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2018年09月19日 02:06:40|来源:国际在线|编辑:医解答
The American government made no secret of the fact that it had rounded up Japanese residents of this country, even if they had been born here, and kept them in detention camps during World War II. At first glance, “The Train to Crystal City” appears to be about some version of that story, since the people depicted on its cover are Asian and some are being transported somewhere. But the facts Jan Jarboe Russell has unveiled are much thornier, more complex and terrible. The tale they tell is almost more than her mind-boggling but awkwardly organized book can handle.美国政府从不讳言“二战”期间曾经集中美国的日本居民,把他们关进拘留营的事实——即使这些居民是在美国出生。乍一看,《开往克里斯特尔城的火车》(The Train to Crystal City)似乎同样讲述了这个故事,因为封面上的人物是亚洲人,有些正被送往别处。但是简·贾·拉塞尔(Jan Jarboe Russell)在本书中揭露的事实更棘手、更复杂、更可怕。这本书发人深省,但却有失条理,几乎已经无法驾驭书中人物们所讲述的故事。Forty years ago, as an undergraduate at the University of Texas at Austin, she was first told by a Japanese-American professor about the family internment camp at Crystal City, in southwestern Texas. During and after the war, it housed not only Japanese “detainees,” who were for all practical purposes prisoners, but also many Germans and a few Italians. The Germans loom large in this book, but the Italians play virtually no role.40年前,拉塞尔在得克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校读本科时,第一次听一位日裔美国教授讲起得克萨斯州西南部克里斯特尔城的家庭俘虏收容所。“二战”期间和战后,这里不仅关押着日裔“政治犯”——他们实际上被当作囚犯对待——还关押着很多德裔和几个意大利裔人。这本书突出讲述了那些德裔的故事,但是几乎没提那几个意大利人。Over time she learned that here were also people of Japanese descent who had been secretly kidnapped. At the request of the Roosevelt administration, the Japanese had also been spirited away from cooperating Latin American countries, with an especially large contingent from Peru. Many spoke neither Japanese nor English and had no connection to the ed States. They were being held not as spies but for a more covert purpose: to be used as chits in a hostage exchange program once the war was over.后来她得知,这里还有一些被秘密绑架的日裔。应罗斯福政府要求,一些与美国合作的拉美国家偷偷拐走了一些日裔,从秘鲁绑架的人数尤为众多。这些人中,很多人既不会说日语,也不会说英语,与美国没有任何关系。他们不是作为间谍被拘留,而是为了一个更隐秘的目的:用作战后人质交换的筹码。Perhaps Ms. Russell’s jaw dropped as she got wind of each new part of this. Yours certainly will. But she has doggedly captured the awful intricacies that such a plan wrought, not only on the people who were uprooted but on the officials charged with handling them. No one had given much thought to how Crystal City would mix such different population groups; to how pro-Nazi Germans would get along with American citizens of German descent who identified as Germany’s enemies; to Japanese households who could not find any of the staples of their diet in this particular snake-and-scorpion-rich Texas region. Even the plan to enable tofu-making in Texas, at a time when it was hardly possible to order supplies from Japan, provides Ms. Russell with an interesting little story.拉塞尔每听到一个新情况,可能都会惊得瞠目结舌。你肯定也是这种反应。不过,她还是顽强地描述了这个计划造成的可怕的、复杂的影响——不仅是对那些被迫背井离乡的人,还包括对那些负责处理他们的官员。没人细想过,克里斯特尔城如何融合这些背景如此不同的人;持纳粹的德国人如何与以德国为敌的德裔美国人相处;得克萨斯州的这个地区蛇蝎横行,日本家庭找不到自己饮食中的任何主要食材。当时,从日本订购供给品几乎是不可能的,所以出现了一个让得克萨斯州能做豆腐的计划,这也给拉塞尔提供了一个有趣的小故事。She got much of her information from more than 50 surviving Crystal City prisoners whose memories she tapped. This was a place for families, after all. And even though the primary detainee was usually a man, his wife and children willingly went with him — if they could even learn where he had been taken. The book tells of men who were seized in the days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and the long months and years it took for their families to find out if they were dead or alive, let alone learn where they had been relocated. Many interviewees provide child’s-eye descriptions of what the long, strange journey to their unknown new home was like.