movement is not the only way of peering into dreams, though. Researchers can now humanely peer into the electrical and chemical activities of brain cells in animals while they sleep. In 2007, MIT scientists Kenway Louise and Matthew Wilson recorded the activity of neurons in a part of the rat brain called the hippocampus, a structure known to be involved in the formation and encoding of memories. They first recorded the activity of those brain cells while the rats ran in their mazes. Then they looked at the activity of the very same neurons while they slept. Louise and Wilson discovered identical patterns of firing during running and during REM. In other words, it was as if the rats were running the maze in their minds while they were snoozing. The results were so clear that the researchers could infer the rats#39; precise location within their mental dream mazes and map them to actual spots within the actual maze.然而,身体行为并不是窥探梦境的唯一方法。现在,研究者们可以在不伤害动物的情况下探查其睡眠时脑细胞内的电流和化学活动。2007年,麻省理工大学的科学家肯威·路易斯(Kenway Louise)和马修·威尔森(Matthew Wilson)记录下了老鼠脑内“海马体”部位的神经细胞活动,而“海马体”是与记忆的形成转换有关的结构。当老鼠在迷宫里奔跑时,他们第一次记录下了它们脑细胞内的活动。之后在老鼠睡眠时,他们又观察相同神经细胞的活动。路易斯和威尔森发现,在奔跑和睡眠时,老鼠脑细胞内的活动模式是相同的。也就是说,当老鼠在酣睡时,它们脑内活动就像还在迷宫里奔跑一样。结果是如此明确,以至于研究者们可以推测出老鼠在脑内梦中迷宫里的准确位置,并且能在现实迷宫中把它们的实际位置标出来。University of Chicago biologists Amish Dave and Daniel Margoliash looked into the brains of zebra finches and discovered something similar. These birds are not born with the melodies of their songs hardwired into the brains; instead, they have to learn to sing their songs. When they#39;re awake, the neurons in part of the finches#39; forebrain called the robutus archistriatalis fire following their singing of particular notes. Researchers can determine which note was sung based on the firing patterns of those neurons. By piecing together the electrical patterns in those neurons over time, Dave and Margoliash can reconstruct the entire song from start to finish.芝加哥大学的生物学家阿米什·戴夫(Amish Dave)和丹尼尔·马格赖许(Daniel Margoliash)观察了斑胸草雀的大脑,并有了类似的发现。这些鸟并不是天生脑子里就有歌曲的旋律,相反,它们要通过学习才能唱歌。当斑胸草雀醒着的时候,在它们唱到某些特定音符时,其前脑中古纹状体粗核部位的神经细胞就会开始活动。研究者们基于这些神经细胞的活动模式就可以判定斑胸草雀唱到了哪个音符。通过把这些神经细胞中的电流模式拼合,戴夫和马格赖许就能把整首歌从头到尾地重现了。Later, when the birds were asleep, Dave and Margoliash looked again at the electrical activity in that part of their brains. The firing of those neurons wasn#39;t entirely random. Instead, the neurons fired in order, as if the bird was audibly singing the song, note for note. It might be said that the zebra finches were practising their songs while they slumbered.随后,在这些鸟睡眠时,戴夫和马格赖许再一次观察其脑内相同部位的电流活动。这些神经细胞的活动并不是完全随机的。相反,这些神经细胞在有秩序地活动,就像这些鸟把歌曲一个音符一个音符地唱出声来一样。这可能说明,斑胸草雀在睡眠中也在练习唱歌。Does the behaviour of cats in science experiments actually qualify as dreaming? Do rats have any subjective awareness that they#39;re running their mazes in their minds while they nap? Do the songbirds realise that they#39;re singing in their sleep? These questions are as hard to answer as the question of consciousness. It#39;s tricky. We humans do not usually realise we#39;re dreaming while we#39;re dreaming, but it becomes clear as soon as we wake up. Do zebra finches remember their dreams as dreams when they#39;re shaken out of their sleep? Can they distinguish the real world from the one in their dreams? We can say with a reasonable amount of certainty that the physiological and behavioural features of dreaming in humans have now been observed in cats, rats, birds, and other animals. Yet what it’s actually like to experience a dream if you’re not human remains a mystery.