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楼主:美常识 时间:2019年10月20日 03:19:53 点击:0 回复:0
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Hey, working dads. Do you want greater job satisfaction, a happier household, less bickering with your wife, and praise from your co-workers? Seem too good to be true? Well, a couple of new studies show that you actually can have your cake and eat it, too – you just have to spend more time with the kiddos.Hey,正在工作的父亲们。你想让工作更满意、家庭更幸福、减少与妻子的争吵、更多地得到同事的称赞吗?听起来难以想象?新的一项研究表明,你的确可以鱼与熊掌二者兼得,只要花更多时间去陪伴孩子。A recent study of approximately 1,000 working fathers conducted by researchers from Northeastern University, the University of Massachusetts, and Boston College found that the more time that working fathers spend with their children, the happier they were.最近一项关于1000多个工作的父亲的研究发现,工作的父亲陪伴孩子的时间越长,更快乐。这项研究是由来自东北大学、美国马萨诸塞大学和波士顿学院的研究者发起的。;More involved fathers experience greater job satisfaction and work-family enrichment, and less work-family conflict; and they are less likely to think about quitting their jobs,; the researchers wrote. (Read about one male CEO who actually quit his job to spend more time with his wife and kids, here.)许多接受调查的父亲对工作很满意,家庭工作都很充实,很少有家庭争吵,而且,他们很少去想辞职。调查者这样写道。(有一位男性CEO真的辞去了工作用更多时间去陪伴妻子和孩子。)However Forbes reports a different reality for working mothers: ;The more time they devote to their children, the more conflicted they feel about the time they spend at work.;然而,对于工作中的母亲《福布斯》报道了一个完全不同的事实。陪伴孩子的时间越长,她们感觉在工作时间上越紧张。;Men get high-fives when they leave early [from work to pick up their kids] — people say, #39;Oh, he#39;s such a good dad.#39; With mothers, that#39;s expected, or even looked down upon — co-workers may think, #39;She#39;s leaving early again to pick up her kids,#39;; says Jamie Ladge, one of the study#39;s head authors from Northeastern University, in an interview with The Boston Globe.“男人提前下班去接孩子会得到称赞,人们会说,#39;他是一个好父亲#39;。而对于母亲,这是预料之中的,甚至是被瞧不起的。同事可能会想,#39;她又提前下班去接孩子了#39;。”来自东北大学的研究带头人杰米·莱杰接受波士顿环球报采访时说。The reality is that the stigma that exists for both genders (but especially working mothers) runs so deeply in the veins of society and corporate America that it often goes unnoticed, or worse, overlooked. Fathers typically take on the role of the household#39;s bwinner and they dive headfirst into their careers to provide for their families, because their wives are usually the ones having to rush home to tend to the kids and household responsibilities.现实情况是,这种歧视在两种性别中都存在(特别是在工作的母亲之中),并已经深深渗透在美国的社会方式和公司之中,而且它总是被忽视甚至更糟。父亲的角色主要是挣钱养家,为了供养家庭,首先应该考虑工作中的事情,因为有妻子赶回家里照顾孩子、做家务活。The dilemma now is that working fathers get less and less time with their families because they#39;re locked into their careers, while working mothers are left feeling short-changed because they are sacrificing their careers to accommodate the needs of the family – but, in the same breath, these women would most likely feel tremendously guilty for choosing work over their families. The ideal, then, would be for families to be able to split both childcare and professional commitments.现在的困境是,由于他们埋头于工作之中,父亲陪伴家庭的时间越来越少,而工作的母亲感觉离开吃亏,因为要牺牲自己的事业来适应家庭的需要。但是出于同样的考虑,这些母亲也会因为选择工作而不是她们的家人感到极大的罪恶感。比较理想的情况是,能够把照顾孩子和承担工作的义务分开。Facebook#39;s Sheryl Sandberg touched on this very issue in Lean In: ;When woman work outside the home and share bwinning duties, couples are more likely to stay together. In fact, the risk of divorce reduces by about half when a wife earns half the income and a husband does half the housework.;“脸书”的谢乐尔·桑德伯格在《向前一步》中对这个问题这样说:“当女人在外工作,分享养家糊口的责任,夫妻之间会更有可能维持长久的关系。事实上,当妻子为家庭挣取一半的收入、丈夫能做一半的家务的时候,离婚的风险也减少了一半。”Ultimately, the end goal is for every working professional to attain a satisfying level of work-life balance and meaning, regardless of whether they#39;re male, female, parent, or not.归根结底,最终的目标是使每一个工作者能够平衡工作生活获得满意,不管他们是男性还是女性,不管他们是不是已经做了父母。 /201505/377086It has long been a mystery to men why so many women enjoy watching tear jerker movies with their friends.长期以来,男人们对女人喜欢跟朋友一起看苦情片感到不解。But now scientists have come up with a suggestion – sharing sad emotions helps women bond.现在科学家有了解释:分享悲伤的情感让女人们惺惺相惜。A research team at Cardiff University found that by sharing their emotions women found the happy parts of films more joyful and the sad bits less sad.卡迪福大学的研究小组发现,通过分享情感,女士们觉得电影中高兴的部分更加令人愉快,而悲伤的情节看起来没那么悲伤。Job van der Schalk, a psychologist at Cardiff University, said: ‘Our findings suggest that a negative emotional experience such as watching a ‘weepy#39; is more positive when it is shared with a friend.卡迪夫大学心理学家范德沙克说: “我们的研究结果发现,在和朋友们分享一些消极的情感体验(比如看一场哭戏)的时候,取得的效果更加积极。‘And, at the same time, a positive emotional experience, such as watching a ‘romcom#39;, should equally be more pleasant when shared.#39;而且同时,分享积极的体验比如跟朋友一起看一场浪漫喜剧,感受到的快乐也更多。The study involved 30 pairs of female friends aged between 20 and 33 who were shown emotionally powerful images and asked to rate them on a scale from ‘very negative#39; to ‘very positive#39;.这次研究的对象为30对年龄在20到33岁的女性朋友,研究人员让她们观看产生强烈情感的影像,让她们把看到的影像按照从 “非常消极”到 “非常积极”的程度进行评价。The scientists put one of each pair in a brain scanner to monitor their reactions, and the volunteers were also asked to view and rate the images while on their own and also while together.研究人员给每一对志愿者中的其中一位带上大脑扫描监测器,他们让这些志愿者在单独观看图像和跟朋友一起观看图像时分别对图像进行消极或积极的评价。The researchers found the images were seen more positively when the pairs were together, The Sunday Times reported.研究人员发现参加实验的一对朋友在一起的时候,他们看待图像的态度更加积极。The study, published in the journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, said: ‘When people go to the cinema to watch a film, they ... anticipate a positive subjective impact of sharing this emotional experience.#39;这一研究发表在《社会认知与情感神经科学》的期刊上,报告指出:人们去电影院看电影的时候,他们期待的是一种积极的主观的情感分享体验。And Hollywood success seems to back the theory.而好莱坞的成功似乎验了这一理论。The 2008 film Marley and Me, which surrounds a couple#39;s relationship with their dog, took #163;160m at the global box office, and last year#39;s film The Fault in Our Stars - about two teenage cancer patients who find love - took more than #163;200m.2008年上映的电影《马利和我》,情节围绕着一对夫妇和他们的展开,该电影在全球获得了1.6亿英镑的票房。去年上映的一部关于两个癌症少年寻爱故事的《星运里的错》获得了超过2亿英镑的票房。Aggie Romeril, 22, a London beauty manager, said: ‘I think we#39;re a “stream it and weep” age. You scroll through Netflix, find who#39;s got the biggest laptop and bundle into a housemate#39;s bed for a sob session.#39;二十二岁的伦敦美容经理艾琪·罗默里尔说:“我觉得我们处在‘看了哭一场的#39;年纪。我们在Netflix搜寻影片,找一台大屏幕的手提电脑,然后钻入好友的床上看着电影哭个够。 /201505/374816As a graduate student at Teachers College, Columbia University, Victoria Porpora commuted to school from her parents’ home in Scarsdale, N.Y., where she grew up. The trip by Metro-North train to New York City took nearly an hour each way, because her arrival and departure point was the Harlem-125th Street Station on the East Side, and Columbia is on the West Side. “The crosstown bus was the killer,” she said. “It stops at almost every corner.”维多利亚·波尔波拉(Victoria Porpora)是哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)教育学院(Teachers College)的一名研究生,她经常往返于学校与位于纽约州斯卡斯代尔(Scarsdale)的父母家之间,那是她从小长大的地方。每次搭乘大都会北方铁路(Metro-North)去纽约市,她在路上都会耗费将近一个小时,因为她上下车的地方是城东(East Side)的哈莱姆区125街车站(Harlem-125th Street Station),而哥伦比亚大学在城西(West Side)。“坐跨区公交车真是要命,”她说,“差不多每拐个弯就会停一站。”Ms. Porpora, 23, who is known as Tori, wanted to move to Manhattan, and the pieces fell into place when a friend connected her with Emma Murphy. Ms. Murphy, 22, who was living with her family in Mamaroneck, N.Y., had attended the University of Vermont for a year, but was starting at Columbia’s School of General Studies. She would have a similar commute, and was glad to team up with a roommate.今年23岁、人称多莉(Tori)的波尔波拉,曾经很想搬到曼哈顿生活,她经朋友介绍与艾玛·墨菲(Emma Murphy)相识之后,这个想法终于落实了。