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Green Roofs Are Nothing New 草坪屋顶有利环保Walk through any town or village in the Faroe Islands, located between Iceland and Scotland, and it will be hard not to notice the green grass roofed houses on every street. A local historian says, because of the lack of natural building resources on the islands, the Vikings used grass on their roofs to provide stability and extra insulation. "The grass is something that roofs here when the Viking came and started it, or maybe even the monks started it with the grass roof. We don't know." He says young people on the islands continue to build their houses with traditional grass roofs, not only to continue the tradition, but also because there are environmental advantages. Grass roofs filter pollutants and CO2 out of the air."Here, you have this waterproof membrane, and the first you have to do that, the, actually, grass is against this waterproof membrane. The root is up. To keep to hold this made mechanical ,and then you have to put this fishnet here, and this will be tied around the edges of the house. Afterwards you take the second lay of the grass and put it over." Yore says having a grass roof is a way for people on the islands to take responsibility for the environment. He says, if a house has 150 square meters of grass roofing, the grass would produce enough oxygen for one person per day. Jacob Mittyord has incorporated a grass roof into his new house design. "There are two reasons. The first is the aesthetic, we want it to look nice. And the second is the tradition. It's an old tradition in the Faroe Islands, so we asked our architect to get some solutions, where we could combine this new art style, that (went) well together with this old fashion." Last fall, former U.S. president Bill Clinton visited the Faroe’s capital for a conference, and spoke on the effects of climate change."I look at the old-fashioned roofs with the grass on it, and I was thinking how far ahead of us you're now. All over America we're in a mad rush to green all of our roofs , to put vegetation on our roofs, to cut down on the electric cost and the CO2 emissions that come from having inefficient buildings." The Prime Minister of the Faroe Islands has a grass roof on his house."First of all, I think it's very important that we all, very all, we in the society, politicians, or a school teacher, or a fisherman, that we're putting the climate in focus, that we're thinking about the climate change all the time."参考中文翻译:走在位于冰岛和苏格兰之间的法罗群岛的任何一个城镇或者村庄,你都很难不注意到每条街上绿色的草坪屋顶。一名当地的历史学家说,由于岛上缺乏天然的建筑,北欧海盗利用屋顶上的草来增加稳定性和额外的隔离。“这些草是当初北欧海盗开始来到这里建造房屋的时候种植的,或许甚至是僧侣们开始建造这种种满草地屋顶。我们不知道。”他说现在岛上的年轻人建造房屋的时候仍然建造草做的屋顶,不仅仅是为了延续这个传统,而且因为环保方面的优势。屋顶上的草可以净化空气中的污染物和二氧化碳。“这里有一些防水薄膜,事实上,你要想到的第一件事是,草根会把包膜穿破的。如果要切实可行的话,你必须铺一些鱼网,这些鱼网会被绑在房子边缘。之后你要在上面铺设第二层草。”Yore说建造草制屋顶可以增强岛上居民的环保责任感。她说,如果一个一个房间有150平方米的草制屋顶,这些草可以产生足够一个人一天呼吸的氧气。Jacob Mittyord 在他的新的房屋设计中就加入了草坪的屋顶。“有两个原因。第一是从审美的角度讲,我们希望新房子看上去漂亮。第二点是传统。这是法罗群岛的一个古老的传统,所以我们请我们的建筑师想出一个解决方案,能够融合这种新的建筑风格和古老的样式。”去年秋天,前任美国总统克林顿造访法罗群岛,就气候变化的影响发表讲话。“我看了一下这种种草的古老风格的屋顶,我在想,你们现在远远的超前于我们。整个美国都在忙着绿化我们的屋顶,在屋顶上种植植物来降低由于低效的建筑带来的电力成本和二氧化碳排放量。”法罗群岛总理的住宅也是草坪屋顶。200811/56939Brown-headed cowbirds are robin-sized black birds whose range covers most of North America. From a people’s point of view cowbirds are what we might call deadbeat parents. Cowbirds lay their eggs in the nests of other bird species, and the cowbird nestlings are raised by the foster parents. Since the cowbirds spend their formative months with birds of an entirely different species which has separate habits, songs, etc., “How does a cowbird know it’s a cowbird?” A good question, since singing the right songs and making the right moves are essential to establishing territory and attracting mates, it’s vital that one do these things right. One would think that the cowbird’s behavior would be “hardwired”, that it would just know what it is. But work done by Meredith West and her colleagues has shown that this is not the case.