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武汉射精之后没力气孝感市大悟县泌尿系统在线咨询武汉市华夏男科医院有泌尿科吗 A notorious dog meat festival in southwest China has sparked an outcry among the nation’s growing ranks of pet lovers, who say the event has spurred an illicit trade in stolen pets.在中国南方声名狼藉的肉节,引发了正不断增多的宠物爱好者的公开抗议。这些宠物爱好者表示,肉节活动刺激了被窃宠物的非法贸易。Dog meat is a popular winter food in parts of China and Korea, where the rich meat is believed to help keep people warm. But the Yulin Dog Meat Festival, which will be held this weekend in Guangxi near the border with Vietnam, has caused domestic and international outrage, with opponents saying many of the animals are cruelly treated and illegally obtained.在中国和韩国部分地区,肉是一种很受欢迎的冬季食品,其丰富的肉质被视有助于保暖。然而,将于本周末举办的玉林肉节(Yulin Dog Meat Festival),已经引起了中国国内甚至国际上的愤慨。该活动将在毗邻越南的中国广西自治区举办。反对者表示,在该活动中许多动物遭到了残酷对待,它们的获取途径也是非法的。The festival has for several years been galvanising China’s animal rights movement, which has arisen as the number of prosperous middle-class pet owners has grown. Many activists plan to travel to Yulin to protest against the festival, where an estimated 2,000 dogs a day are slaughtered.在中国拥有宠物的中产阶级人数不断壮大之际,中国的动物保护组织也随之崛起。多年来玉林肉节的举办,令这些组织深感震惊。许多动保人士计划赶赴广西玉林,抗议这一肉节活动,预计肉节的日屠数量达2000条。Originally a summer solstice celebration, the local government began promoting the event as a dog meat festival in 2009. The Yulin government began to distance itself last year amid an outpouring of online criticism.玉林肉节最初只是夏至的庆祝活动。2009年,当地政府开始以肉节的品牌宣传这一活动。去年,由于网上出现的大量批评声,玉林政府开始放弃自己原本的宣传定位。“Average people are not aware of the cruelty that dogs experience in the process of dog meat production. If they knew, they wouldn’t be saying this is simply a question of whether you love dogs or not,” said Zhang Yuanyuan, a volunteer who plans to travel to Yulin from Shenzhen in an attempt to persuade often-hostile locals to ditch the practice.计划赶赴玉林的志愿者张媛媛(Zhang Yuanyuan,音译)表示:“普通人不知道肉生产过程中,所经历的残酷对待。如果他们知道,他们不会说这只是你爱不爱的问题。”张媛媛计划从深圳赶赴玉林,试图劝说当地人放弃这一行为。不过,当地人对他们往往充满敌意。A four-year study by Hong Kong-based group Animals Asia documented networks of dog traders that bring strays or stolen pets to northeast, central and southern China, especially during the winter months when dog meat is popular. The investigation found that stolen or stray dogs were so cheap that breeding dogs for meat was unprofitable.总部驻香港的亚洲动物基金(Animals Asia)开展了一项为期四年的研究,对肉交易商组成的网络做了记载。这些肉交易商将走失或失窃的宠物运往中国的东北、华中和华南——特别是在肉受欢迎的冬季。该调查发现,被窃或走失的太过廉价,致使饲养肉变得无利可图。A survey conducted by Animals Asia in rural areas found that 70 per cent of Chinese villagers had lost at least one dog to thieves.该组织在中国农村地区开展的调查发现,70%的村民丢失过至少一条。“A lot of the animals that we see in these trucks are in such horrendous condition that by the time they get to the ultimate trade markets a lot of them have died,” said Mary Peng, whose veterinary business in Beijing has treated dogs rescued from trucks bound for slaughterhouses.Mary Peng在北京拥有多家兽医店,曾治疗过从前往屠宰场的卡车中救出的小。她说:“我们在这些卡车上看到的许多动物,都处于极其可怕的生存状态,导致它们中的许多在抵达最终交易市场时已经死去。”Some of the activists travelling to Yulin may unwittingly be encouraging the trade in dogs by paying to rescue them from dog dealers. Last year saw ugly scenes of dealers in Yulin mistreating dogs in front of crowds of tourists and activists to spur them into buying the injured animals.