今年22岁的墨菲与家人一起生活在纽约州的马马罗内克(Mamaroneck),已经在佛蒙特大学 (University of Vermont)就读了一年,目前正准备进入哥伦比亚大学的通识教育学院(School of General Studies)读书。她的往返路线与波尔波拉相似,所以很高兴找个室友合住。Ms. Porpora’s graduate school friends, many of whom commuted themselves or rented rooms in Upper Manhattan, suggested she could easily hunt on her own, but she believed otherwise. “I am the queen of efficiency, and that sounded like a horrible idea,” she said. So she contacted her childhood friend Claire Marshall, a saleswoman at Citi Habitats.波尔波拉在研究生院的那些朋友大多自己往返,或在曼哈顿的上城区租房住。他们告诉她,独自一人也很容易找到住处,但她另有想法。“我是个节省女王,所以那个主意听起来一点儿也不靠谱,”她说。于是她联系了自己的一位儿时好友、花旗居屋(Citi Habitats)的女销售员克莱尔·马歇尔(Claire Marshall)。Neither Ms. Porpora nor Ms. Murphy had ever hunted for an apartment. They knew that finding a two-bedroom in their price range, up to ,800 a month, would be tough but doable. “As long as we had a kitchen and a bathroom, we were really open,” Ms. Porpora said.波尔波拉和墨菲以前都从没找过房子。她们知道,按自己提出的价格区间,找到一套月租不超过2800美元(约合人民币17538元)的两居室公寓可能会很艰辛,但还算可行。“只要有一间厨房和一间浴室就行了,其他的我们都可以接受,”波尔波拉说。Ms. Murphy felt overwhelmed. “I honestly didn’t even understand what a no-fee apartment rental was,” she said. Ms. Marshall explained it to her.墨菲则完全没有头绪。“坦白说,我甚至不明白什么叫无佣金租赁公寓,”她说。马歇尔给她解释了一番。They spent a snowy day looking, starting a bit south of Columbia at a walk-up building on West 109th Street in Manhattan Valley. The apartment, a two-bedroom with a washer-dryer, for ,795 a month, was on the ground floor, with windows facing the street. They flinched.俩人冒着大雪天去看房,从哥伦比亚大学南边不远处开始,她们在曼哈顿谷(Manhattan Valley)的西109街(West 109th Street)看了一栋不带电梯的公寓楼。那是一套两居室公寓,有一台洗衣/烘干机,月租2795美元(约合人民币17365元)。公寓位于一楼,窗户正对大街。但她们退缩了。“Everything that was installed — every appliance, every counter — everything was crooked,” Ms. Porpora said. “It felt like somebody threw together a two-bedroom out of something that was meant to be a studio or one-bedroom.”“房间里安装的每一样东西——包括每台电器、每个台面,全都变形了,”波尔波拉说,“感觉就像有人把原本的单间公寓或一居室公寓,硬生生地拼凑成了一套两居室。”Both felt claustrophobic in the tiny rooms. “I am 5-9 and that added to the level of tininess I was experiencing,” Ms. Murphy said. They passed.她们在那些小房间中感到了幽闭恐惧症。“我身高有1米8,所以尤其会觉得这里太小,”墨菲说。于是她们放弃了这套公寓。Farther south, on Amsterdam Avenue near 102nd Street, a two-bedroom in a small walk-up building was renting for ,550 a month. This one was above a restaurant. Ms. Murphy, having discussed her housing search with friends at her retail job at the Westchester mall, was wary.再往南走一段距离,在阿姆斯特丹大道(Amsterdam Avenue)靠近102街(102nd Street)的地方,有一套两居室公寓,位于一栋无电梯的小楼里,月租2550美元(约合人民币15842元),公寓下面就是一间餐馆。墨菲和几个同在韦斯切斯特商城(the Westchester)从事零售业的朋友讨论了自己找房的事之后,她的态度变得谨慎起来。“My boss told me a horror story about living above a restaurant with insects and rats and a lot of loud noise,” she said. “That was looming in the back of my head.”“我的老板刚给我讲了一个很可怕的故事,说住在餐馆上面会有许多虫子、老鼠和噪音什么的,”她说,“我到现在还在后怕呢。”Also a problem was the railroad layout, which would require one to walk through the other’s bedroom to get to the bathroom. The apartment seemed fine for a couple, Ms. Porpora said, but “it was so not conducive to any way we would want to live.”公寓的直筒式户型也是个问题,你得穿过室友的卧室才能进入洗手间。这套公寓似乎更适合夫妻居住,波尔波拉说,但“对我们而言,住起来就不那么方便了。”They soldiered on, wondering whether every place in their price range would have a drawback. “I trusted it was going to get better,” Ms. Murphy said.于是,她们继续前进,想知道在她们定的价格区间内,是不是每个地方都有不近理想之处。“我相信情况会越来越好的。”墨菲说。Still farther south, they visited a two-bedroom apartment in a five-story building. Both liked the location in the West 80s, “in an amazing neighborhood with Starbucks on one side and 150 independently owned restaurants on the other,” Ms. Porpora said, exaggerating just a bit. The rent was ,650 a month.又往南走了一段,她们来到一栋五层建筑中,看了一套两居室公寓。俩人都喜欢这套公寓不超过西80几街的位置,“这是个非常棒的社区,一边有星巴克(Starbucks),另一边有150家独立经营的餐馆,”波尔波拉说得有点儿夸张。这套公寓的月租为2650美元(约合人民币16464元)。