【生词注释】cowbird n.北美产的燕八哥robin-sized 知更鸟般大小的deadbeat a.游手好闲的formative a.影响发展的territory n.领地hardwired adj.天生的棕头色的燕八哥是知更鸟般大小的黑鸟,它便不再北美的大部分地区。在人们看来,燕八哥是游手好闲的父母。它将蛋缠在其他鸟类的我中,幼鸟是由其他鸟类养育的。因为燕八哥在发育阶段是和完全不同种类的鸟在一起生活,那些鸟的习惯和叫声都不一样。“燕八哥如何知道那是燕八哥吗?问得好,因为适当的叫声和合适的动作对于建立领地和吸引配偶来说都是基本的。燕八哥能正确地做这些事很重要。人们可能认为燕八哥的行为是“天生的”, 燕八哥天生就知道该如何做。但是Meredith West和同事的研究表明事实并不是这样。 201110/156432Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi has sent urgent messages to world leaders Saturday, claiming that his country is fighting al- Qaida and that the ed Nations resolution on Libya was invalid.利比亚领导人卡扎菲星期六向世界领导人发出紧急讯息,称他的国家正在同基地组织战斗,并且说联合国针对利比亚的决议是无效的。The messages come as fighting intensified on the outskirts of the main rebel-held city Benghazi and French President Nicholas Sarkozy confirms that French jets are now enforcing a no fly zone around Benghazi.在卡扎菲发出该讯息的同时,叛军控制的主要城市班加西的郊外战事加剧,而法国总统萨科齐实,法国战机正在班加西周边执行禁飞区的决议。U.S. President Barack Obama, speaking in Brazil, said the people of Libya must be protected and he said the coalition enforcing the no fly zone in Libya is prepared to act to do that.美国总统奥巴马在巴西表示,利比亚人民必须得到保护。他说,在利比亚执行禁飞区的盟军正准备以实际行动来执行禁飞区决议。Forces loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi shelled targets inside the main rebel-held city of Benghazi Saturday as battles intensified in several outer suburbs. Both al Arabiya TV and al Jazeera TV, ing eyewitnesses, said tanks loyal to Mr. Gadhafi had entered Benghazi.忠于利比亚领导人卡扎菲的军队星期六炮击叛军控制的主要城市班加西内的目标。同时一些远郊地区的战事进一步加剧。阿拉伯电视台和半岛电视台都援引目击者的话说,忠于卡扎菲的坦克部队已经开进班加西。In Paris, western diplomats held a summit at Paris’ Elysee Palace to discuss military action in Libya. French President Nicholas Sarkozy spoke after the meeting, indicating that French, Arab and other western states had begun to enforce a no-fly zone near the rebel controlled city of Benghazi, but that Colonel Gadhafi could still comply with U.N. Security Council demands.在巴黎,西方外交官员在巴黎爱丽舍宫举行峰会,讨论在利比亚的军事行动。法国总统萨科齐在会后发表讲话。他指出,法国、阿拉伯以及其它西方国家已经开始在叛军控制的班加西城附近执行禁飞区的决议。但是,卡扎菲上校仍然可以遵循联合国安理会的要求。201103/128578Japanese told to go to bed an hour early to cut carbon emissionsThe Japanese government has launched a campaign encouraging people to go to bed and get up extra early in order to reduce household carbon dioxide emissions.The Morning Challenge campaign, unveiled by the Environment Ministry, is based on the premise that swapping late night electricity for an extra hour of morning sunlight could significantly cut the nation's carbon footprint.A typical family can reduce its carbon dioxide footprint by 85kg a year if everyone goes to bed and gets up one hour earlier, according to the campaign.The amount of carbon dioxide emissions potentially saved from going to bed an hour early was the equivalent of 20 percent of annual emissions from household lights, "Many Japanese people waste electric power at night time, for example by watching TV until very late," a ministry spokesperson told The Daily Telegraph."But going to bed early and getting up early can avoid wasting electrical power which causes carbon dioxide emissions. If people change their lifestyle, we can save energy and reduce emissions." The campaign also proposes that people take advantage of an extra hour of morning sunlight by improving their lifestyles in general by running, doing