部分前往玉林的动保人士,可能会由于掏钱从贩手中救下小,无意中鼓励了贩活动。去年,玉林曾出现过贩在游客和动保人士面前虐,以刺激他们买下受伤小的丑陋场景。The practice of buying the dogs has split the Chinese animal rights community, with many believing it is counter-productive. “I am completely opposed to this,” said Ms Zhang, arguing that it simply adds to the market for dogs. “You can’t just look at how many dogs are being eaten but also the violent capture and transport of these dogs.”买下小的行为也在中国的动物保护界产生了分歧,许多人认为这么做会产生反作用。张媛媛声称,这么做只会扩大贩市场的规模。她说:“我完全反对这么做。你不能只关注人们吃了多少,还要关注对这些的暴力捕获和运输过程。” /201506/382343武汉男科割包皮

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武汉阴茎充血不足怎么办BACK in the late 1980s, when I was a co-editor of Spy magazine, we published a cover story about the 1970s. Spy being Spy, it was a grand feast of love-hate celebration: “A Return to the Decade of Mood Rings, Ultrasuede, Sideburns and Disco Sex-Machine Tony Orlando.” One of its implicit premises was the silliness of the pandemic of American nostalgia, especially for a culturally dubious decade that had ended less than a decade earlier. Over the last half century, we Americans have come to create and consume automatically and continuously a kind of recent-past wistfulness.20世纪80年代末,我还是《密探》(Spy)杂志的主编之一,我们发表了一期关于70年代的封面故事。《密探》就是《密探》,这是一个爱恨交织的庆典与精的盛宴:“回到情绪戒指、麂皮绒、连鬓胡子和迪斯科性感机器托尼·奥兰多(Tony Orlando)的十年里。”其中一个暗含的前提是美式怀旧蔓延的愚蠢,特别是对于一个文化上非常模糊的十年的怀旧,而它的终结甚至还不到十年。在上个世纪的下半叶,我们美国人无意识地创造与消费着对“不久前的过去”的怅惘之中,并且持续不断地处于这种状态。But what about the 1990s? Nostalgia for the era in which you were young is almost inevitable, so people born between 1970 and 1990 feel a natural fetishistic fondness for that decade. But even for the rest of us, the ’90s provoke a unique species of recherche du temps perdu, not mere bittersweet reveling in the passage of time. No, looking back at the final 10 years of the 20th century is grounds for genuine mourning: It was simply the happiest decade of our American lifetimes.但90年代又怎样呢?对自己年轻时代的怀旧是不可避免的,所以生于1970年到1990年的人肯定会对这十年产生一种盲目的天然亲切之感。但是即便对于我们其他人来说,90年代也能唤起一种独特的“追忆似水年华”之感,这不仅仅是对时光流逝的苦甜参半的回忆。不,回溯20世纪的最后十年是一种真正的哀悼:那是我们美国人生活中最快乐的十年。This isn’t (mainly) fogeyishness on my part. No. It is empirically, objectively, broadly true. I am not now nor have I ever been a Clintonite, but when Jeb Bush reportedly said a few weeks ago, apropos of 2016 and the probable Democratic presidential nominee, that “if someone wants to run a campaign about ’90s nostalgia, it’s not going to be very successful,” I think he was being wishful.这并不(主要)是出于我个人的守旧。不,这是有事实根据的,是客观的、普适的真相。我从来不是克林顿的拥趸,现在也不是,但当杰布·布什(Jeb Bush)几个星期之前说起2016年,以及可能的民主党总统候选人时,他说“如果有人能够发起关于90年代怀旧的政治宣传,肯定不会成功”,我觉得他过于一厢情愿了。Let’s begin with the quantifiable bits. America at large was prospering in the ’90s. The ed States economy grew by an average of 4 percent per year between 1992 and 1999. (Since 2001, it’s never grown by as much as 4 percent, and since 2005 not even by 3 percent for a whole year.) An average of 1.7 million jobs a year were added to the American work force, versus around 850,000 a year during this century so far. The unemployment rate dropped from nearly 8 percent in 1992 to 4 percent — that is, effectively zero — at the end of the decade. Plus, if you were a man and worked in an office, starting in the ’90s you could get away with never wearing a necktie.我们还是从量化的数据开始吧。在90年代,美国从总体而言非常繁荣。