“I noticed right away the apartment building smells nice, or at least it doesn’t smell bad, which was important for me,” Ms. Murphy said.“我立刻发现这栋公寓楼里的味道还不错,至少闻起来不恶心,对我来说这很重要。”墨菲说。The living area was an odd six-sided shape. The bathroom was minuscule. But each bedroom had a closet, and there was plenty of overhead storage, thanks to the high ceilings.这套公寓的客厅是罕有的六边形。浴室只是个弹丸之地。但每间卧室里都有一个衣柜,上面还有一大片空间可以存放东西,这多亏了那高高的天花板。The long, skinny layout seemed ideal for roommates. “The bedrooms were split so it didn’t feel they were on top of each other,” Ms. Marshall said.这对室友似乎对公寓的狭长户型非常满意。“两间卧室是分开的,所以不会感觉紧挨着对方。”马歇尔说。She told the two women that they needed to apply quickly if they were interested. They were. Ms. Murphy’s lesson about no-fee rental apartments was reinforced: This wasn’t one. The roommates split the broker fee of one month’s rent, and arrived just after Christmas in time for the new semester.她告诉两个女孩,如果她们想租下来,就得赶紧申请。于是她们照做了。墨菲还深刻领会了刚上过的无佣金租赁公寓课:这套公寓并不是。两名室友分摊了那笔佣金,即该公寓一个月的租金。她们过完圣诞节就搬了过去,等着新学期开学。Now, Columbia is an easy 20 minutes away via the No. 1 train. “I like having a home neighborhood and a school neighborhood,” Ms. Porpora said.现在,她们搭乘1号线只需20分钟,就能到达哥伦比亚大学了。“我喜欢住在一个既是住宅区、又是大学城的地方。”波尔波拉说。She pays ,250 a month for the smaller bedroom, which holds a bed and a dresser. “You couldn’t come in here with your Pottery Barn bedroom set,” she said, but it’s all she needs. Her room, and the living room, face a back alley.她每月付1250美元(约合人民币7766元),住在面积较小的卧室里,房里放了一张床和一个梳妆台。“你不可能把从Pottery Barn买的那套卧室家具都搬进来,”她说,但她要用的都有了。她的房间和客厅都面对着一条偏僻的小巷。Ms. Murphy pays ,400 a month for the larger room, where she can fit some shelves and tables. Her view is of an air shaft. “If I were to look out my window all day, I would be able to watch what my neighbors were doing,” she said.而墨菲每月付1400美元(约合人民币8698元),住在面积较大的房间里,里面还可以放几个书架和桌子。她房间外的景观是一个天井。“如果我整天往窗外看,就能看到邻居们都在做些什么。”她说。They planned to furnish the living room with a secondhand couch donated by Ms. Porpora’s sister, but learned it wouldn’t fit through the narrow hallway. “Tori’s dad is super handy and measured everything,” Ms. Murphy said. Instead, they have a futon handed down by Ms. Murphy’s father. It came apart for transport.她们原打算在客厅里摆上一座波尔波拉的送给她们的沙发,但发现客厅太窄了,沙发放不下。“多莉的爸爸非常能干,他量过了所有尺寸,”墨菲说。于是,她们用上了墨菲爸爸拿过来的一个日式坐垫。这东西在运输时可以拆开来。They were able to create both a sitting area and a dining area in the living room. They put the television in front of a window. It blocks part of the alley view, which sometimes features “people rolling garbage cans,” Ms. Porpora said. “It doesn’t bother me, but I can see how that would be a huge deterrent for a lot of people.”因此,她们可以把客厅分成休息区和进餐区。她俩还在一扇窗户前面放了一台电视机,挡住了窗外小巷里的部分景观。有时候那里总能看见“有人在滚垃圾桶,”波尔波拉说,“我倒不太在意,不过因此我就明白了,为什么许多人都对这套公寓望而却步。” /201504/372190Much has changed in Marcos Galperín’s life since 1999, when he and a colleague set up what would become the eBay of Latin America. But the 43-year-old Argentine dotcom entrepreneur has lost none of the youthful vigour that drove him to set up MercadoLibre, the region’s most visited ecommerce website.自1999年马科斯#8226;加尔佩林(Marcos Galperín)及其同事创办了日后成为拉美版eBay的网站以来,他的人生发生了很大改变。但是这位43岁的阿根廷互联网企业家一点也没失去当年驱动他创办“自由市场”(MercadoLibre)的青春活力。“自由市场”是拉美地区访问量最大的电子商务网站。“I feel exactly the same way as I did 15 years ago. I feel a desperation that there is so much to do, that this is just starting,” says MercadoLibre’s chief executive, explaining that although his online shopping site has become the undisputed leader of ecommerce in Latin America, the sector is still in its infancy.“我感觉就跟16年前一模一样。我有种急迫的感觉,感觉有好多事情要做,这还只是开始,”这位“自由市场”的首席执行官称。他解释道,尽管他的在线购物网站已成为拉美无可争议的电子商务领头羊,但这个行业仍然处于发展初期。He looks much the same too. In a hooded top, slouching on a sofa, with his feet up and a laptop on his knees as he awaits the FT, Mr Galperín could be just another employee at MercadoLibre’s buzzing designer offices in Buenos Aires. They fill three floors at the top of a glistening tower that peers down over the muddy waters of the river Plate.