科学实验中猫的行为表现是否可看作是真正在做梦呢?对于睡眠时脑内在迷宫中奔跑的状态,老鼠自身有客观意识吗?这些唱歌的鸟又是否意识到自己在睡眠中唱歌呢?这些问题和与意识相关的问题一样难以回答。这很棘手。我们人类在做梦时通常都不能意识到自己是在做梦,但是在醒来后就能马上清楚地意识到这件事。那么,斑胸草雀从梦中醒来后是否记得自己的梦呢?它们能把现实世界和梦境区分开吗?我们可以非常确定地说,如今在猫、鼠、鸟等动物中都能观察到与人类相同的做梦时的身体行为特征。然而,非人类在做梦时是怎样的感觉,这依然是个谜。 /201404/292970广州白云体检项目有哪些 Unable to sleep at night? It has now been medically shown that insomnia may be caused by an overactive brain, according to a new sleep study conducted by Dr. Rachel Salas, assistant professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and head author of the new research project.最新研究显示,比起睡眠良好的人,失眠人群大脑的可塑性可能更强。Salas stated in the report from their research in Sleep Journal that insomniacs have more active brains than sound sleepers, and the disorder is not something that occurs only at night. Insomnia is “more of a 24/7 disorder,” she said. “The light switch is continually on.”研究人员征集了28名成年受试者,用经颅磁刺激(TMS)激活受试者脑中的运动皮质区域,这28人中,18人患有失眠症,10人没有失眠症。受试者收到刺激后四肢会向特定方向不自主运动。Originally, Salas assumed that deep sleepers had more plastic and attentive brains. She explained that brain plasticity is how easily neural pathways can be tailored by experience and adapt to change. Salas set up a sleep study including 28 participants: 18 who suffered from chronic insomnia for more than a year and 10 people with no trouble sleeping.研究人员在受试者四肢上绑定加速计测量运动幅度,接下来观察受试者在四肢不受控运动下,多久能学会往反方向控制四肢运动。研究人员说,在这种条件下,适应的越快,运动皮质的灵活度就越好。Each subject was given 65 electrical pulses to the brain using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), targeting a specific point in the motor cortex. The researchers focused on stimulating involuntary movements of each person’s thumb and then asked volunteers to move their thumbs for 30 minutes in the opposite direction (without electromagnetic currents) as the uncontrolled reaction caused by the experiment.研究人员开始还担心失眠患者的大脑会因休息不良难以控制四肢,但是试验结果却让人大跌眼镜。结果显示慢性失眠症患者适应地更快,因为他们的大脑有更强的可塑性。The volunteers were then pulsed a second time to see if their brains had learned to move their thumbs in the new direction. If the thumbs twitched in the new path, it showed that the brain was adaptable to change.失眠症状如何导致可塑性提高的联系还不能确定,科学家也不知道具体作用机制,也不清楚可塑性提高是否是失眠导致。 /201403/279181广州长安二胎取环怎么样好不好

广州长安妇科医院输精管堵塞手术怎么样好不好Cindy Wachenheim was someone people didn#39;t think they had to worry about. She was a levelheaded lawyer working for the State Supreme Court, a favorite aunt who got down on the floor to play with her nieces and nephews, and, finally, in her 40s, the mother she had long dreamed of becoming.辛迪·瓦肯海姆(Cindy Wachenheim)是一个人们觉得不用为她操心的人。她是个头脑冷静的律师,在州最高法院工作;也是个受欢迎的长辈,能和甥侄辈的孩子玩个不亦乐乎;在40多岁时,她终于实现了长期以来的梦想,成为一个母亲。But when her baby was a few months old, she became obsessed with the idea that she had caused him irrevocable brain damage. Nothing could shake her from that certainty, not even repeated assurances from doctors that he was normal.然而,在宝宝几个月大的时候,辛迪开始固执地认为,自己给孩子的大脑造成了不可挽回的损伤。任何事情,哪怕多位医生反复保她儿子一切正常,都无法动摇她对那一点的确信。