从1992年到1999年,美国经济平均每年增长4%(从2001年起就再也没有超过4%;从2005年起,全年增长率就再也没有超过3%)。每年平均增加170万个就业机会,本世纪以来,平均每年约增长85万个就业机会。到90年代末,失业率从1992年的8%降低到4%(这事实上等于零)。此外,如果你是做文职工作的男性,从90年代开始,你就可以不用西装革履地去上班了。From 1990 to 1999, the median American household income grew by 10 percent; since 2000 it’s shrunk by nearly 9 percent. The poverty rate peaked at over 15 percent in 1993, then fell to nearly 11 percent in 2000, more or less its postwar low. During the ’90s, stocks quadrupled in value — the Dow Jones industrial average increased by 309 percent. You could still buy a beautiful Brooklyn townhouse for 0,000 or less. And so on.从1990年到1999年,美国家庭收入的中位数增长了10%;自从2000年以来,降低了约9%。贫困率在1993年达到最高,超过15%,到2000年下降到接近11%,近乎“二战”后的最低点。在90年代,股价翻了四倍,道琼斯工业平均指数增长了309%。你仍然可以用50万美元乃至更少的钱就买下一栋漂亮的布鲁克林联排别墅。等等。By the end of the decade, in fact, there was so much good news — a federal budget surplus, dramatic reductions in violent crime (the murder rate in the ed States declined by 41 percent) and in deaths from H.I.V./AIDS — that each astounding new achievement didn’t quite register as miraculous. After all, the decade had begun with a fantastically joyful and previously unimaginable development: The Soviet empire collapsed, global nuclear Armageddon ceased to be a thing that worried anyone very much, and the nations of Eastern Europe were mostly unchained.到90年代末,事实上,有那么多的好消息——联邦预算出现剩余、暴力犯罪大幅度减少(美国的谋杀率降低了41%),HIV/艾滋死亡率也大幅度减少——这些惊人的新成就在当时并为被视为奇迹。毕竟,这十年刚一开始,就发生了一个令人快乐而又难以置信的成就——苏联帝国解体,人们不再为全球核末日而担忧,东欧国家也大都获得了解放。A tide of progress and good sense seemed to be sweeping the whole world. According to the annual count by Freedom House, the tally of the world’s free countries climbed from 65 at the beginning of the decade to 85 at the end. Since then, the total number of certified-free countries has increased by only four.进步与善意的大潮似乎席卷了整个世界。根据“自由之家”(Freedom House)组织的年度统计,90年代初,全世界共有65个自由国家,到了90年代末,变成了85个。自那以后,被承认的自由国家只增加了四个。Between 1990 and 1994 South Africa dismantled apartheid surprisingly peacefully. With the Oslo Accords, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization had come together at last to negotiate a framework for coexistence and eventual peace. The civil wars in the former Yugoslavia ended and an enduring peace was restored. China became normal, reforming its economy, tripling its gross domestic product and easing its way into the world order.从1990年到1994年,南非以惊人的和平方式废除了种族隔离制度。根据奥斯陆协议,以色列与巴勒斯坦解放组织终于走到一起,谈判共存与持久和平的框架。前南斯拉夫国家的内战结束了,持久的和平得以恢复。中国成了正常国家,开始进行经济改革,国内生产总值翻了三倍,开始融入世界秩序。During the ’90s, the only American-led war in the Middle East was the one that drove Saddam Hussein’s invading army out of Kuwait with a ground campaign that lasted a mere 100 hours.在90年代,美国在中东的唯一一场战争是派遣地面部队,把萨达姆·侯赛因(Saddam Hussein)的侵略军赶出科威特,战争仅仅持续了100个小时。Peace, prosperity, order — and American culture was vibrant and healthy as well. There were both shockingly excellent versions of what had come before and distinctly new, original forms. Wasn’t the release of Nirvana’s “Nevermind,” in 1991, pretty much the last time a new rock ’n’ roll band truly, deeply mattered, the way rock ’n’ roll did in the ’60s and ’70s? Wasn’t hip-hop, which achieved its mass-market breakthrough and dominance in the ’90s, the last genuinely new and consequential invention of American pop culture?和平、繁荣与秩序——美国文化也同样健康活跃。文化中既有承袭自过去的东西,也有崭新的原创形式,二者都很精。