他看起来也跟16年前差不多。在等待英国《金融时报》采访时,穿着帽衫的加尔佩林慵懒地躺在沙发上,翘着双脚,把笔记本电脑放在膝盖上,看起来就像“自由市场”在布宜诺斯艾利斯繁忙的设计师办公室里的一名普通员工。办公室在拉普拉塔河(River Plate)边一栋耀眼大楼占了最高3层。It is a long way from the garage of his family’s leather business, where the operations of MercadoLibre — “free market” — began.相比他家的皮革公司的车库(“自由市场”最初开始经营的地方),公司已走过了漫长的道路。It was just before the dotcom bubble burst in 2000, which could have spelt doom for the fledgling enterprise. However, Mr Galperín knew a thing or two about raising money, having work#172;ed at JPMorgan and in the finance dep#172;art#172;ment of Argentina’s largest oil company, YPF; MercadoLibre’s strong financial support helped it survive the crash.那是在2000年网络股泡沫破裂前夕,泡沫破裂本来可能给很多羽翼未丰的企业带来厄运。然而,曾在根大通(JPMorgan)以及阿根廷最大的石油公司YPF的财务部任职的加尔佩林,对融资操作略知一二;“自由市场”强大的金融持帮助它挺过股市崩盘。He remembers well the mo#172;ment he persuaded the first investor to back his project, when he was finishing his MBA at Stanford Graduate School of Business in California. He was driving financier John Muse, who had given a lecture, to the airport and seized the chance to pitch his idea. The co-founder of the Hicks Muse Tate private equity fund was persuaded by the time he boarded his private jet.加尔佩林仍清晰记得说第一个投资者持他创业的那一刻,当时他即将完成在加州斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)的MBA课程。他开车送做完讲座的金融家约翰#8226;缪斯(John Muse)去机场,途中抓住机会向他力荐自己的想法。缪斯是Hicks Muse Tate私募基金的共同创始人,在登上私人飞机前,他已经被加尔佩林说了。“I went back home and told my girlfriend: ‘You remember that trip we were going to do to Europe after graduation? Well it’s not going to happen,’” Mr Galperín says. He had aly ditched dreams of sports stardom despite being selected to play for Argentina’s junior national rugby team.“我回到家,告诉我的女朋友说:‘你还记得我们准备毕业后去欧洲旅行吗?唉,我们去不了了,’”加尔佩林称。此前他已经放弃了成为体育明星的梦想,尽管他被选入了阿根廷橄榄球青年队。Of as many as 40 rivals in Latin America at the time, only a handful could raise meaningful financing, says Mr Galperín, who also secured funds from JPMorgan,Goldman Sachs, GE Capital, Flatiron and Banco Santander. “We were the only ones that didn’t throw the money away doing mass media advertising. Instead, we focused on getting a team together and a good product. That’s what set us apart,” he says. His co-founder was Hernán Kazah, who was also at Stanford at the time and who left the company after 10 years.加尔佩林称,当时拉美有不下40个竞争对手,其中只有一小部分能筹得有意义的融资。他自己还从根大通、高盛(Goldman Sachs)、通用电气金融(GE Capital)、Flatiron以及桑坦德(Banco Santander)获得融资。“只有我们不把钱挥霍在大众媒体广告上。相反,我们专注于组建团队和推出好产品。这使我们成为行业佼佼者,”他称。埃尔南#8226;卡札(Hernán Kazah)是加尔佩林的共同创始人,他当时也在斯坦福读书,10年后离开了公司。By 2001 — when Argentina was plunging into a deep economic crisis — Mer#172;cadoLibre had aly caught the eye of eBay, which acquired a 19.5 per cent stake in exchange for its Brazilian subsidiary. MercadoLibre maintains an unusual relationship with eBay — which as both a shareholder and a competitor, Mr Galperín says, is a “frenemy” — but crucially the US group pledged not to return to the region for at least five years. This cleared the way for MercadoLibre’s rapid expansion, just in time to raise more funds when it laun#172;ched on New York’s Nasdaq exchange in August 2007, the same day that economic historians now say marked the start of the global financial crisis.2001年阿根廷陷入严重的经济危机,那时“自由市场”已经引起了eBay的注意,后者以巴西子公司作为交换,收购了“自由市场”19.5%的股权。“自由市场”与既是股东也是竞争者的eBay保持着不同寻常的关系,加尔佩林称之为“友敌”——但最关键的是这家美国集团承诺至少5年内不会重返拉美。这为“自由市场”的快速扩张扫清了道路,让其在2007年8月(如今经济史学家称其为全球金融危机的开始)赶上在纽约纳斯达克(Nasdaq)挂牌上市,筹得更多资金。Despite the economic problems, MercadoLibre has become a household name across Latin America. Now with a market capitalisation of some bn, last year it matched nearly 30m different buyers and sellers, about 5 per cent of the region’s population, of everything from computers to cars. Its gross annual merchandise value — the total cost of goods sold — was almost bn. Revenue is generated from transaction fees, online ads and MercadoPago, its own payment system.