;I love him so much, but it#39;s obviously a terrible kind of love,; she agonized in a 13-page handwritten note. ;It#39;s a love where I can#39;t bear knowing he is going to suffer physically and mentally/emotionally for much of his life.;“我很爱他,但这显然是一种可怕的爱,”她在手写的一封13页长的信中痛苦地写到,“这种爱,让我无法忍受知道他一生中的很多时候,都要饱受身体和精神/情感上的煎熬。”On March 13, 2013, Ms. Wachenheim, 44, strapped her 10-month-old son to her chest in a baby carrier and leapt to her death from the eighth-floor window of her Harlem apartment. ;I became so low,; she wrote in the 13-page outpouring shortly before she jumped, ;thinking that if I had unknowingly caused brain damage to my beautiful, precious baby, I didn#39;t want to live.;2013年3月13日,44岁的瓦肯海姆用背带把10个月大的儿子绑在胸前,从哈林区八楼的公寓窗户跳楼身亡。“我变得很低沉,”她在那封跳楼前不久一口气写成的长信中写道。“想到如果自己在无意中给我漂亮、珍爱的儿子造成了大脑损伤,我就不想活了。”Ms. Wachenheim#39;s story provides a wrenching case study of one woman#39;s experience with maternal mental illness in its most extreme and rare form. It also illuminates some of the surprising research findings that are redefining the scientific understanding of such disorders: that they often develop later than expected and include symptoms not just of depression, but of psychiatric illnesses.瓦肯海姆的故事是一个令人心痛的案例,以最极端、最罕见的形式呈现了一名女性患上产后精神疾病的经历。这个故事也阐明了一些出人意料的研究结果,这些研究结果正在重新定义对这类疾病的科学理解:它们的发展通常会比预期晚,不仅包括抑郁的症状,还包括精神疾病的症状。Now these mood disorders, long hidden in shame and fear, are coming out of the shadows. Many women have been afraid to admit to terrifying visions or deadened emotions, believing they should be flush with maternal joy or fearing their babies would be taken from them.如今,长期以来一直隐藏在羞耻和恐惧中的这些情绪紊乱,正在从阴影中走出来。很多女性一直害怕承认自己有可怕的念头,或是低落的情绪,认为自己应该陶醉在当母亲的喜悦中,或是害怕孩子会被夺走。But now, advocacy groups on maternal mental illness are springing up, and some mothers are blogging about their experiences with remarkable candor. A dozen states have passed laws encouraging screening, education and treatment. And celebrities, including Brooke Shields, Gwyneth Paltrow and Courteney Cox, have disclosed their postpartum depression.但现在,关注产妇精神疾病的倡导团体正在涌现,有些母亲十分坦率地在客中记述自己的经历。已经有12个州通过了鼓励筛查、教导和治疗的法律。波姬小丝(Brooke Shields)、格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)以及柯特尼·考克斯(Courteney Cox)等多位名人都透露自己曾患过产后抑郁症。Ms. Wachenheim#39;s sister, Deb, is among those breaking the silence.瓦肯海姆的黛布(Deb)便是打破沉默的人之一。;We did try to help her, but perhaps if we had been more knowledgeable about postpartum mood disorders, including the fact that postpartum depression is just one of an array of such mood disorders, we could have done something differently that would have maybe saved her life,; she wrote in an email.“我们的确尝试过帮她,但如果当时对产后情绪障碍有更多了解,比如产后抑郁症实际上只是诸多情绪障碍中的一种,我们或许就能以不同的方式做些事情,兴许就能挽救她的生命了,”她在电子邮件中写道。Cindy Wachenheim#39;s experience defied the long-held belief among doctors and experts that symptoms emerge within a few weeks after birth. She seemed fine until her son was about 4 months old, said family and friends. And as a healthy, active woman, Cindy had no risk factors that would signal a mother likely to become delusional and suicidal.医生和专家们长期以来认为,症状会在产后几星期内出现,但辛迪·瓦肯海姆的经历与这种观念相左。据辛迪的家人和朋友说,在儿子大约四个月之前,她看上去很正常。而且辛迪作为一个健康积极的女性,根本没有表现出这个母亲可能会产生妄想,甚至自杀的风险因素。;She loved life, she loved family, she was social,; said her sister-in-law, Karen Wachenheim.