1991年,“涅槃”(Nirvana)发行了《别在意》(Nevermind), 一新的摇滚乐队能像六七十年代的摇滚乐那样,产生真正深远的影响,这难道不是最后一次吗?嘻哈乐在大众市场获得突破,主宰了90年代,这难道不是美国流行文化中最后一次产生真正新颖而重大的创新吗?What is the most remarkably successful literary creation of the last several decades? The Harry Potter novels, the first three of which appeared in the ’90s. Supertalented literary youngsters appeared — David Foster Wallace (“Infinite Jest”), Donna Tartt (“The Secret History”), Jonathan Lethem (“Motherless Brooklyn”) and Dave Eggers (McSweeney’s). And supertalented literary geezers — Philip Roth (“American Pastoral”), John Updike (“Rabbit at Rest”), Alice Munro (“The Love of a Good Woman”), Don DeLillo (“Underworld”) — produced some of their best and most successful work as well.说说过去十几年来最成功的文学创作?哈利·波特(Harry Potter)系列小说的前三部都是在90年代出版的。那十年间,天才文学新星开始出现:写出了《无尽的玩笑》(Infinite Jest)的大卫·福斯特·华莱士(David Foster Wallace)、写出《秘史》(The Secret History)的唐娜·塔特(Donna Tartt)、写出《布鲁克林孤儿》(Motherless Brooklyn)的乔纳森·勒瑟姆(Jonathan Lethem)和写出《麦克斯维尼》(McSweeney’s)的戴夫·艾格斯(Dave Eggers)。此外还有那些天才的老人家们——菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)写出了《美国牧歌》(American Pastoral)、约翰·厄普代克(John Updike)写出了《兔子歇了》(Rabbit at Rest)、爱丽丝·门罗(Alice Munro)写出了《好女人的爱》(The Love of a Good Woman),唐·德里罗(Don Delillo)写出了《地下》(Underworld)——他们都献上了最精、最成功的作品。The quality of television radically improved. “Seinfeld” and “The Simpsons” had their premieres in 1989, and in the ’90s they blew up, along with “Friends” and “NYPD Blue” — all of them broadcast network series, none of them reality shows. HBO, before the ’90s a channel for movies, boxing and soft-core porn, decided to swing for the fences. First with “The Larry Sanders Show” and then with “The Sopranos,” it proved that episodic television could accommodate major ambition and actual brilliance, ushering in an enduring new (cable) TV era.电视节目的质量急剧上升。《宋飞传》(Seinfeld)和《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)都于1989年首次亮相,在90年代兴盛一时,之后是《老友记》(Friends)和《纽约重案组》(NYPD Blue)——它们都是公共台电视剧,都不是真人秀。HBO台在90年代之前是个专放电影、拳击和软色情的频道,90年代,它决定转型。先是制作了《拉里·桑德斯秀》(The Larry Sanders Show),之后又有了《黑道家族》(The Sopranos),这部剧集明电视剧也可以承载远大的抱负,成为真正精的节目,从而引领了一个长盛不衰的(有线)电视新时代。In feature films, it was the decade of “Pulp Fiction” and the indie movement, thanks to which idiosyncratic, more-commercial-than-art-house masterpieces like those by Wes Anderson, Alexander Payne and Richard Linklater became plausible. It was also the decade in which traditional Disney animation came back from the dead and in which Pixar, with the first two “Toy Story” movies, reinvented the form magnificently.在电影界,这是属于《低俗小说》(Pulp Fiction)与独立运动(indie movement)的十年,韦斯·安德森(Wes Anderson)、亚历山大·佩恩(Alexander Payne)与理查德·林特莱克(Richard Linklater)拍摄的那些怪异而又有商业气质,不那么孤芳自赏的杰作开始为大众所见。这十年里,传统迪斯尼动画起死回生,皮克斯也带来了《玩具总动员》(Toy Story)系列的前两部,革新了动画片这种形式。THE digital age, of course, got fully underway in the ’90s. At the beginning of the decade almost none of us had heard of the web, and we didn’t have browsers, search engines, digital cellphone networks, fully 3-D games or affordable and powerful laptops. By the end of the decade we had them all. Steve Jobs returned to Apple and conjured its rebirth.当然,90年代,数码时代也在酝酿之中。在90年代初,我们大家几乎都没有听说过互联网,我们也没有浏览器、搜索引擎、数字手机系统、3-D游戏或便宜好用的笔记本电脑。到90年代末,这一切全都成了现实。史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)回归苹果公司,令它获得新生。