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来源:挂号大夫    发布时间:2019年10月22日 17:48:38    编辑:admin         

Whether a man is drawn to a woman#39;s body or her face may depend on whether he sees her as a short-term fling or a long-term lover, according to a new study that discusses evolutionary motivations in dating。一项探讨约会中进化动机的最新研究表明,男人关注女伴的身材还是其长相,取决于他把对方看做是短期的纵情对象还是看做长期恋人。Men who, for the purposes of the study, were considering just a fling with a woman were more likely to peek at a picture of her body than men who were thinking about a long-term relationship, the research found. The guys considering a long-term relationship showed a preference for looking at her face。研究发现,相较于那些考虑发展长期关系的男性,期待一夜风流的男性更可能去关注描绘女性身材的图片。而考虑长期发展的男性则对女性的长相有偏好。The findings may reflect men#39;s evolutionary drives, said study co-author Jaime Confer, a psychology graduate student at the University of Texas in Austin. Men who want a fling, she said, may be subconsciously looking to a woman#39;s waistline to judge the woman#39;s current fertility. Men looking for long-term partners, on the other hand, may be more interested in her face for clues of reproductive potential in the future。研究报告作者之一、德克萨斯大学心理学研究生杰米-康弗说,这些结果可能反映了男性的进化动机。她说,一个想要一夜情的男人潜意识地会去看女人的腰围,来判断她的生育能力。而想寻求长期伴侣的男人则更可能对女人的长相感兴趣,因为他想由此看出此女未来的生殖潜力如何。Previous studies have noted that a woman#39;s face reflects her youth and health, which can affect her future reproductive abilities. Lots of wrinkles might suggest she has few childbearing years left, for example. The body, on the other hand, holds clues as to how fertile a woman is right now. Waist-to-hip ratio can signal whether a woman is aly pregnant, and maybe even whether she is currently ovulating, according to previous research。此前已有研究表明,女性的面容可以反映她的年龄和健康状况,而年轻和健康与否可影响其潜在生殖能力。例如,长有很多皱纹可能意味着她几年后便不能再生孩子了。而另一方面,身体的种种特点可以显示出一个女人现在的生育能力如何。之前的研究显示,通过腰臀比例,人们可以看出一个女人是否怀,甚至可能判断出她是否正在排卵。Confer and her colleagues asked 192 men and 183 women, all heterosexual and in college, to consider entering into either a short- or long-term heterosexual relationship. The students were given a masked picture of a potential date, with boxes covering both the head and clothed body. They could choose to remove either the box covering the head or the box covering the body, but not both。康弗和同事要求大学里192名男生和183名女生(全部为异性恋)开始考虑进入一段短期或者长期的两性关系。同时学生们还拿到了潜在约会对象的照片,头和身体均被盒子遮住。受试者可以选择去掉头部的盒子,也可以选择去掉身体部位的盒子,只能择其一。On the whole, 61 percent of men and 69 percent of women chose to see the individual#39;s face. But among the men who were thinking short-term, the interest in viewing the woman#39;s face decreased. Of the men considering short-term relationships, 52 percent chose to see the body。总体来讲,61%的男生选择看对方的脸,这一比例在女生中为69%。但是那些想要短暂关系的男生对观看女性长相的兴趣就降低了。考虑短暂关系的男生中,52%的人选择看对方的身体。 /201507/384639。

Global annual spending on cancer drugs has hit 0bn for the first time as the pharmaceuticals industry prepares to launch a fresh generation of treatments that promise to push costs even higher.全球用于癌症药物的年度开首次达到1000亿美元大关。与此同时,制药产业正准备推出新一代癌症治疗方案,这些治疗方案势必进一步推升治疗成本。The record 2014 figure marks a 10 per cent increase from a year earlier, largely because of rising drug prices and increased incidence of cancer.比起前一年,2014年这一创纪录的开增长了10%。在很大程度上,这一增幅是药品价格攀升及癌症发病率增加导致的。The data, from the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics, a respected US research organisation, comes at a time of growing excitement among medics and investors over new cancer drugs heralded as the biggest step forward in oncology for decades.