yoga and eating a nutritious breakfast.It is the latest initiative tackling climate change by the Japanese environment ministry, which is faced with the challenge of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 25 per cent from 1990 levels within the next decade.It was the same government department that launched the high profile Cool Biz campaign five years ago, which encourages workers to wear short-sleeved shirts and offices not to turn air con lower than 28 degrees during the summer.Vocabulary:tackle: to make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation 应付,处理,解决(难题或局面)significantly: in a way that is large or important enough to have an effect on something or to be noticed 有重大意义地;显著地;明显地high profile: attracts a lot of attention or publicity 高调的背单词 — 装英语词汇201006/107138美国失业率继续上升,六月份的失业人数高于预期。先失业率已达9.5%,为26年来的最高水平。Unemployed worker (L) talks with Employment Guide staffer at job fair in San Jose, California 20 Jun 07/77601

Red Cross Reports Increase in Diarrheal Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa腹泻性疾病在撒哈拉以南地区增加  The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies warns diarrheal diseases, such as cholera, are on the rise and increasingly becoming a major cause of death throughout the world - especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The Red Cross says it is working closely with governments to step up an effective response to this emergency. 国际红十字与红新月会警告说,包括霍乱在内的腹泻性疾病,呈上升趋势并逐渐成为全世界死亡的一个主要原因,尤其是在撒哈拉以南的非洲地区。红十字会说,它正在与多国政府合作,加快对这个紧急状况做出有效的反应。The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies says nearly one billion people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water. Most of these people are in sub-Saharan Africa. 国际红十字与红新月会说,全球范围有将近10亿人缺乏安全的饮用水,其中大部分都在撒哈拉以南的非洲地区。As a consequence, the Swiss humanitarian organization says diseases, which are preventable keep coming back and that many people are dying or becoming ill. 这个位于瑞士的人道组织说,由于这个因素,腹泻性疾病,虽然可以预防,却反复发生,导致许多人死亡或生病。Red Cross statistics show that in 2007 and 2008, around 60 percent of all requests for assistance from its emergency fund were directly or indirectly related to outbreaks of acute diarrheal diseases. It notes that this is about 35 percent more compared to similar statistics in 2006. 红十字会的统计显示,在2007和2008年,在向红十字会提出给予紧急经费援助的所有要求中,大约60%直接或间接同急性腹泻性疾病有关。红十字会指出,和2006年类似的统计相比,这个数字增加约35%。Red Cross Senior Water and Sanitation Officer Robert Fraser cites several key reasons for the rise in waterborne diseases. 红十字会负责水和卫生设施的高级官员弗雷泽提到几个经水传播疾病增加的一些主要原因。"One is definitely the increasing and rapid urbanization and particularly in countries where the services - water and sanitation and hygiene promotion are poor, combined with the fact that we see erosion of health and care, support services from government and added to the increasing impact of climate change, particularly increasing severity of floods, food security issues and droughts," he said. 他说:“一个原因肯定是日益迅速发展的都市化,尤其是在那些水、卫生设施和卫生务推广不足的国家。除此之外,我们看到政府提供的医疗保健和辅助务的削减,然后就是气候变化的影响,尤其是日渐严重的水灾,粮食安全问题及旱灾等等。”Fraser says these problems are exacerbated in countries that have political instability and conflict. He says acute problems of diarrhea and cholera increasingly are popping up in areas and countries, which previously were able to control them. A case in point, he notes, is Zimbabwe, where thousands of people have died from a cholera epidemic. 弗雷泽说,这些问题在一些政治不稳定和有政治冲突的国家更加恶化。他说,急性痢疾和霍乱的问题在许多原本可以控制这些疾病的地区和国家不断发生。他指出,一个典型的例子就是津巴布韦,那里已有数千人在霍乱疫情中丧生。"