And it was just the right amount of technology. By the end of the decade we all had cellphones, but not smartphones; we were not overconnected or tyrannized by our devices. Social media had not yet made social life both manically nonstop and attenuated. The digital revolution hadn’t brutally “disrupted” whole economic sectors and made their work forces permanently insecure. Recorded music sales nearly doubled during the decade. Newspapers and magazines were thriving. Even Y2K, our terrifying end-of-the-millennium technological comeuppance, was a nonevent.而且这些都是适度的技术。90年代末,我们都有了手机,但还不是智能手机;我们还没有被设备过度连接,或者受到技术的控制。社交媒体还没有令社交生活变得病态般无休无止,一方面又弱化了社交生活。数码革命还没有粗暴地“瓦解”整体经济环节,令它们的工作变得再也不那么安全。90年代,音乐唱片的销量几乎增加了一倍。报纸和杂志也繁荣昌盛。就连可怕的千禧年技术危机——千年虫——到最后都根本不成问题。Indeed, the ’90s were a decade of catastrophes that didn’t happen. The Clinton tax increases did not trigger a recession. Welfare reform did not ravage the poor. Compared with Sandy, every hurricane that touched New York — Bob! Bertha! Danny! Dennis! Floyd! — was a dud.事实上,90年代里根本没有发生任何大灾难。克林顿政府的增税并没有引发衰退。福利改革没有掠夺穷人。与桑迪飓风相比,那时候经过纽约的那些飓风——鲍勃!伯莎!丹尼!丹尼斯!弗洛伊德!——全都是小菜一碟。Were there real problems in the ’90s? Of course. But they weren’t obvious, so ... we were blissfully ignorant! Almost none of us were suitably alarmed by carbon emissions and the warming planet. According to a 1995 article in this newspaper about climate change, “most scientists say the amount of warming so far, about one degree Fahrenheit in the last century, is still too small to be distinguished from the climate system’s natural fluctuations.” So why worry?90年代有什么真正的问题吗?当然有,但它们并不是那么明显,所以……我们真是处于有福的无知之中!我们都没有充分意识到碳排放与全球变暖问题。《纽约时报》1995年的一篇文章中谈到气候变化,“全球气温与上个世纪相比提高了一华氏度,大多数科学家认为,考虑到气候系统的自然波动,这个变化并不大。”所以我们干嘛还要担心?When the House and Senate passed by overwhelming bipartisan majorities and President Clinton signed the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, doing away with the firewalls between investment banks and commercial banks, the change seemed inevitable, sensible, modern — not a precursor of the 2008 Wall Street crash. When a jihadist truck bomb detonated in the parking garage below the north tower of the World Trade Center in 1993, we were alarmed only briefly, figuring it for a crazy one-off rather than a first strike in a long struggle.1999年,参众两院以两党多数通过了金融务业现代化法案,并由克林顿总统签署生效,撤销了投资与商业之间的防火墙,在当时,这个改变看来不可避免,是明智而现代化的——而不是2008年华尔街金融危机的前奏。1993年一个伊斯兰圣战者用卡车炸弹引爆了世贸中心北塔的停车场,我们只是短暂担心了一阵,觉得这是疯狂的一次性行为,而不是长期战斗的开端。Americans have never much liked paying attention to foreign countries and their problems (see Rwanda, 1994), so the decade between the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the war on terror was very much our cup of tea.美国人从来不喜欢关注外国和外国人的问题(看看1994年的卢旺达吧),所以从冷战结束后到与恐怖主义作战之间的这十年正是最合我们的口味的那杯茶。No: I mean our cup of coffee. You can’t talk about the ’90s without talking about the sudden availability of excellent coffee — espresso in Idaho! — all over America. This was thanks to Starbucks, of course, which went from nearly 100 outlets in the ed States at the start of the decade to 2,000 at the end. But as it goes with so many good things in America — easier credit and financial innovation and electronic connection and all the rest — that just wasn’t enough.不对,我是说,它是最合我们口味的那杯咖啡。谈到90年代,不说那些突然出现的好咖啡怎么行——爱达荷特浓咖啡——一下子遍及全美。当然,这要感谢星巴克,90年代初,它在全美只有100家分店,到90年代末就变成了2000家。