该数据由著名的美国研究机构艾美仕医疗保健信息研究所(IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics)发布。就在艾美仕发布这一数据之际,越来越多的医生及投资者正在为新的癌症药物欢欣鼓舞。这批新的药物被誉为肿瘤医学界数十年来的最大进展。Merck amp; Co, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche and AstraZeneca are among those developing so-called cancer immunotherapies that harness the body’s immune system to fight tumours.在开发这种所谓癌症免疫疗法的公司中,默克集团(Merck amp; Co)、百时美施贵宝(Bristol-Myers Squibb)、罗氏(Roche)及阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)赫然在列。这种免疫疗法的原理,是利用机体的免疫力对抗癌细胞。The earliest of these have been launched in the US in recent months at prices amounting to about 0,000 a year — generating fresh optimism around the pharmaceuticals industry after a decade of sluggish growth.这种治疗方法最早于最近几个月在美国推出,其价格总计为一年约15万美元。对于经历了十年增长乏力的制药业来说,这一天价方案催生了新的乐观情绪。However, the expected surge of expensive new cancer drugs has raised questions over their affordability for healthcare systems aly struggling with the rising cost of caring for an ageing world population.然而,昂贵的癌症新药如期涌现,也引发了大量质疑:面对全球人口老龄化而导致的成本上升,已经不堪重负的医疗系统还能否负担起这些新药。“Earlier diagnosis, longer treatment duration and increased effectiveness of drug therapies are contributing to rising levels of spending on medicines for cancer,” said the IMS report.艾美仕报告表示:“诊断时间提前、治疗时期延长、以及药物治疗有效性增加,都在助推癌症药物开的增加。”The compound annual growth rate in cancer drug spending increased to 6.5 per cent over the past five years and this was forecast by IMS to rise further to 6-8 per cent between now and 2018 as new treatments arrive.过去五年里,癌症药物开的复合年增长率增至6.5%。据艾美仕预测,随着新治疗方案的问世,从现在起到2018年期间,这一增长率将进一步增加,且有望增加到8%。“New therapeutic classes and combination therapies will change the cancer landscape over the next several years,” the report said.该报告称:“今后几年,新的治疗门类及组合治疗方案将改变癌症治疗领域的格局。” /201505/373445。

Holiday travel often comes with flights delayed by winter storms, mechanical failures, or schedule snafus. If your flight is hit by a lengthy delay, the pilot you want in the cockpit is Captain Denny Flanagan.节日出行经常会遇到暴风雪、机械故障或调度混乱造成的航班延误。如果你的航班被长时间延误,你肯定希望坐在驾驶舱里的飞行员是丹尼o弗拉纳根机长。On a recent ed Airlines UAL 3.92% flight from Houston to Los Angeles, Flanagan made a gate announcement, introducing himself and sharing flight and weather information. Everyone looked up, expecting bad news, and when there was none, the talk turned to wondering who this captain was. A few minutes later, Flanagan stood at the plane door, handing out trading cards with stats about the Boeing 757 being boarded. After the unusual welcome on the PA, everyone buckled up, y to depart.前不久,在美国联合航空公司(ed Airlines)一架航班即将从休斯顿飞往洛杉矶之前,登机口的广播传来弗拉纳根的声音,他先是自我介绍了一番,然后与乘客分享了航班和天气信息。所有人都抬起头,以为会有坏消息,结果并没有,于是人们开始猜测这位机长到底是谁。几分钟后,弗拉纳根站在舱门口,向乘客发放带有波音757统计数据的名片。广播上不同寻常的欢迎结束之后,所有人都扣好安全带,准备起飞。However, when a routine inspection uncovered a small crack in the leading edge of a wing, Flanagan announced a 20-minute delay. That turned into an hour delay for maintenance, and another hour to complete the repair. Most folks got off the plane to try to rebook flights and find food. To the delight of those who stayed on board, Flanagan opened the galley doors and walked down the aisle, handing out free food as he asked the flight attendants to serve drinks.然而,常规检查发现飞机一侧机翼前缘有微小的裂痕,于是弗拉纳根宣布飞机推迟20分钟起飞。之后,20分钟变成了一个小时,等维修完成,飞机已经延误了两个小时。大多数乘客都下了飞机,打算改签航班,或是寻找食物。让留在飞机上的乘客感到高兴的是,弗拉纳根一边要求空乘人员发放饮料,他自己则打开飞机厨房的门,沿着过道分发免费食品。