尽管遭遇经济问题,但“自由市场”已成为拉美家喻户晓的品牌。如今市值约60亿美元的“自由市场”,去年撮合的买家和卖家达到近3000万,约占拉美地区总人口的5%,交易商品从电脑到汽车无所不有。其年度商品交易总额(即销售总额)近80亿美元。营收来自交易费用、在线广告及其付系统MercadoPago。Mr Galperín reckons the figures are “minuscule” compared to the growth he expects over the next 20 years, with just 5 per cent of Latin Americans engaged in ecommerce, compared to 15 per cent in the US. In the next five years alone, as more Latin Americans use the internet, analysts expect MercadoLibre’s gross merchandise value to double, despite gloomy prospects for the economies of some of its biggest markets, such as Brazil and Venezuela.加尔佩林认为,与他预计未来20年期间的增长相比,这些数字“微不足道”,原因是参与电子商务的拉美人仅有5%,而美国的比例为15%。随着越来越多的拉美人使用互联网,分析师们预计仅在未来5年“自由市场”的商品交易总额将会翻倍,尽管某些最大的市场(如巴西和委内瑞拉)的经济前景暗淡。“The speed at which people are accessing the internet and doing ecommerce for the first time is on a different scale relative to consumption patterns. It’s not just faster, it’s in a different league,” says Mr Galperín, adding that broadband connections are about 2,000 times faster than in 1999.“相对于消费模式,首次上网并从事电子商务的人群正以不同的规模增长。不仅更快,而且是完全不同的数量级,”加尔佩林称。他补充说,如今的宽带连接比1999年的上网速度快了约2000倍。In fact, MercadoLibre has done a roaring trade in some of the region’s worst-performing economies, such as Venezuela. Traditional retailers there are stifled by regulation, leading to empty shelves and the cash-strapped population is selling more of its possessions, while many are simply afraid to go shopping because of rampant crime.事实上,“自由市场”在拉美表现最差的几个经济体(如委内瑞拉)生意兴隆。那里的传统零售商受到监管桎梏,货架空空,而现金拮据的国民正在卖出更多财物,同时很多人因为治安不佳而不敢去购物。“The more inefficient retail is, the more value we can provide to a society,” says Mr Galperín. But access to the internet, he says, means that consumers in isolated communities can buy the same goods at the same prices as those in big cities, while small businesses no longer have to sell through big retailers. “Just as Google democratised the ability of people to access information, and Facebook democratised the ability of people to organise themselves and voice their opinions, so we have democratised commerce,” he says.“零售业的效率越是低下,我们对一个社会的价值就更大,”加尔佩林称。但他表示,上网意味着,偏僻社区的消费者能够以大城市的价格购买同样的商品,而小企业不再需要通过大零售商出售商品。“就像谷歌(Google)使所有人都能获取信息,就像Facebook让所有人都能梳理自己的生活并发表观点,我们使商业活动民主化了,”他称。Small businesses caught on to MercadoLibre some time ago, and Mr Galperín expects big retailers to join in: those that do not will be left behind, he warns. “The traditional gatekeepers of commerce have realised they need to be where the consumers are,” says Mr Galperín.小企业早就赶上了“自由市场”的潮流,加尔佩林预计大零售商也会加入进来:他警告称,不加入进来的零售商将会被落下。“传统的商业掌门人已经意识到,他们需要追随消费者的脚步,”加尔佩林称。“We are trying to help them successfully navigate the transition to digital commerce. We don’t see traditional retailers as our competitors — actually most of them are our clients,” he adds, noting that 500 or so retailers including Walmart and Fravega have online stores on MercadoLibre.“我们试着帮助他们成功把握向数字化商业转型的过程。我们并不把传统零售商视为竞争者——事实上他们大多数是我们的客户,”他补充称。他指出,包括沃尔玛(Walmart)和Fravega在内的500家左右零售商在“自由市场”都有在线商店。Nevertheless, Mr Galperín is acutely aware that there are too many examples of companies “whose picture was great, but the movie ended terribly”. He points to the experience of eBay in China, which was muscled aside by Alibaba, and of many companies such as MySpace or BlackBerry. All were market leaders that stopped innovating and were overtaken. “That’s what makes my job so fascinating, and it’s why I come to the office every day,” he says perkily. “Winning is fun.”尽管如此,加尔佩林敏锐地意识到有太多“画面美好,但结局糟糕”的公司案例。他指出了eBay在中国——该公司完全被阿里巴巴(Alibaba)排挤在外——以及MySpace和黑莓(BlackBerry)等很多公司的经历。这些公司都曾经是市场领头羊,但它们停止了创新,结果被取代。“这使我的工作如此吸引人,这也是我每天上班的原因,”他得意地说,“赢得胜利很好玩。” /201506/378337