“她热爱生活,热爱家庭,也爱和人交往,”她的嫂子卡伦·瓦肯海姆(Karen Wachenheim)说。In fact, Cindy, long interested in women#39;s issues and social justice, had, years earlier, identified postpartum depression in Karen. ;Cindy would call at least once a day to check on me,; Karen recalled. ;She said, #39;Maybe you have postpartum; I think it#39;s past the baby blues.#39; ; At Cindy#39;s urging, Karen got therapy and medication, recovering quickly.实际上,一直关注女性问题和社会公正的辛迪,多年前在卡伦身上发现了产后抑郁症。“辛迪每天至少会打一次电话,确认我没事,”卡伦回忆说。“她说,#39;你可能是患上了产后抑郁症,我觉得不只是生宝宝后情绪不好。#39; ”在辛迪的督促下,卡伦接受了治疗并了药,很快便康复了。A Son Who Was #39;My Heart#39;“心肝宝贝”儿子Cindy grew up in Colonie, N.Y., outside Albany, where she was her high school#39;s valedictorian. She attended the State University of New York at Buffalo and Columbia Law School. She valued public service and took a job doing research and writing for judges on the State Supreme Court in Manhattan.辛迪在纽约州奥尔巴尼郊区的科隆尼长大,曾因成绩优异在高中时作为毕业生代表发言,并在纽约州立大学布法罗分校(State University of New York at Buffalo)和哥伦比亚大学法学院(Columbia Law School)就读。她重视公共务,曾在位于曼哈顿的州最高法院工作,为法官做研究并撰写文件。When her mother became ill with leukemia, and later her father with lung cancer, Cindy would travel upstate to go to their medical appointments with them. When her siblings or their children had medical checkups, Cindy jotted the dates in notebooks, and called the night before to remind them to fill her in.当母亲患上白血病,后来父亲又患上肺癌时,辛迪会去纽约州的北部,陪同父母就诊。当兄弟或是他们的孩子体检时,辛迪会在笔记本上记下日期,并在前一天晚上打电话,提醒他们要把最新情况告诉她。;I think she even kept all those books too, in a shoe box,; said her brother, Ron. ;People collect stamps; she collected that stuff.;“我想她甚至保存着所有这些本子,放在一个鞋盒里的,”哥哥罗恩(Ron)说。“别人集邮,她收集的却是这些东西。”She married at 40, and she and her husband underwent fertility treatment. She miscarried twice. But family and friends said that while mourning those losses and dealing with fertility hormones, she remained hopeful, noting that doctors said it was a good sign she had been able to become pregnant.辛迪结婚时40岁,夫妇俩都接受过生育治疗。她小产过两次,但家人和朋友表示,尽管经历了流产之痛,还要调节生育激素,但她仍很乐观,还说医生表示,她还能怀就是个好兆头。;She just thought that she#39;s going to keep trying and take each step as it came,; said a longtime friend, Julie Knapp.“她只是觉得要不断尝试,每次机会到来时都要抓住,”多年好友朱莉·纳普(Julie Knapp)说。Experts say little evidence links fertility treatment to postpartum mental illness; indeed, becoming pregnant may bring more joy than stress. Still, Wendy N. Davis, the executive director of Postpartum Support International, said some women experience cumulative stress from ;fertility treatments, many losses, and the very, very high expectation she will enjoy this new baby.;专家称,鲜有据表明产后精神疾病与生育治疗有关;的确,怀可能会带来更多的喜悦,而非压力。然而,产后持国际组织(Postpartum Support International)的执行董事温迪·N·戴维斯(Wendy N. Davis)表示,某些女性会因“生育治疗、多次流产,以及十分十分期望自己会喜欢新生的宝宝”而导致压力累积。Eventually, Cindy was able to conceive and have an uneventful pregnancy, her only out-of-the-ordinary response being a tendency to be hyperaware of whether the fetus was kicking.终于,辛迪成功怀了,而且怀期间一切平安。唯一不寻常的反应似乎是,她常常极其在意胎儿有没有在踢她。Cindy gave birth normally and adored her son, often calling him ;my heart.;辛迪顺利生产,并且非常喜欢自己的儿子,常常称他为“我的心肝宝贝”。;Not unlike a lot of high-achieving women, she was somewhat of a perfectionist, and she also wanted to be the perfect mother,; Deb said. Still, she was pretty easygoing in the first months of her son#39;s life, even when she had to introduce formula early because she produced too little breast milk, Deb said.