但当时美国还有那么多的好东西——放松信贷与金融创新,还有电子通讯等等等——这么多家星巴克还远远不够。Today there are more than 13,000 Starbucks in the ed States. And each of them, to my eye, looks exactly as it did when the rollout began — 13,000 ubiquitous and faintly melancholic time-capsule museums of the last best American decade.如今美国有13000多家星巴克点。在我看来,每一家都和它最初的样子差不多——13000个无处不在、略带忧郁的时光胶囊物馆,封存着上一个美国的黄金十年的样子。 /201502/360139 The of the fatal shooting of an unarmed black man by a white police officer in South Carolina is seen by some advocates of police reform as evidence of the rising power of technological weapons in their fight.在一些警务改革的倡导者看来,一段记录了发生在南卡罗来纳州一名白人警官开击毙一名手无寸铁的黑人男性的视频, 可以用来印科技武器在争取警务改革的斗争中开始起到越来越大的作用。That includes the smartphone camera, and with it, a growing number of apps produced by activists that streamline the process of capturing and broadcasting s of police interacting with citizens.这包括了智能手机和伴随着智能手机兴起的许许多多的应用程序,活动分子们开发的这些应用程序可以将记录和传播警民互动视频的流程变得很简单。“A lot of times, until these s show up, the officer is going to walk,” said Darren Baptiste, the creator of Cop Watch, an iPhone app that automatically begins recording when you tap its icon and automatically uploads the to YouTube when the recording is stopped.“在这些视频出现之前,很多时候(打死黑人的)警察会一走了之”,一个名叫Cop Watch的iphone应用程序的开发者达伦·巴普提斯特(Darren Baptise)表示。这个应用程序在你点开程序的时候就会自动开始录像,而当录像停止的时候应用程序会自动将视频上传到YouTube。Mr. Baptiste, 47, is an app developer in Toronto, where several episodes of force by police — some of them eventually deemed unlawful — have been captured by citizens wielding cameras over the last few years. He said that when photographing the police during intense situations, people often get flustered — they may forget to hit record, or may not know how, or where, to upload a . There have also been cases in which police, sometimes in violation of the law, confiscated cameras or phones containing stored recordings.今年47岁的巴普提斯特是一名多伦多的应用程序开发者。而他所在的城市近几年有好几段由公民拿起相机拍摄视频记录了警察使用暴力的场景,其中好几起最终都被判定为非法行为。巴普提斯特说,人们在这种紧张时刻拍摄警察通常会很慌乱——很有可能会忘记按下录像键或者完全不懂如何上传视频或者去哪上传。以前也有过警察在违法的时候把围观者拍下他们违法视频的相机或者手机没收掉的情况。The app, which Mr. Baptiste created with the Network for the Elimination of Police Violence, an advocacy group based in Toronto, is meant to make recording the police easier and to make the footage less vulnerable to confiscation by the authorities. Once a user uploads a , the group is notified, and its staff can review and, if necessary, alert the news media and authorities of any apparent wrongdoing by police.这个应用程序是巴普提斯特和一个多伦多名叫“停止警察暴力网络”(Network for the Elimination of Police Violence)的倡导组织一起开发的,其目标是把拍摄记录警察变得更简单,并且让视频更难被权力机构没收。每次有用户上传视频的时候,他们的组织都会收到通知,随后就会有组织人员审查视频,在有必要的时候他们会将任何明显的警方过错通知给新闻媒体和有关权力机构。Though it is only the latest in a string of cases in which amateur photography has been used to document officers’ use of force, the South Carolina shooting demonstrates the power of citizen-captured in the most salient way. Michael T. Slager, the officer in the case, initially said that Walter L. Scott, a driver who had been stopped for a broken taillight, had taken his stun gun during a scuffle. The , captured on a cellphone by a bystander, instead showed the officer shooting Mr. Scott eight times while he ran away. On Tuesday, Mr. Slager was charged with murder.虽然这只是最近一系列非专业摄影记录警察暴力事件中的最新一次,南卡击事件还是非常明显的展现出公民拍摄视频的巨大作用。