A few weeks ago, I asked ers to send in essays describing their purpose in life and how they found it. A few thousand submitted contributions, and many essays are online. I’ll write more about the lessons they shared in the weeks ahead, but one common theme surprised me.几周前我向读者征文,请大家说一说自己的人生目标是什么,以及他们是如何找到自己的目标的。有几千人投了稿,其中很多文章已经放在网上了。未来几周里,我会围绕他们分享的经验再写几篇,不过有一个普遍的主题是我之前没有想到的。I expected most contributors would follow the commencement-speech clichés of our high-achieving culture: dream big; set ambitious goals; try to change the world. In fact, a surprising number of people found their purpose by going the other way, by pursuing the small, happy life.我本以为多数投稿人会落入我们的成功文化窠臼,说些大学毕业典礼演讲式的套话:要心比天高;立下远大的志向;致力于改变世界。然而实际上,数量惊人的投稿人反其道而行之,通过追求一种幸福的小日子找到了自己的人生目标。Elizabeth Young once heard the story of a man who was asked by a journalist to show his most precious possession. The man, Young wrote, “was proud and excited to show the journalist the gift he had been bequeathed. A banged up tin pot he kept carefully wrapped in cloth as though it was fragile. The journalist was confused, what made this dingy old pot so valuable? ‘The message,’ the friend replied. The message was ‘we do not all have to shine.’ This story resonated deeply. In that moment I was able to relieve myself of the need to do something important, from which I would reap praise and be rewarded with fulfillment. My vision cleared.”伊丽莎白·扬(Elizabeth Young)说她听过一个故事。故事里,一个记者让一个人展示一下他所拥有的最宝贵的东西。扬写道,那人“十分骄傲而激动地向记者展示了他收到的一份礼物。一只破旧的锡壶,被他小心翼翼地用布包着。记者懵了,这么一个破玩意为何如此宝贵?‘启示,’那位朋友答道。它带来的启示是,‘不是所有人都需要发光。’这个故事给我很大触动。在那一刻,我认识到我不必强求自己去做重要的事,并为此得到赞誉,获取成就感。我的视野清晰起来。”Young continues, “I have always wanted to be effortlessly kind. I wanted to raise children who were kind.” She notes that among those who survived the Nazi death camps, a predominant quality she noticed was generosity.扬接着说,“我一直希望自己能有一种自然而然的友善。我希望能养育出友善的孩子。”她注意到,在那些纳粹死亡集中营的幸存者身上,最常见到的一种特质就是宽宏大量。“Perhaps,” she concludes, “the mission is not a mission at all. ... Everywhere there are tiny, seemingly inconsequential circumstances that, if explored, provide meaning” and chances to be generous and kind. Spiritual and emotional growth happens in microscopic increments.“也许,”她总结道,“我的使命根本就不是一项使命……随处都能遇到这样的情形,看起来琐碎、无关紧要,但一经探究,就能产生意义,”让你有机会成为一个宽容、友善的人。精神和情感成长的进度是非常细微的。Kim Spencer writes, “I used to be one of the solid ones — one of the people whose purpose was clearly defined and understood. My purpose was seeing patients and ‘saving lives.’ I have melted into the in-between spaces, though. Now my purpose is simply to be the person ... who can pick up the phone and give you 30 minutes in your time of crisis. I can give it to you today and again in a few days. ... I can edit your letter. ... I can listen to you complain about your co-worker. ... I can look you in the eye and give you a few dollars in the parking lot. I am not upset if you cry. I am no longer drowning, so I can help keep you afloat with a little boost. Not all of the time, but every once in a while, until you find other people to help or a different way to swim. It is no skin off my back; it is easy for me.”金·斯班瑟(Kim Spencer)写道:“我原本属于铁板一块的那种人——就是对人生目标有很清晰的定义和理解。我的目标是看病‘救人’。不过我已经融入了某种中间状态。现在我的目标就是做一个人……一个可以拿起电话,花上30分钟和陷入困境的你交谈的人。我今天可以给你这么长时间,过几天还可以再给你……我可以编辑你的信件……我可以听你抱怨同事……我可以看着你的眼睛,在停车场给你几块钱。我不会因为你哭而心烦。我已经不再下沉,所以我可以轻轻托着你,让你也浮起来。我做不到随时奉陪,但每隔一段时间有一次是可以的,直到你找到别的人帮你,或者学会了换一种办法游泳。我没什么损失,对我来说是小事一桩。”Terence J. Tollaksen wrote that his purpose became clearer once he began to recognize the “decision trap”: “This trap is an amazingly consistent phenomena whereby ‘big’ decisions turn out to have much less impact on a life as a whole than the myriad of small seemingly insignificant ones.”泰伦斯·J·托拉克森(Terence J. Tollaksen)写道,自从开始意识到“决策陷阱”的存在,他的人生目标就变得清晰起来:“这种陷阱是一种一致性惊人的现象,就是说你会发现一些‘重大’决定对整个人生的影响,其实远没有许许多多看起来不起眼的小事大。”Tollaksen continues, “I have always admired those goal-oriented, stubborn, successful, determined individuals; they make things happen, and the world would be lost without them.” But, he explains, he has always had a “small font purpose.”