We have to be better prepared to deal with the acute problems, such as the outbreak in Zimbabwe just now," Fraser said. "We have seven emergency teams, over 50 international staff and we have mobilized over one thousand local volunteers. So we are very much involved in the Zimbabwe response. The real answer to diarrheal disease is the medium to long-term and that is really the U.N. Millennium Development Goals in reducing by half at least the number of people without access to safe water and sanitation linked to low-cost and simple methodologies for hygiene promotion."  弗雷泽说:“我们必须做好充分的准备来处理这些严重的问题,例如津巴布韦现正在发生的霍乱疫情。我们有7个应急小组,超过50个国际工作人员,我们也动员了超过1000名当地的义工。所以我们积极参与了对津巴布韦疫情做出的反应。解决腹泻性疾病的真正办法是中长期规划,这就是联合国千年发展目标致力于实现的,将缺乏安全饮水和卫生设施的人口减少至少一半,而这只要低成本和简单的卫生宣传方法就能实现。”The Red Cross says it is working closely with governments and humanitarian partners to step up an effective response and to increase the training of Red Cross volunteers worldwide.  红十字会说,它正在与多国政府和人道救援伙伴合作,加快对这个问题做出有效的反应,并增加对全世界红十字会义工的培训。It says a principle aim of this program is to raise public awareness about what needs to be done to prevent outbreaks of waterborne diseases and, failing that, to effectively respond to outbreaks of disease. 红十字会说,这个项目的一个主要目标,是要提高大众对如何预防通过水传播的疾病的认识,如果做不到这一点,就不能有效地对疾病疫情的爆发做出反应。03/64284

Palestinians on Strike over Israeli Plan to Demolish Homes巴勒斯坦人罢工抗议以拆除住房  A new land dispute in Jerusalem that could force hundreds of Arabs from their homes is stirring up Palestinian anger. 在耶路撒冷再次发生的领地之争可能迫使几百名阿拉伯人离开家园,这激起巴勒斯坦人的愤恨之情。Palestinians went on strike in protest over Israel's plans to demolish 88 Arab homes in disputed East Jerusalem. Schools and shops are closed in East Jerusalem and throughout the West Bank.  巴勒斯坦人举行罢工,以抗议以色列要在有争议的东耶路撒冷拆除88栋阿拉伯人住房的计划。整个东耶路撒冷以及约旦河西岸地区的学校和店铺都关闭了。The strike was called after Israeli municipal officials and security forces visited several homes in the Palestinian neighborhood of Silwan near Jerusalem's Old City. That raised fears that the demolition of the houses is imminent. 在以色列市政官员和安全部队访问了靠近耶路撒冷老城的巴勒斯坦人居住区锡尔万的几栋住房后,巴勒斯坦人随即号召开展这次罢工,因为人们担忧拆房行动即将进行。One of the Palestinian strikers, East Jerusalem shopkeeper Mounzar Karadi, said Israel is not interested in peace.  东耶路撒冷的店主卡拉迪是罢市的巴勒斯坦人之一。他说,以色列并不想要和平。"The peace process is not existing any more after more houses demolished, more land taken, more settlements have been built in the West Bank," he said. "People became desperate, hopeless, and the situation is very bad." “在更多的房屋被拆除、更多的土地被占领、更多的犹太人定居点在约旦河西岸地区建造起来之后,和平进程已不复存在。人们变得不顾一切、毫无希望,而局势也非常恶劣。”Jerusalem Municipality officials say the homes slated for demolition were built illegally and they are simply imposing the law. But Palestinians say they cannot get building permits and that Israel is trying to drive Arab residents out of Jerusalem.  耶路撒冷市政官员说,这些被定为拆除对象的住房是违章建筑,他们只是在执行法律。但是巴勒斯坦人说,他们拿不到建筑许可,而且以色列正企图把阿拉伯裔的居民赶出耶路撒冷。The city, which is holy to both Jews and Muslims, is one of the thorniest issues of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Israel sees Jerusalem as its eternal capital while Palestinians see it as the capital of their future state.  耶路撒冷对于犹太人和穆斯林而言都是圣城,这个城市是以色列和巴勒斯坦冲突中最棘手的问题。以色列把耶路撒冷看作自己永恒的首都,而巴勒斯坦却把耶路撒冷看成是他们未来国度的首都。The outgoing Israeli government was prepared to relinquish parts of Jerusalem under a peace deal with the Palestinians, but former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu is not. Mr. Netanyahu and his Likud party have been tasked with forming the next Israeli government, putting him in line to recapture the prime minister's job if he can form a coalition. He has vowed that Jerusalem will never be divided again. 即将卸任的以色列政府准备根据和平协议放弃耶路撒冷的部分地区,但是以色列前总理内塔尼亚胡却不想这样做。内塔尼亚胡及其利库德党已被授权组建下届以色列政府,如果他能组成执政联盟,那么他将再次得到总理职位。他已誓言决不再次分割耶路撒冷。03/63580

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