她的很多信息来自在世的50多名克里斯特尔城囚犯,她打开了他们记忆的闸门。毕竟,那是一个拘留家庭的地方。尽管主囚犯通常是个男人,但他的妻儿愿意跟他一起走——如果他们能打听到他被抓到哪儿的话。这本书讲述了在日军袭击珍珠港之后几天内被抓的一些男人的故事。他们的家人在其后漫长的几个月,乃至几年里打听他是否还活着,他们被送到了哪里更是不得而知。很多受访者当年还是孩子,他们用儿童的眼光描述了通往未知新家的漫长、奇怪的旅程。Although they had no way of knowing it at the time, for these people Crystal City would become the closest thing many of them had to a home for a long time. The camp operated until 1948 — three years after the war had ended — and its residents continued to be policed and guarded. Nobody quite knew where to send them.他们当时绝不会想到,克里斯特尔城会在很长一段时间里成为最接近家的地方。这个拘留营一直运营到1948年——那时“二战”已结束三年——之后这里的居民继续被监督、看管。没人确切地知道要把他们送到哪里。Red-haired Ingrid Eiserloh, a first-generation American of German descent, had been born in New York and grown up in Strongsville, Ohio, the place she considered home. But a blanket policy of postwar “repatriation” meant shipping Ingrid, her parents and young siblings to postwar Germany, where they would endure near-starvation and have no set survival plan; Ingrid would also have to deal with the crude attentions of American G.I.s. The book gives abundant credit to such American officials as Earl G. Harrison, a onetime commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. He was in charge of overseeing Crystal City and understood the additional, superfluous cruelty that came with this postwar treatment. But the unyielding anti-immigrant attitude that the ed States applied to many Jews freed from concentration camps also applied to Crystal City’s unwanted population.红头发的英格丽德·艾泽洛(Ingrid Eiserloh)是第一代德裔美国人,她在纽约出生,在俄亥俄州的斯特朗威尔长大,她视后者为家乡。但是战后“遣送回国”的通用政策把英格丽德,以及她的父母、弟们送回了战后的德国,他们没有任何固定的谋生计划,差点饿死在德国;英格丽德还得应付美国士兵的严密监视。这本书高度赞扬了厄尔·G·哈里森(Earl G. Harrison)等美国官员,哈里森曾是美国移民和归化局局长,曾负责监管克里斯特尔城。他明白这种战后待遇会带来多余的、没必要的残酷。但是美国对很多从集中营中释放出来的犹太人持有的强硬反移民态度也用到了克里斯特尔城这些不受欢迎的人身上。Among Ms. Russell’s best sources: Mr. Harrison’s diary and the personnel file of Joseph O’Rourke, the officer in Crystal City who dealt with the day-to-day problems there. Given the officiousness with which both men might have distanced themselves from the tough issues that came their way, these documents are surprisingly honest and pained about the injustices being done. Mr. O’Rourke wrote of watching “typical American boys and girls develop deep feelings of betrayal by their government.” After all, in a situation rife with absurdities, they were being taught the Bill of Rights in schools at Crystal City, where those rights had been taken away from them.拉塞尔最好的资料来源包括哈里森的日记以及约瑟夫·欧鲁克(Joseph O’Rourke)的人事档案,后者曾是克里斯特尔城的一名军官,负责处理那里的日常问题。他们两人秉持不越俎代庖的原则,可能没有干涉自己看到的一些严重问题,但是这些文件出人意料地诚实,为不公正的行为感到痛心。欧鲁克写道,他看到“典型的美国男孩和女孩产生被自己的政府背叛的强烈情绪”。毕竟,在那种十分荒谬的情况下,他们仍在克里斯特尔城的学校里接受《人权法案》的教育,而他们自己的权利却被剥夺了。“The Train to Crystal City” combines accounts of terrible sorrow and destruction with great perseverance, and there is one really unexpected turn. Though their internment may have been, in theory, the worst thing the children of Crystal City ever experienced, some of them formed lasting bonds. So they have reunions. They have had a newsletter, Crystal City Chatter. And they have their memories, which they shared with Ms. Russell. She now shares them with ers who’ll wish these stories weren’t true.《开往克里斯特尔城的火车》以极大的毅力把这些关于可怕悲痛和破坏的叙述综合在一起,书中还有个非常出人意料的转折。虽然理论上讲,克里斯特尔城的孩子们被拘留的生活是他们最糟糕的经历,但是其中一些人建立了长久的联系。他们后来多次聚会。他们有一个内部通讯,名叫《克里斯特尔城絮语》(Crystal City Chatter)。他们有共同的回忆,他们把这些回忆分享给了拉塞尔。现在,拉塞尔把这些回忆分享给读者,虽然读者们希望这些故事不是真的。 /201501/356555The sp of the deadly Ebola virus in West Africa and the slow international response has led to increasing calls for China, Africa’s biggest trading partner, to do more to help contain the epidemic.致命的埃拉病毒在西非蔓延,而国际社会反映迟缓,这使得越来越多人向中国呼吁,去采取更多措施来帮助控制疫情的蔓延。中国是非洲最大的贸易伙伴。The pressure on China highlights the country’s changing international status. As the world’s second-largest economy, it is expected to take on more of the burden of responding to international crises. But it is still a developing nation, poorer per capita than the ed States, Japan or European Union countries.