涉案警官迈克尔·T·斯雷格(Michael T. Slager) 最开始说因为驾驶汽车的尾灯破损而被他拦下的司机沃尔特·L·斯科特(Walter L. Scott)在扭打过程中掏出了手。然而一个旁观者用手机拍下的视频记录下了在斯科特逃跑过程中这名警官八次开射击当事人的场景。斯雷格警官在周二以谋杀罪名被指控。Cop Watch is one of a number of programs for smartphones aimed at helping citizens broadcast encounters with the police. In 2011, during the height of the Occupy Wall Street movement, Jason Van Anden, an artist and technologist, created “I’m Getting Arrested,” an app that could automatically send text messages to a list of prepopulated close contacts with the push of a button. Later, inspired by Mr. Van Anden’s app, the New York Civil Liberties Union developed the “Stop and Frisk Watch” app, a response to a line of policing tactics championed by then-mayor Michael Bloomberg’s administration.Cop Watch只是许许多多为了方便公民记录和传播与警方冲突场景而设计的智能手机程序之一。在2011年占领华尔街运动发展到最高峰的时候,名为杰森·凡·安顿(Jason Van Anden)的艺术家和工艺师创建了名为“我要被捕了(I’m Getting Arrested)”的应用程序,这个程序允许用户通过简单按键就可以自动发送短信给一系列提前设定好的紧密联系人名单 。随后,在凡·安顿的应用程序的启发下,纽约公民自由联盟(New York Civil Liberties Union)也开发了名为“Stop and Frisk Watch”的应用程序,作为对当时纽约市长迈克尔·布隆伯格(Michael Bloomberg)政府拥护的警务策略的响应。The N.Y.C.L.U. app allows a bystander to record from an Android-based phone or iPhone by just pressing a button on the phone’s frame. The app can send a report of a police encounter directly to the group for evaluation.纽约公民自由联盟的应用程序让路人可以从安卓手机或者苹果手机直接按下手机侧面的按键来录像,程序可以直接把与警方冲突的举报发送给公民自由联盟,由他们来进行评估。“We, sadly, thought the technology would be equally useful for young men of color in New York City,” said Jennifer Carnig, the director of communications for the N.Y.C.L.U. “Of course, in New York City if you touch your pocket to get your phone during an encounter with the police, you can end up dead.”“不幸的是,我们以为这项技术对于纽约市的有色种族年轻人也同样有用,”纽约公民自由联盟的媒体总监珍尼佛·佳妮格(Jennifer Garnig)表示。“当然,在纽约,如果你在和警方冲突过程中伸手掏口袋拿手机的话,你最后可能会丧命。”Mrs. Carnig said the app was used heavily last year during the protests surrounding the #BlackLivesMatter movement, which was spurred by the police shooting of Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager in Ferguson, Mo.佳妮格说,去年因为美国密苏里州弗格森发生的警方击毙一名手无寸铁的黑人青年迈克尔·布朗(Michael Brown)而发起的“黑人性命也很重要”( #BlackLivesMatter)抗议示威游行活动期间,他们的应用程序有很高的使用量。The episodes also brought greater interest in police-worn body cameras, which record every police interaction with a citizen and upload the to a server, where it would be available for later review. The Obama administration has called for 3 million in funding for police departments to outfit their officers with cameras.这些事件也让公众对给警方佩戴随身相机产生了更大的兴趣,这些相机能够记录下每一次警方与公民之间的互动,并将视频上传到一个务器,可以用于随后需要的审查。奥巴马政府已经要求拨款2.63亿美元给各地警察局来为警官配备相机。At least some police advocates are comfortable, to a degree, in outfitting officers with body cameras and wearable technology to monitor police encounters with citizens. But the details of how that process might go has, in some states, has slowed overall adoption of the process.至少有些警方的持者还能够在一定程度上接受给警官们配备随身相机和可穿戴设备,用以监控警方和民众之间的冲突。但是具体到此项目的进程,有些州的配置过程还是非常缓慢。“There are privacy concerns for officers, victims and members of the community that need to be fully vetted,” said Ryan Alphin, executive director of the South Carolina Law Enforcement Officers’ Association, who is currently lobbying the state Legislature on two bills that would incorporate body camera technology into the rank-and file law enforcement agencies in the state.