黛布说,“和很多优秀女性一样,她有些完美主义,而且想当一个完美的母亲。”但黛布表示,在生下儿子的最初几个月里,她还是很放松的,即便在因为母乳不足,而不得不早早地给孩子喝配方奶粉时也一样。But when her son was 4 months old, Cindy emailed Deb that he was making ;strange/jerky movements w/his right arm,; almost ;flapping like a wing.;但在儿子四个月大时,辛迪给黛布发电子邮件说儿子正在“用右手做些抽筋似的奇怪动作”,就像“在扇翅膀”。The pediatrician said it was nothing to worry about, but Cindy scoured the Internet for diagnoses. She fixated on an instance a few weeks earlier, in August when, while washing clothes, she briefly left the baby on a play mat on the floor. He fell while pushing up, hitting his head.儿科医生说完全不用担心,但辛迪却在网上四处搜寻资料自行诊断。她对数周前发生的一件事耿耿于怀。那是在8月,在洗衣时,她暂时把孩子放在了游戏垫上。宝宝在往起爬时跌倒了,碰到了头。She believed this minor episode had caused him severe neurological problems: seizures, autism, concussion. She blamed herself for leaving the room, for placing the play mat on the hardwood floor. Other incidents alarmed her, and she decided he was more irritable, smiling less.她认为这次小小的意外给他的神经系统造成了严重的问题:癫痫、自闭症和脑震荡。她怪自己离开了房间,怪自己把游戏垫放在了硬木地板上。其它一些事情也使她感到不安。她确信孩子变得更烦燥了,也笑得少了。She visited two pediatric neurologists. Then she saw an expert in cerebral palsy because her son did not always exhibit the Landau reflex, a Superman-like pose babies make when held aloft, stomach-down.辛迪去见了两位儿童神经科医生,后来还去看了一位大脑性麻痹领域的专家,因为儿子并不总是能做出兰多反射(Landau Reflex)——被腹部朝下抱起时,婴儿通常会做出这个像超人一样的姿势。In October 2012, when her son was 5 months old, she emailed a doctor she had seen that day: ;When you said babies can#39;t injure their brains from even several floor-level head hits on a wooden floor, did that include hits even if they are turning and hit back or side of head on the floor?;2012年10月,儿子5个月大,她给当天见过的一名医生发电子邮件询问:“你说,宝宝哪怕是头在木地板上磕了好几下也不会伤到大脑,这种情况包括他们在转身时后脑勺或脑袋两侧撞到地板上吗?”The doctor replied: ;That#39;s right. Little bumps on the head at floor level that a baby may cause themselves in the course of normal spontaneous movements would not cause any injury. Babies are really very hardy (thank goodness)!;医生回复:“是的。宝宝在地板上自发进行正常活动时,可能会导致头部受到轻微碰撞,但这不会造成任何损伤。宝宝真的很结实(谢天谢地)!”Cindy sent the doctor a of her son, noting that ;he almost always moves the right hand when holding a toy, reaching to grab something, etc.;辛迪又把儿子的一段视频发给了那名医生,称“他在拿玩具、伸手抓东西或做其他事情时,几乎总是用右手”。The doctor responded: ;All of his movements look like normal, age-appropriate movements to me.;医生回复:“在我看来,你儿子的所有举动都很正常,都和他的年龄相符。”Her siblings assured her that their children had made similar movements, but she was implacable. Without telling her sister, Deb called the pediatrician, who said she was also concerned about Cindy. Deb said Cindy#39;s husband worried too, although ;part of him said: #39;Maybe she#39;s right. She is smart and was with the baby all the time.#39; ;辛迪的兄弟安慰她说,他们的孩子也曾有过类似的动作,但这还是无法缓解辛迪的忧虑。黛布瞒着,偷偷给那名儿科医生打了电话。医生表示她也对辛迪有所担心。黛布说,夫也有忧虑,不过“他同时认为:#39;或许她是对的。她很聪明,而且时刻都和孩子在一起。#39;”Still, both Cindy#39;s husband and siblings urged her to seek therapy.但辛迪的丈夫和兄弟还是敦促她接受治疗。;I just really want you to see someone,; Deb emailed Cindy. ;You cannot continue like this, for your sake and for his sake.;“我真的想让你去看看医生,”黛布给辛迪发邮件。“为了你自己,也为了你儿子,不能再这样下去了。”Cindy agreed, but insisted that she had no postpartum mental illness. She told her family she was simply depressed because of the harm she had done to the baby.