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泉州一院是大医院还是小医院?泉州孕前检查哪家医院好Books and Arts; Book Review;Rehabilitating capitalism文艺;书评;振兴资本主义For those who have lost faith只为重建信心Why Capitalism? By Allan Meltzer.《为何是资本主义?》作者:Allan MeltzerA Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity. By Luigi Zingales.《为人民的资本主义:重拾美国繁荣时期消失的天才》作者:Luigi ZingalesThe financial crisis has led some people to question the viability of America’s economic system. Socialism’s appeal has faded in Russia and China, and to a degree in other countries that once were its champions, such as India and Cuba. But American-style capitalism has not had an easy time of it either. Crashing financial markets, bank bail-outs and high unemployment have all added to a growing sense of unease about a system that is based on private ownership of resources.当前这场金融危机让人不由得开始质疑美国经济体系的可行性。社会主义的光环在俄罗斯和中国已逐渐褪去,甚至在像印度和古巴这样一度全权拥护社会主义的国家,它也早已不再神圣无比。但美式资本主义过的也并不轻松。不断崩溃的金融市场,紧急财政援助,再加上居高不下的失业率,这都导致人们对这一建立在资源私有基础上的经济体制倍感不安。“Why Capitalism?” by Allan Meltzer, a professor of economics at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, is an extended response to some of the calls he has received in recent years. The most thought-provoking came from a woman in Germany who, after ing the New York Times, wondered if, only two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, she was actually witnessing the implosion of the system that brought it down.《为何是资本主义?》的作者Allan Meltzer是匹兹堡的卡耐基·梅隆大学的一名经济学教授,该书主要是对他这几年收到的咨询电话做出的扩展回复。最发人深省的电话来自一名德国女士,她在看完纽约时报后,不由深思,当初正是资本主义推倒了柏林墙,如今柏林墙倒塌才20年,她是否就已经在亲临这一体制的逐渐崩溃。Capitalism’s core defence, Mr Meltzer argues, is that it is the only system that leads to freedom and economic growth. It is less good at ensuring virtue or stability; failure is an inherent part. Indeed the author’s observation that “capitalism without failure is like religion without sin. It doesn’t work well,” has aly been widely circulated. However, the sins attributed to capitalism—corruption, fraud and greed, to name but three—are not only pervasive in systems where the state controls production, but far more damaging and far less likely to be rectified.Meltzer指出资本主义的最核心优势在于它是唯一能够带来自由和经济增长的制度。这一体系并不能保道德常驻和社会稳定,所以失败崩溃是在所难免的。事实上,本书作者曾说过,“不失败的资本主义就好比没有原罪的宗教,发挥不了什么作用。”这一观点已广为流传。但是,资本主义带来的罪恶—腐败,欺诈和贪婪,在此仅列举这三样—不仅在政府控制生产的体制里蔚然成风,其危害性也非常大,并且并不好修正。The main problem, he argues, is that even nominally capitalist systems have, for better and worse, elements of state control. These often begin with defence and the police, and go on to national transport systems, which leads, in America’s case, to an ever-expanding network of bureaus and agencies. Much of bureaucracy is adopted under the rationale of enhancing “fairness”. But, as Mr Meltzer notes, fairness often means providing present benefits using debt that must be repaid by taxpayers in the future (which is hardly fair) or through regulations and subsidies created by people in government who then go on to exploit them in private-sector jobs (which is also unfair).Meltzer认为主要的问题在于即使是名义上的资本主义系统,无论好坏,统统都是有政府控制成分的。政府控制一般先从国家机器①着手,再扩展到交通运输系统,最后再像美国那样蔓延至不断扩大中的官僚机构网。很多官僚主义是在“增强公平”的正当理由下得以滋生。但是,Meltzer认为公平通常意味着用债务带来现时效益,但这些债务将来必须由纳税人偿还(其实这并不公平);或者是通过政府人员制定的规章和津贴带来现时效益,而这些人随后便在私营部门剥削纳税人(这也是不公平的)。It is this last issue that forms the heart of “A Capitalism for the People” by Luigi Zingales, a professor at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business. Mr Zingales has written an elegy to the America he found when he moved there 24 years ago from an Italy that was rife with nepotism. Italian businesses preferred to stay small and discreet. Growing bigger made them vulnerable to scrutiny and would require them to hire people on the basis of talent rather than loyalty; and loyalty was important because it, once again, helped protect the firm from scrutiny.《为人民的资本主义》一书最后一个话题也正是该书的中心思想,书的作者是芝加哥大学布斯商学院的Luigi Zingales教授。24年前,Zingales从裙带关系泛滥的意大利来到美国,该书正是Zingales为当时他所见的美国写的一曲挽歌。在意大利,公司一般都喜欢小规模运作谨慎周密地运作。扩大公司规模会让他们更容易经不起监管,还要求他们得根据能力选人而非忠诚度,但是忠诚度又极其重要,因为正是员工的忠诚才让他们经得住详细盘查。Arriving in America, Mr Zingales found an enthusiasm for capitalism. Americans believed that it was possible to become rich and that increasing wealth benefited the poor as well as the not so poor. They regarded their capitalist system as fair—or at least fair enough. All of those sentiments, says Mr Zingales, have been eroded.刚到美国,Zingales看到的是对资本主义的狂热。美国人坚信,致富是可能的,并且财富的增加对穷对富都是有益无害的。