“有些涉及到警官、受害者和相关群体的隐私权的事务还是需要全面审查,”南卡罗来纳州执法委员协会的执行理事瑞恩·阿尔芬(Ryan Alphin)说道,他正在游说州立法机构通过两项法案,让随身相机技术普及到州内执法机构的所有普通成员。Two of the largest police departments in the country, Los Angeles and Houston, are in the early stages of deploying body cameras to all of their field officers and dozens of smaller departments are well underway in their plans.全国最大的两个警察局洛杉矶和休斯顿警局已经开始为所有出勤警官配备随身相机,许多其他小规模的警局也已经开始这项计划。Scott Greenwood, a civil rights lawyer who focuses on police misconduct and who has consulted with police departments on how to deploy cameras, said that the rise of smartphone cameras had spurred police interest in body cameras.斯科特·格林伍德(Scott Greenwood)是一名专注于警方不法行为领域的民权律师,他也和警局就如何开展配备相机的事务进行过商议,他表示智能手机相机的兴起让警方对随身相机有了很大兴趣。“Law enforcement should not hope to rely on the existence of external of witnesses,” he said. “It is best for the profession, community relations, and solid, constitutional policing to have the police departments create that record itself, and the best way to do that is on the officer.”“执法不应该寄希望于依赖外界目击者拍摄的视频。拥有警察局自己创建的视频记录对于这一职业、社区关系和强有力又符合宪法的警务都有极大的好处,而记录的最好方式就是让警官佩戴记录设备。” 格林伍德说。When it comes to citizen-captured , there are few questions regarding legality, said Mickey Osterreicher, general counsel of the National Press Photographers Association. Mr. Osterreicher said that he talked to people on a weekly basis who had been told by police to stop recording their activities. In almost all cases, the police are wrong to do so.而对于公民拍摄的视频,合法性几乎不会成为问题,美国国家摄影记者协会(National Press Photographers Association)的总顾问米基·奥斯特瑞琪(Mickey Osterreicher)表示。他说他每周都会和被警察制止拍摄警方活动过的民众进行谈话。基本上在所有这些情况中警方都没有权利这样做。“If you are in a public place, you have the right to record anything you see,” he said. “That is the First Amendment.”“只要在公共场合,你就有权记录下任何你看到的东西,这是美国宪法第一修正案规定的,” 奥斯特瑞琪说。There are exceptions for safety and for interference with police work. An officer can tell a camera-wielding bystander to step back a few feet, or to step out of a dangerous place, like a busy street. Mr. Osterreicher said that he frequently conducted training sessions with police departments on their responsibilities when being filmed.在威胁人参安全和妨碍警方执法的情况下有一些例外。警察可以让拿着相机拍摄的路人后退几英尺或者离开像繁忙的马路这杨有危险的区域。 奥斯特瑞琪说他经常为警方提供相关培训,让警官们学习自己在被拍摄情况下的责任。“The younger officers get it — they’re used to being filmed,” he said, and some also see the footage as a way to clear up any accusations of wrongdoing. “The older officers are the ones who sometimes see it as questioning their authority.”“年轻警官很理解——他们习惯被相机拍摄,”他说,而且有些年轻警官也会把录像带看成面对指控自己执法中犯错时明自己清白的方式。“年长一些的警官会觉得这是对他们权威的质疑。”So far, the Cop Watch app has not garnered evidence of police misconduct. Usage has been low. In the year that the app has been available, Mr. Baptiste said that about 2,000 people have signed in to the program, and about 1,000 s have been uploaded, most of which show people trying out the program.到目前为止,Cop Watch应用程序还没有搜集到任何警方违法行为的据。这个应用程序的使用量还很低。在应用程序推出的那年,巴普提斯特说有约2千人登陆过他们的应用程序,有约1千个视频上传,但是大部门视频都是用户对程序的测试。“This is truly one of those things that you hope people wouldn’t want to use it,” Mr. Baptiste said. “The main point of this app is to make people talk about why we have an app like this in the first place.”“这真的就是那种你不希望民众想用到的东西,”巴普提斯特说,“有这个程序的主要目的就是让大家来讨论有这种应用程序出现的原因。” /201504/369391武汉华夏男子医院激光包皮手术宜昌市中心人民医院包皮手术多少钱



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