辛迪同意了,但坚称自己没患产后精神疾病。她告诉家人,只是因为给宝宝造成了伤害而觉得郁闷。;You can hardly imagine how it feels to strongly believe he has brain damage and that I caused it,; she emailed Deb. ;It must be one of the top one or two nightmares for any parent. iloveyou, cindy.;“你几乎想象不到这种感觉是什么样子,我强烈地觉得他有大脑损伤,而且是我造成的,”她给黛布发邮件说。“对任何父母来说,这肯定都是数一数二的恶梦。爱你的辛迪。”Consumed With Worry忧心忡忡Experts say such breaks from reality are likely symptoms of postpartum psychosis, which affects only one or two in 1,000 mothers. About 4 percent of those hurt their children; about 5 percent kill themselves. Flagrant cases usually emerge soon after birth; women may hear voices or feel compelled to inflict harm, like Andrea Yates, who drowned her five children in a bathtub in 2001, or Dena Schlosser, who in 2004 cut off her infant#39;s arms. Both women were ultimately found not guilty by reason of insanity.专家表示,这类与现实的脱节,很可能是产后精神病的症状。产后精神病的发病率只有千分之一到千分之二。在那些患病的母亲中,约有4%的人会伤害自己的孩子;大约5%的人会自杀。骇人听闻的案例通常出现在母亲生下孩子后不久;产妇可能会出现幻听,或者有去制造伤害的冲动,比如2001年将自己的五个孩子淹死在浴缸里的安德烈娅·耶茨(Andrea Yates),以及2004年砍掉婴儿双臂的德娜·施洛瑟(Dena Schlosser)。这两位母亲最终都因精神失常被判无罪。;More subtle forms of psychosis are going to be picked up later,; said Dr. Katherine Wisner, a professor of psychiatry and obstetrics at Northwestern University. These women ;tend to have prolonged delusional thinking: #39;there#39;s something really wrong with my baby.#39; ;西北大学(Northwestern University)的精神病学和产科学教授凯瑟琳·威斯纳(Katherine Wisner)说:“不那么典型的产后精神病会较晚出现症状。”这些女性“往往会出现长期错觉:#39;我的孩子真的有问题#39;”。Most other maternal mood disorders do not involve such unshakably unrealistic convictions; most women know something is wrong, and although they fear they will harm their children, they rarely do.大部分其他产后情绪障碍都不会出现这类不切实际到不可动摇的坚定想法;大部分女性知道出了问题,而且尽管害怕自己会伤害到孩子,但她们很少真的那么做。At Thanksgiving in 2012, Cindy#39;s family gathered at her brother Ron#39;s home outside Albany, and Cindy, normally outgoing, seemed consumed with her son#39;s supposed problems. She told Deb she had thought about suicide, saying ;How can you go on knowing that you#39;ve ruined your baby#39;s life and it was your fault?; Deb was stunned. She and Cindy#39;s husband discussed the situation, hopeful that therapy would help.2012年的感恩节,辛迪的家人在哥哥罗恩(Ron)位于奥尔巴尼郊区的家中聚会。通常颇为外向的辛迪,似乎一心想着她所谓的儿子的问题。她告诉黛布她想过自杀,说“知道因为自己的错误而亲手毁了孩子的一生,你还能活下去吗?”黛布大吃一惊。她和辛迪的丈夫讨论了这一情况,希望治疗会有所帮助。Later that visit, the baby rolled off a low bed. It was one of several times that Cindy panicked and took him to the emergency room, where doctors pronounced him fine.那次聚会后,宝宝从一张矮床上滚了下来。辛迪惊慌失措地把孩子送到急诊室,但医生却说宝宝一切安好。这样的情况发生过好几次。The next month, Cindy began seeing a psychiatrist, who prescribed Zoloft, an antidepressant. She briefly visited other counselors for talk therapy. Friends offered support and company.接下来的那个月里,辛迪开始看精神科医生。那名医师给她开了左洛复(Zoloft),一种抗忧郁的药物。她还短暂地去其他几名咨询师那里接受过谈话治疗。朋友给了她持与陪伴。One January weekend at Ron#39;s house, she seemed more engaged, smiling more. When Deb asked, she acknowledged still having thoughts of suicide, but said her psychiatrist had told her it was not too worrisome ;as long as they#39;re not getting more frequent,; Deb recalled.1月的一个周末,在哥哥罗恩家,辛迪似乎精神更集中了,笑容也多了。黛布回忆,当她问起时,辛迪坦言依然会有自杀的想法,但她说,精神科医生告诉她不用太担心,“只要这些想法没有变得更频繁。”