中国承受的压力突显了中国国际地位的转变。作为世界第二大经济体,人们期待中国肩负起应对国际危机的更大责任。但中国仍然是一个发展中国家,人均收入低于美国、日本和欧盟国家。On Tuesday, China announced that it was sending a mobile lab with 59 experts to Sierra Leone, the third team it has dispatched to the country. Over the past month, China has contributed million in food, medical supplies and cash to help African countries and aid organizations combat the disease.周二,中国宣布将向塞拉利昂派遣一个由59名专家组成的移动实验室,这是中国向该国派出的第三组专家。过去一个月里,中国提供了价值3700万美元(约2.3亿元人民币)的食品、医疗用品和资金,来帮助非洲国家及援助组织对抗疫情。The ed Nations said on Tuesday that it would cost nearly billion to contain the disease, which has killed more than 2,400 people thus far. Half of the cases have come in the past three weeks, according to the World Health Organization, with Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone hardest hit by the accelerating outbreak.联合国周二表示,控制疫情蔓延可能需要将近10亿美元,目前已有超过2400人因为埃拉疫情丧生。世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)数据显示,有半数的病例是在过去三周中产生的,疫情蔓延的加速对几内亚、利比里亚、塞拉利昂的冲击最为严重。The ed States, which has been criticized for not doing more to help control the sp of the disease, announced a dramatic increase in support on Tuesday. The ed States military will send 3,000 personnel to combat what President Obama called “an epidemic of the likes that we have not seen before.” The ed States Agency for International Development said that it had spent more than 0 million on protective equipment and relief supplies and planned to budget another million. The Department of Defense is preparing to budget an additional 0 million toward the effort.美国此前被人批评,没有采取更多措施控制疫情蔓延,但周二,美国宣布会大幅加强持力度。美国军方将派遣3000名人员,对抗奥巴马总统所形容的“我们前所未见的那种流行病”。美国国际开发署(ed States Agency for International Development)称,已经提供了价值超过1亿美元的保护装备和救援物资,并打算再划拨7500万美元。国防部正准备再拨付5亿美元资金帮助控制疫情。Following the American announcement, some commentators called for more support from China, which has extensive investments in natural resources and infrastructure development in Africa as well as a million of its citizens working there.美国宣布上述举措之后,一些人士呼吁,中国也应给出更多持,中国在非洲的自然资源和基础设施建设领域有广泛的投资,此外还有一百万中国公民在非洲工作。In a piece for Bloomberg View titled “Africa’s Ebola Should Be China’s Problem,” James Gibney wrote:在《彭视点》(Bloomberg View)上刊登的一篇题为《非洲埃拉应该是中国的问题》(Africa’s Ebola Should Be China’s Problem)的文章中,詹姆斯·吉布尼(James Gibney)写道:Chinese foreign investment has been a powerful force for African economic development (and, sadly, for the retirement funds of African kleptocrats). But China isn’t going to build up its soft power unless its government and state-owned enterprises in Africa are willing to dig a little deeper.“中国的对外投资一直是非洲经济发展的一股强劲力量(可悲的是,也为卖国肥己的非洲官员提供了丰厚的退休金)。然而只有中国政府,以及涉足非洲的国有企业表现得更为慷慨,中国才能构筑起软实力。”China has pointed out its long-running contributions to public health in Africa. A State Council white paper last month said that China had 43 medical teams in 42 African countries, had aided in the construction of 30 hospitals and 30 malaria prevention centers, and had contributed 0 million worth of medical supplies.中国指出,自己长期以来一直在持非洲的公共卫生。中国国务院上个月发布的白皮书表示,中国在42个非洲国家派驻了43医疗队,对30家医院、30家疟疾预防中心的建设提供了帮助,并提供了价值1.3亿美元的医疗用品。And China’s contributions to efforts against Ebola have earned high-level praise. Margaret Chan, director general of the World Health Organization, called the newly announced mobile lab for Sierra Leone “a huge boost, morally and operationally,” according to a W.H.O. statement.中国为控制埃拉疫情而做出的贡献受到了高度赞扬。世卫组织发布的一份声明称,总干事陈冯富珍(Margaret Chan)表示,新近宣布为塞拉利昂提供的移动实验室,“在道义上和实际运作中都有巨大的帮助”。 /201409/329613