During this season of holiday travel, when sniffles and delays run rampant, it was like getting an unexpected gift from Santa. “In the service business, the recipe for success is quite easy,” the pilot says. “Choose your attitude for the day, anticipate your customers’ needs, and exceed their expectations. I call the cockpit my sky office, and I’m the CEO. I run the airplane, and I take care of the crew and customers.”在节日旅行季,航班延误就像感冒一样,已经见怪不怪,而弗拉纳根机长的做法,简直就像是来自圣诞老人的意外礼物。这位飞行员说道:“在务行业,成功的秘诀非常简单。选择你的态度,预测客户的需求,然后提供超出他们预期的务。我将驾驶舱当作我的空中办公室,我就是这架飞机的CEO。我不仅负责开飞机,还要照顾机组人员和乘客。”Flanagan, a former lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy, said he flew C-130 transport aircraft in support of Operation Deep Freeze in Antarctica and P-3 Orions (maritime surveillance aircraft) for 20 years before joining ed in 1986. Since the Navy planes had crews of 14, the mission-oriented pilot routinely looked after those under his command.曾是美国海军少校的弗拉纳根表示,在1986年加入美国联合航空之前的20年间,他曾驾驶C-130运输机为在南极洲的“深冻行动”(Operation Deep Freeze)提供援,还曾驾驶过P-3猎户座海上侦察机。由于美国海军飞机有14名机组人员,这位以完成任务为使命的飞行员还要照看好自己的下级。Flanagan, who still flies in the Naval Reserve, kept that mindset when he became an airline pilot. After 9/11, when the airline industry was hit hard, 3,600 ed pilots were furloughed. Flanagan, clearly a go-getter, decided to do what he could to build customer loyalty, hoping that as business came back, the pilots who had lost their jobs could also return to work.弗拉纳根现在依旧在美国海军预备役(Naval Reserve)负责飞行任务。在成为航空公司飞行员后,他保留了这种心态。911恐怖袭击发生后,航空业遭到重创,有3,600名联合航空的飞行员被暂时解雇。以积极进取著称的弗拉纳根决定想法设法地赢得客户的忠诚,同时希望航空业回暖后,那些失去工作的飞行员也能够重返工作岗位。Thus the gate announcements, the trading cards, and other little touches began. Whenever unaccompanied minors are on the plane, Flanagan calls the child’s parents before take-off to let them know all is well. During layovers, he writes thank you notes on the back of his business cards for the next flight, adding passenger names from the manifest after boarding.于是,他开始从舱门广播、名片等细微之处着手。只要飞机上有无人陪伴的未成年人,他都会在起飞之前打电话向孩子家长报平安。在中途停留期间,他会在自己的名片背面,为下一班乘客写上几句暖心的感谢语,并在登机结束之后,按照旅客名单添上乘客的姓名。“I usually give out 50 cards on each trip,” Flanagan says. “I write them to the passengers sitting in first class, and to those sitting in middle seats in coach. We’ve all been in that middle seat, and when the person on either side of you takes an arm rest, it’s not that comfortable.”弗拉纳根说道:“我每一次飞行通常会发出50张名片。我会写给头等舱乘客,还有坐在经济舱中间座位的乘客。我们都坐过中间的座位,如果旁边的人用了扶手,你会非常不舒。”The captain figures if a flight attendant hands the middle seat passenger a note from the pilot, those on either side will take notice and strike up a conversation. Usually, that conversation ends up with people sharing the arm rests.弗拉纳根机长认为,如果空乘人员送给中间座位的乘客一封感谢信,便能引起两边乘客的注意,让大家交谈起来。而通常情况下,聊到最后,大家便会一起使用扶手。Many acts can be considered exceptional customer service, but the most meaningful ones are really unplanned acts of kindness. In 2008, a passenger who got one of Flanagan’s notes wrote back, asking if the pilot could get an electric wheelchair to a handicapped boy in Honduras. Flanagan’s calls to colleagues in ed Cargo and then-Continental Airlines got the wheelchair delivered, at no charge, on Christmas Day.弗拉纳根有许多做法可以被视为出色的客户务,不过最有意义的通常是无意中的善举。2008年,一位收到弗拉纳根感谢信的乘客给他回信,问他能否为洪都拉斯一位残疾男孩送去一辆电动轮椅。弗拉纳根打电话给联合航空快运公司(ed Cargo)的同事,这家当时还被称作美国大陆航空的公司(Continental Airlines)在圣诞节当天,将轮椅免费送到了那个男孩手中。