Family and friends wonder now if she was feigning feeling better. ;Now I think maybe she was backing off so everyone wouldn#39;t think she was crazy,; Karen said.家人和朋友现在揣测,她当时是不是假装感觉好些了?“我现在觉得,她那时候是退了一步,这样大家就不会觉得她疯了,”卡伦说。Experts said postpartum psychosis symptoms can fluctuate. Sometimes women are ;lucid and not delusional,; said Dr. Davis of Postpartum Support International. ;Then they slip back into delusions more easily than with other types of psychosis.;专家表示,产后精神病的症状可能会出现波动。国际产后持组织的戴维斯士说,病人有时候“头脑清晰,不会产生错觉。然后,她们会比患其他精神病的人更容易陷入错觉中去”。The mixed signals from Cindy continued into March. She discussed returning to work and finding day care. On a visit to her mother-in-law on Long Island, she called Deb while strolling by the ocean and sounded good. But the next day, Sunday, the baby fell while pulling up on a chair in his grandmother#39;s kitchen. Cindy considered it another disastrous ;head hit.;辛迪表现出来的复杂情况持续到了3月。她说起回去工作,并找家日间托儿所。去长岛探望婆婆期间,她一边在海边散步,一边给黛布打电话,当时听上去挺好的。但第二天是星期日,在奶奶的厨房里,孩子碰到椅子上摔倒了。辛迪把这看作是另一场灾难性的“撞头事件”。On Tuesday, Cindy uncharacteristically canceled her psychiatrist#39;s appointment, citing rain. On Wednesday, as she sometimes did, Cindy asked her husband to come home from work. When he arrived, she said their son#39;s morning had been rough, but that she was feeling better. After a few hours, he returned to work.接下来的周二,辛迪以下雨为由,反常地取消了和精神科医生的预约。周三,与之前偶尔出现的情况一样,辛迪把丈夫从公司叫回了家。丈夫到家后,她说儿子一上午都过得不顺,不过她感觉正在好转。几个小时后,丈夫回去上班了。That afternoon, with her baby snug to her chest, she jumped.当天下午,辛迪把孩子捆在自己胸前,跳下了楼。;I am so unbearably sorry, which I know does nothing to undo the evil I have done,; her farewell note began. ;I wanted to be a mother so badly and I hoped to be a wonderful one, and instead I have become the worst of the worst.;“我特别特别愧疚,我知道这无法弥补我犯下的恶行,”辛迪在遗书开头写道。“我非常想当母亲,想成为一位优秀的母亲,然而,我却成了差到不能再差的一个母亲。”Searching for anything to blame herself for, she described minor, harmless moments: tucking a light blanket over his face for warmth, letting him suck a leaf, briefly putting a dime in his mouth and immediately removing it. ;These things I did were horrible,; she wrote.在找一切理由责怪自己时,她说到了一些没造成什么伤害的小事:为了保暖把薄毯子盖到了宝宝脸上、任由他吮吸一片树叶、短暂地把十分钱硬币放到宝宝嘴里又马上拿走。“我做的这一切太可怕了,”她在信里写道。She was sure her son would never walk, and said she believed his most recent fall caused a concussion. ;I#39;m so so sorry, but I can#39;t bear for him to suffer more and more.;她确信儿子永远都不会走路,还说她认为最近那次摔倒造成了脑震荡。“真的非常非常对不起,但我无法忍受他越来越遭罪。”She said she knew others would see her suicide as a result of ;postpartum depression/psychosis.; But, she said: ;I know I am right that I mistakenly harmed him. I#39;m not claiming a voice told me to do this.;她还说自己知道,其他人会把她的自杀归咎于“产后抑郁症/精神病”,但她说:“我无意中伤害到了儿子,我知道自己是有理由这么想的。并不是说有个声音让我这么做。”She even chastised herself for crumbling emotionally, saying she made her son a less happy baby.她甚至苛责自己情绪不稳定,说她让儿子没那么快乐。;I don#39;t know if there is a hell,; she wrote, ;but I hope so.;“我不知道是否有地狱,”她写道,“但我希望有。”Cindy Wachenheim would never know that in her last act, her body cushioned the fall for her son and saved his life. Weeks later, the healthy little boy took his first steps.辛迪·瓦肯海姆永远不会知道,她生命的最后一刻,自己的身体为儿子从高处摔下来时提供了缓冲,救了他一命。几个星期后,这个健康的小男孩迈出了人生的第一步。 /201411/339901 广州长安不孕不育精液常规测试多少钱广州检查精子质量专科医院



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