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2019年08月20日 14:16:43来源:飞社区

  • On airplanes, cabin pressure changes during takeoff and landing to help passengers breathe easy at high altitudes. These changes in air pressure may make adults ears feel a little funny, prompting a few yawns to equalize the pressure. But for babies, kids, or anyone with a head cold, why are air pressure changes such a pain?飞机起降期间,机舱内压力的变化有助于身处高空的乘客保持呼吸顺畅。气压的变化可能会使成年人的耳朵稍感不适,让人不由自主地打呵欠以平衡压力。但对于婴儿、小孩或感冒头痛的人来说,为何气压变化如此痛苦?To understand why babies often cry during takeoff and landing, lets travel to the middle ear, an air-filled cavity containing three tiny bones.When sound waves reach the eardrum, these bones vibrate to transmit sound to nerves in the inner ear. To vibrate properly, the bones have to be surrounded by air at the same pressure as the air outside.要了解飞机起降期间婴儿啼哭的原因,我们先来了解中耳这个包含三个软骨的充气腔。当声波到达鼓膜时,软骨震动将声音传递到内耳的神经。软骨要保持适当震动,其周围的气压必须与外界的气压保持一致。But what happens when the air pressure changes, as it does on an airplane? Connecting the middle ear to the back of the nose and throat is a tiny tube, called the Eustachiantube. In healthy adults, the Eustachiantube opens when outside air pressure changes, allowing air to enter the middle ear and equalize the pressure. But in kids, the Eustachiantube is smaller and may not open enough to do the trick. That means theres extra pressure on the eardrum. Ouch!!!但是当气压变化会发生什么呢,就像在飞机上发生的一样?连接中耳、鼻后部和咽喉的是一个小管,被称为咽鼓管。对健康的成年人来说,外界气压变化时,咽鼓管打开,空气便进入中耳以平衡压力。但对于孩子来说,其咽鼓管较小,无法充分打开以应对这一过程。这就意味着他们的鼓膜要承受额外的压力。于是便发出疼痛难忍的哎呦声。You can try to prevent earaches on planes by drinking lots of fluids if you have a cold, carrying candy or gum to chew, and yawning. For babies, crying is not a bad idea–as with yawning or chewing, the physical movement around the ears, nose and throat may help open the Eustachiantube and equalize the pressure.如果你感冒了,可以多喝饮料、吃糖果或嚼口香糖、打哈欠以防止飞机起降引起的耳痛。对婴儿来说哭未尝不是一个好主意,正如打哈欠和咀嚼,耳鼻咽周围的物理运动有助于打开咽鼓管以平衡压力。 /201305/239979。
  • Well, you know what they say.人们常说,A woman will marry the manwho reminds her of her father, and a man will marry a womanwho reminds him of his mother.女人会嫁给让她想起自己父亲的男人,男人会娶让他想起自己母亲的女人。Well were hardly the only animals to choose mates based onour early social interactions.当然,人类并不是唯一以早期的社会交往为基础选择配偶的物种。In fact, though worlds away fromus as a species, some female wolf spiders also make theirmating choices on the basis of familiarity.实际上,同看整个世界,除了人类这一物种外,雌性狼蛛也是以熟悉程度来选择配偶的。Male wolf spiders run the gamut in physical appearance.从外形上看,雄性狼蛛形形色色。They can vary in color and in hairiness.他们的颜色及绒毛都各不相同。Whats interesting is that there isnt a general preferred look among females,有趣的是,雌性狼蛛在选择配偶时根本没有什么偏爱的外形特征。but instead, femalesprefer males who look like males they encountered when they were young and sexually immature.相比而言,雌性狼蛛更喜欢选择那些看起来像是她们在年轻的时候或尚未性成熟时所遇到过的雄性狼蛛作为配偶。In fact, some female wolf spiders prefer familiarity to the extent that they will often eat a malesuitor that doesnt fit that profile.事实上,雌性狼蛛偏爱“熟人”已经到了这样的地步—她们通常会将那些陌生的“追求者”吃掉。The wider her range of familiarity with different looking males,the more discriminating a female is, and thus more likely to devour a male who looks unfamiliar.雌性狼蛛所碰到的外形不同的雄性狼蛛越多,她的辨识能力越强,她吃掉外形陌生的雄性狼蛛的几率就越高。The influence social experience has on the female wolf spiders mating choice is almost unheard ofamong invertebrates.在无脊椎动物这一群体中,社会经验对雌性狼蛛择偶的影响可说是闻所未闻的。This spider challenges what we thought we knew about arachnids andinvertebrates.狼蛛的这一特性也挑战了人类对蛛形纲动物及无脊椎动物的认知。201406/302918。
  • In the process, the culture and politics of Brithish isles were transformed.在这个过程中,英国群岛的文化和政治发生了很大的变化。Englands distinctive system of justice was established.英格兰建立起了独一无二的司法系统。Parliament was born and great Gothic cathedrals transformed the landscape.议会应运而生而且伟大的哥特式教堂发生了改变。The Plantagenets developed a new type of warfare in their attempt to claim Scotland.金雀花家族在对苏格兰的觊觎中发展出一种新型的战争。They conquered Wales and half of Island.他们征了威尔士的一半。And their great royal castles harmed their own power.而他们伟大的皇家城堡影响到了自己的权力。When the Plantagenets won the kingdom of England, its shattered and lawless.当金雀花家族在英格兰王国获得胜利,它变得离破碎而且无法可依。Under their rule,its transformed into one of the best governed states in precedent.在他们的统治下,变成了一个最好的治理国家的先例。But their story is one of intrigue,conflicts and violence.但他们的故事充满阴谋,冲突和暴力。They fought their enemies,but also turned on each other,sons made wars on fathers, brothers betrayed brothers,powerful queens conspired.他们同敌人战斗,但彼此也兵戎相向,儿子对父亲发起战争,兄弟背叛兄弟,强大的皇后密谋挑起事端。 201407/310878。
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