托拉克森接着说,“我从来都很钦佩那些目标明确、执着、成功、坚定的人;他们都是能成事的人,世界需要他们。”但他解释说,他一直都有一个“用小字写的目标”。“I can say it worked for me. I know it sounds so Midwest, but it’s been wonderful. I have a terrific wife, 5 kids, friends from grade school and high school, college, army, friends locally, and sometimes, best of all, horses, dogs, and cats. Finally, I have a small industrial business that I started and have run for 40 years based on what I now identify as principles of ‘Pope Francis capitalism.’ ”“我能说的是这适合我。我知道听起来太中西部了,但是效果很棒。我有个了不起的妻子,五个孩子,有从小学、中学、大学、部队就认识的朋友,还有本地的朋友,最好的是有时候还有马、、猫。最后,还有我自己创办的一家小型工业公司,已经经营了40年,我经商是有原则的,我现在管它叫‘方济各教宗资本主义’。”Hans Pitsch wrote: “At age 85, the question of meaning in my life is urgent. The question of the purpose of my life is another matter. World War II and life in general have taught me that outcomes from our actions or inactions are often totally unpredictable and random.”汉斯·皮什(Hans Pitsch)写道:“我85了,人生意义是一个紧迫的问题。人生目标的问题就另当别论了。第二次世界大战以及我的整个人生让我明白,我们的作为和不作为造成的结果,往往完全是不可预测的、随机的。”He adds, “I am thankful to be alive. I have a responsibility to myself and those around me to give meaning to my life from day to day. I enjoy my family (not all of them) and the shrinking number of old friends. You use the term ‘organizing frame’ in one’s life. I am not sure if I want to be framed by an organizing principle, but if there is one thing that keeps me focused, it’s the garden. Lots of plants died during the harsh winter, but, amazingly, the clematises and the roses are back, and lettuce, spinach and tomatoes are thriving in the new greenhouse. The weeping cherry tree in front of the house succumbed to old age. I still have to plant a new tree this year.”他接着说,“对能活着我心存感恩。每一天我都要过得有意义,这是我对自己、对身边的人的责任。我喜欢跟(一部分)家人和(越来越少的)老朋友在一起。你将术语‘组织框架’用在一个人的一生中。我不知道该不该用一个系统的原则去规限自己,但是有一件事是我始终专注的,就是我的花园。很多植物死于严冬,但铁线莲和玫瑰奇迹般地活过来了,生菜、菠菜和番茄在新盖的温室里长得很好。房前的樱桃树没精打采,已经活到头了。今年开始得种一棵新的。”This scale of purpose is not for everyone, but there is something beautiful and concrete and well-proportioned about tending that size of a garden.#9744;人生目标的标尺并不适用于所有人,但在打理那么大一个花园的过程中,你能看到某种美丽、切实、均衡的东西。 /201506/380051

CyD!j5*Ut%wif~+LerR*iAw8IIfI love taking people to eat dim sum for the first time.我喜欢带人初试中式点心mNti#tG-O。Most people in the US, have no idea what dim sum actually is or the etiquette behind it. It#39;s fun to watch their eyes glaze over at the million tapas-like choices laid out before them._Nq^Uzv)g8G0Vk-Y]U5在美国,大多数人都不知道中式点心到底是什么,也不知道其背后的风俗民情GczTA*tOd1|wT。看着他们对摆在面前的各种点心露出如痴如醉的表情,我觉得特别好玩B-_7.m;-tn*O。]JF_Cndtgnb#dSsc5Y|Wf5kR;Us]ClevSmiling and nodding as they look over the — as though anything you pick it fine by them — you can visibly watch as the overwhelmed feeling washes over them.7wLdQg!dE-5他们边浏览菜单边微笑点头,喜悦之情溢于言表,好像你点的任何东西他们都会喜欢#HqGhXJ!25。I get it.我的目的达到了p6(((GDLIN!d6BPUr。Dim sum in fact, can be quite overwhelming! Add in s with limited English, rowdy Chinese families shouting all around, and people spitting bones out on the table, it#39;s definitely not an experience most Westerners are accustomed to.说实话,吃中式点心有时非常让人无语!除了菜单上的英文很蹩脚外,就餐的人拖家带口闹哄哄地又喊又叫,还把骨头吐在桌子上,这氛围大多数西方人肯定都受不了E;8;lp%JUbXqM%[I。But I love it.但我喜欢ZJdnl3bWybv,4x。Going to grab dim sum on a Sunday morning quickly became one of my favorite rituals in Hong Kong, and one I still try to fit in at least once a month here in Chicago. So to help sp that love I#39;ve decided to outline my favorite dim sum items, in hopes that you#39;ll be more confident in ordering and will want to go give dim sum a try!周日早晨去中式点心店饱餐一顿,这是我去香港没多久就培养出来的嗜好之一9ohK#94HmK。现在在芝加哥这边,我也至少每月要抽时间去大快朵颐一次60(jPTk%qT5VGbTK(2+。所以呢,为了跟别人分享这种热爱,我决定简单描述一下我最喜欢的几类中式点心,希望能为你前去点餐增加些底气,同时也希望能唤起你品尝的欲望![;V|ldtH*~~9KJJ*d|Q3k.pRysRNe88T,1xN-i@ /201507/383493

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