During the holidays, Flanagan notices more leisure travelers and first-time flyers. Along with passing out pilot wings to kids in the gate area, he carries canvas bags in his suitcase to give to parents whose gift-loaded paper shopping bags have ripped. Whenever the captain sees military passengers traveling as a group, he gets on the PA at the gate and suggests how nice it would be to exchange seat assignments to make the trip more comfortable for those who are risking their lives to serve.弗拉纳根发现,节日期间,休闲旅行者和首次乘坐飞机的乘客增多。他在登机口向孩子们发放飞行胸章的时候,在行李箱里还会随身携带一些帆布袋,专门提供给那些携带大量礼物的父母们——他们的纸质购物袋很容易破碎。如果看到有来自军队的乘客集体乘坐飞机,他会通过舱门处的广播,建议乘客与军人们交换座位,让这些不畏生死,报效祖国的勇士们度过一段更舒的旅程。“I did this with one group of 20 young men and women flying together,” Flanagan recalls. “There was a lot of crying and hoo-rahs, and every one of them got a seat in first class from another passenger.”弗拉纳根回忆道:“当时有一群20岁左右的男女一起坐飞机。大家大叫着欢呼,每个人都得到了头等舱乘客交换的座位。”Flanagan’s positive attitude and willingness to engage with customers has made him a celebrity among frequent flyers who refer to him as “Captain Denny.” His flight schedule is posted on flyertalk.com, and a number of fans book their flights around it.弗拉纳根积极的态度,以及与乘客建立友好关系的意愿,让他在飞行常客中成为明星,人们都亲切地叫他“丹尼机长”。他的航班时间表被公布在社区论坛flyertalk.com上,许多粉丝会专门根据这份时间表预定航班。A board posting from a user named Goalie: “I met him at his arriving gate during a mutual layover (at IAH). As we were walking from his gate to mine, a woman and her daughter were walking in the opposite direction and in the blink of an eye, he stops, reaches into his pocket, pulls out a pair of wings and gives them to the daughter. And the smile on the little girl’s face was what it’s all about.”一位名叫Goalie的用户发帖称:“在短暂的转机逗留期间,我在乔治o布什洲际机场到达口见到过他。我们当时正从他的登机门走向我要乘坐的航班,一位女士和她的女儿正走向与我们相反的方向,突然他停了下来,从口袋里拿出一对胸章,送给了那个女孩。那个小女孩脸上的笑容已经说明了一切。”Pat89339 wrote, “For people in the San Francisco area, we are in the planning stages of another dinner (with Captain Denny). I will post more when the date is settled.”Pat89339写道:“旧金山地区的朋友们注意了,我们正在计划(与丹尼机长)另外一次聚餐。日期确定之后,我会再发帖通知。”Occasionally dining with passengers — who vie to buy him meals when he’s available on layovers — Flanagan has even been known to buy hamburgers or pizza for all his passengers when flights are delayed longer than two hours. ed foots those bills.弗拉纳根有时候会与乘客一起用餐,在中途停留的时候如果他有时间,乘客会争先恐后地请他用餐。如果航班延误超过两个小时,弗拉纳根甚至会给机上的所有乘客买汉堡或披萨。当然账单最后要由联合航空报销。In 2010, the airline filmed Flanagan, following him around on a typical day, and turned it into a training shown to all new hires. While Flanagan is not the only pilot to provide great customer service, you have to wonder why more don’t stand out like him.2010年,联合航空录制了弗拉纳根普通的一天,并将其制作成面向所有新晋员工的培训视频。虽然弗拉纳根并非唯一一位提供出色客户务的飞行员,但为什么其他人并没有像他那样引人注目呢?Customer service may be innate to Flanagan, but it’s also a skill that can be taught and a behavior easily measured. Flying safely, of course, must be at the top of a pilot’s performance review, but points for customer service should be in the mix, as well. “Captain Flanagan is an outstanding employee, and we support his – and all of our pilots’ – efforts to go above and beyond for our customers to provide great service,” says Jennifer Dohm, a spokesperson for ed. “As far as anyone can remember, Denny has always operated this way, and we commend his dedication to creating the most flyer-friendly experience he can for our customers.”客户务或许是弗拉纳根与生俱来的本领,这项技能可以通过学习掌握,并且非常容易衡量。当然,飞行员的绩效评估中,排在首位的必须始终是飞行安全,但客户务还应该包括许多方面。联合航空发言人珍妮弗o多姆表示:“弗拉纳根机长是一位杰出的员工,我们持他以及所有飞行员,为了提供超出客户预期的务所付出的努力。