The UN weather agency warned on Tuesday there was a good chance of an ;El Nino; climate phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean this year, bringing droughts and heavy rainfall to the rest of the world.据《每日电讯报》4月15日报道,联合国气象机构周二警告说,今年太平洋很有可能出现厄尔尼诺现象,给世界其他地区带来干旱和暴雨天气。The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) said its modelling suggested a ;fairly large potential for an El Nino, most likely by the end of the second quarter of 2014;.世界气象组织(WMO )表示,该组织所建模型显示2014年第二季度末之前极有可能出现厄尔尼诺现象。;If an El Nino event develops ... it will influence temperatures and precipitation and contribute to droughts or heavy rainfall in different regions of the world,; Michel Jarraud, WMO chief, said in a statement.“厄尔尼诺现象一旦出现……它会影响气温和降水,并会促成世界不同地区的干旱或大雨,”世界气象组织秘书长米歇尔·雅罗在一份声明中说。The El Nino phenomenon occurs every two to seven years, when the prevailing trade winds that circulate surface water in the tropical Pacific start to weaken.每两到七年,当环绕太平洋热带水域的盛行信风减弱时,就会出现厄尔尼诺现象。WMO pointed out Tuesday that since February, trade winds had weakened and there had been a significant warming of the waters below the surface in the central Pacific.本周二世界气象组织指出,2月份以来,信风减弱了,而且太平洋中部水域表面下水温变暖显著。;While there is no guarantee this situation will lead to an El Nino event, the longer the trade winds remain weakened, and subsurface temperatures stay significantly warmer than average, the higher the likelihood,; it said.声明称,“虽然也不能保这种情况会导致厄尔尼诺现象,但是信风减弱时间越长,表面下水温比常年变暖越显著,出现厄尔尼诺现象的可能性就越高”。Two thirds of climate models predicted that the phenomenon would begin sometime between June and August, with a few suggesting it could start as early as May, and the remainder predicting no El Nino this year, it said.三分之二的气候模型预测这种现象将出现在今年六月至八月间,还有几个显示它可能在五月开始,而剩下的则预测没有厄尔尼诺现象,该声明说。The last El Nino occurred between June 2009 and May 2010.上一次出现厄尔尼诺现象是在2009年6月至2010年5月之间。It is often followed by a return swing of the pendulum with La Nina, which is characterised by unusually cool ocean surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific.紧跟在厄尔尼诺现象之后的往往是拉尼娜现象的回转,其特点是中部和东部热带太平洋表面温度比正常温度低。Scientists, who closely monitor the two climate patterns, say that while they are not caused by climate change, rising ocean temperatures caused by global warming may affect their intensity and frequency.密切监察这两个气候模式的科学家说,虽然它们不是由气候变化所致,但全球变暖导致的海洋温度的上升可能会影响其强度和频率。;El Nino has an important warming effect on global average temperatures,; Jarraud cautioned, stressing that combined with human-induced warming from greenhouse gases such events had ;the potential to cause a dramatic rise in global mean temperature;.雅罗警告说,“厄尔尼诺对全球平均温度变暖有重要影响”,他还强调说,加之温室气体排放引起的人为气候变暖因素,这样的现象“可能造成全球平均气温急剧上升” 。 /201404/289925

The flood of allegations, lawsuits and official reports into clerical abuse reached a peak in 2009 and 2010, which observers say may explain the spike shown in the document.据英国广播公司报道,在2009年和2010年间,大量有关神职人员性虐儿童的指控、诉讼和官方报道已经沸腾了。The Holy See is a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, a legally binding instrument which commits it to protecting and nurturing the most vulnerable in society.梵蒂冈是联合国《儿童权利公约》的签署者。这是一份具有法律约束力的文书,承诺保护和照顾儿童。It ratified the convention in 1990 but after an implementation report in 1994 it did not submit any progress reports until 2012, following revelations of child sex abuse in Europe and beyond.1990年,罗马教会批准了这个公约。但是在1994年的执行报告后,直到2012年才提交了进展报道,在欧洲和其他地区儿童受到性虐曝光后。Last month, the Vatican refused a request from the UN#39;s Committee on the Rights of the Child for data on abuse, on the grounds that it only released such information if requested to do so by another country as part of legal proceedings.上个月,梵蒂冈拒绝了联合国儿童权利委员会关于提供受虐儿童数据的要求,理由是只有其他国家提出要求、作为法律程序的一部分,才能公布这些信息。In a homily on Thursday, Benedict#39;s successor, Pope Francis, called abuse scandals ;the shame of the Church;.在周四的说教中,本尼迪克特的继承者——弗朗西斯一世认为这个虐待丑闻是教会的耻辱。He announced in December that a Vatican committee would be set up to fight sexual abuse of children in the Church.弗朗西斯一世在2013年12月宣布,梵蒂冈将设立委员会来与教会性虐儿童作斗争。 /201403/278219

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