其实,丹尼一直都在这样做。他致力于为乘客创造最友好的飞行体验,成为所有人交口称赞的榜样。”Remember those trading cards Flanagan hands out at the beginning of every flight? He also autographs two of them, and if there’s wine left over in first class at the end of the flight, two passengers with autographed cards get to take home a free bottle of wine.还记得弗拉纳根在每一次飞行开始之前发放的名片吗?他会在其中两张上签名。在飞行结束时,如果头等舱有剩余的酒水,持有签名名片的两位乘客便可以免费将一瓶红酒带回家。After the recent delayed flight landed, passengers received e-mails from ed’s Proactive Recovery Operations Team, offering off their next flight or extra bonus miles, as a gesture of appreciation.在最近一次延误的航班降落之后,乘客收到了联合航空主动恢复操作团队(Proactive Recovery Operations Team )的电子邮件,为了表示感谢,航空公司将为乘客的下一次飞行提供50美元折扣,或赠送额外的奖励里程。Being proactive about customer service is essential for any business to survive and thrive, people like Flanagan appear to make exceptional ambassadors for ed.积极主动提供优质的客户务,是任何公司生存和发展的根本。喜欢弗拉纳根的人似乎成了联合航空最特殊的宣传大使。“I like to treat my customers as if they were my family flying with me,” Flanagan says. “I’ve got a blessed life with my wife and children. When I see people in wheelchairs, injured soldiers, and those who aren’t as healthy as I am on our planes, I’m grateful that I’m able to do what I’ve always wanted to do, which is fly airplanes.”弗拉纳根说道:“我喜欢像对待与我一起飞行的亲人一样,对待我的乘客。我有妻子和孩子,生活很幸福。当我在我们的飞机上看到行动不便的人、受伤的士兵和有其他健康问题的乘客时,我都会感谢上帝让我有机会从事自己一直想做的事情——驾驶飞机。”Flying with Flanagan is an experience customers long remember. After all, who could forget flying with Santa’s helper?与弗拉纳根一起经历的飞行,将是乘客们久久难忘的一段经历。毕竟,谁会忘记与圣诞老人的助手一起飞行的经历呢?(财富中文网) /201501/351919。

A: “Rock pie”---that’s it!A:;石头饼;,就是这个。B:Who in their right mind would eat rock pie?B:哪个头脑清楚的人会吃石头饼?A:Nobody.I’ve entered a pie-throwing contest.A:没有,我只是参加了一个饼投掷大赛。 /201506/375889。

RrUB]l].OUa08jLZCJs5X[Q|;CGIbE0rqiIn Japan, most schools have uniforms for their students. The distinctive, traditional outfits were originally inspired by military designs, but since the 1980s, new styles have emerged.日本的初中和高中几乎都有校,有的学生甚至按照自己的制喜好决定升学的学校,最近类似校的便装也很流行Q0NM5N6qp*G~t@WjS。C6N-#o1cMi0wBk#W_mF!RL*AMilitary Styles男生穿“学生”,女生穿“水手”A boy#39;s uniform with stand-up collar.一个穿学生(立领)的男生i5a7Ug~]r*bv3r468P2(Z%;z*)HfA9#Traditional Japanese school uniforms show the influence of old European military uniforms. In this style, boys typically wear black or navy blue pants and jackets with stand-up collars. The first institute to introduce this kind of uniform was the Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo) in 1886. They are now worn principally by boys at junior high and high schools.在日本,说到校一般是指学生和水手KhjjWukw,DUaP。学生是男生的校,立领上衣加西装长裤,颜色为黑色或藏青色@B(PkCoNgRKN。据说这个款式源自于1886年帝国大学(现东京大学)制定的校式样,现在主要由初中和高中采用zoH)EXgGctpCj^iO^mWz。The distinctive sailor outfits for junior high and high school girls, with their large naval-style collars, are said to have first been used at St. Agnes#39; University (Heian Jogakuin) in Kyoto in 1920. The uniform features in the popular manga and anime Sailor Moon, in which it is worn by the magical schoolgirl heroines. At some schools, students wear different ribbons in different grades, switching from red to blue to white, for example, as they move up each year.水手是女生穿的校,其特点是带有一个很大且形状独特的“水手领”GSJ~zi5VB74~5J。日本的人气漫画《美少女战士》,描绘的就是身穿水手的美少女战士们的故事I%aSz.0Yix9c。据说1920年,京都的平安女学院首次采用了水手作为校,现在主要是初中和高中采用这个款式eYr.CY5MSBjc25kZs。有些学校还规定不同学年系不同颜色的领巾(或领结),例如一年级是红色,二年级是蓝色,三年级是白色等wE^p-Mm6sT0fle。1R)~Ut,R3yg(#bfU^b0Rz-Ex[w3,pAm3Z^L(DG /201506/382045。