他们认为自己的资本主义系统是公正的,不是绝对公正至少也是足够公正的。Zingales说到,所有的这种狂热情绪已消失殆尽。Much of the change is a direct result of the vast expansion of the state through complex subsidies and anti-competitive regulations that invite the sort of cronyism that Mr Meltzer cites as well. When government favours the private sector, Mr Zingales argues, it is all too often by being “pro-business” rather than “pro-market”, meaning that favourable conditions are provided to particular institutions rather than to institutions broadly. This distorts the system, resulting in precisely the problem of select companies making profits while imposing costs on society that Mr Meltzer argues is at the core of what regulation should be designed to prevent.大部分变化多是国家权力扩张的直接后果,国家通过复杂的津贴和反竞争规章来扩张权力的,而这种扩张带来的是任人唯亲的风气,这在Meltzer的书中也有提到。Meltzer认为,当政府说持私营企业时,往往是持“企业”而非持“市场”,也就是说政府是为某些企业机构提供持,而非广泛持所有企业机构。这一行为扭曲了该系统,恰恰导致精英公司得利却让社会承担代价的后果,Meltzer认为这一问题正是制定出的规章应该避免的核心问题。Mr Zingales makes three proposals. Protected sectors, notably education and health care, should be opened up to competition. Tax policy should be changed in two ways. First, it should be used to make subsidies and their costs more transparent. The deduction on mortgages, for example, should be termed a tax on renting; the lavish benefits provided for ethanol production should be regarded as a tax on petrol. Secondly it should be used as a substitute for complicated regulation and applied against areas that cost society, such as pollution and (because it creates instability) the use of short-term debt by banks.Meltzer提出三个解决方案。受国家保护的部门,特别是教育和医疗,应该对外开放,接受竞争。税收政策应该在两方面做出改变。首先,应该利用税收政策来让津贴和津贴来源变得更透明。比如,按揭贷款扣除应该叫做租赁税;乙醇生产带来的丰厚利润应该被冠以汽油税。其次,税收政策该被用来代替复杂的规章,并且用在对让社会承受巨大代价的领域,比如环境污染和短期债务的使用(因为它会造成社会不稳)。More broadly, Mr Zingales wants a closer, explicit, tie between capitalism and morality. He wants to extend the public shaming of corporate crooks to people who take actions that are legal, but damaging to society, such as borrowers who walk away from mortgages merely because their value exceeds the value of the underlying property. Business schools, Mr Zingales says, are ideally positioned to point out when an action that provides a benefit for an individual comes at a cost to society, but in reality they rarely bother. This, he believes, is part of the same malaise that has befallen the political debate on capitalism, which has been taken over by special interests and people who have no faith in a real market-based system. For all America’s success, he warns, Washington is on a trajectory that leads to Rome.更广泛地说,Zingales期盼的是拉近并明确资本主义和道德之间的关系。他想要扩大舆论压力,要大家不仅耻于骗子企业,还要耻于行为合法但却危害社会的人,比如一些借款人,仅因为自身价值超越了作为基础产业的房地产的价值而逃避按揭付款。Zingales还指出,当个人以社会为代价获得利益时,商学院理念上要指出这样的行径,但在现实中,它们却对此不闻不问。Zingales相信,这和政治上对资本主义的争论都是一种病态,资本主义已不再是争论热点,取而代之的是对特别利益团体和那些根本就不相信真正市场导向体制的人的热议。尽管美国是成功的,但Zingales警告到,华盛顿正在重蹈罗马的覆辙。201207/192129泉州丰泽区人工流产多少钱 泉州无痛人流多钱

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泉州去哪检查输卵管比较好The newness of the situation and the range of decisions youll face could leave you confused. Think about what you want from college and from friends. Study after breakfast, between classes, whatever works best for you. Dont cut off all social contacts. Theyre as vital to surviving in college as ing. Study Hegel first, then catch a late movie.新的环境和你将做出的诸多决定会令你不知所措。考虑一下你想从学校和朋友那儿得到些什么。早饭后或课间你最需要的东西是什么。不要断绝一切社会交往。在大学里生活,社交同读书一样重要,你可以先看会儿黑格尔哲学,然后再赶去看晚场电影。Study methods学习方法。Would you take a trip by stopping for directions at every station instead of ing a map? Of course not. Studying in college demands more ing and thinking, less memorization than in high school. Survey the material first to get a sense of it: formulate some questions. Jot down key ideas, tell yourself the essence of what youre and review it. Does it make sense? Were your questions answered?你去旅行会不会不看地图,而在每一站都停下来问方向呢?当然不会。大学学习要求比中学更多的阅读和思考,较少的死记硬背。首先要浏览材料以了解大概:提出一些问题,记下重要思想,自述你所读内容的要旨并加以复习。讲得有道理吗?你提出的问题解决了吗?The major choice专业选择。It is quite appropriate to view college as a broadening experience, a preparation for life. Indeed, many college students do not select their ultimate career path until after they graduate. So take occupational course if you like, but dont feel complled to mold your major to the market.把大学生涯看作拓宽经验的机会及对生活的准备是相当恰当的。实际上,许多大学生直到毕业后才选择最终职业。所以如果你乐意,你可以学与职业有关的课程,但不要强迫自己为适应市场而选择专业。201303/231382 Before MP3s and other forms of digitized music there were CDs. Before CDs came vinyl records. And before vinyl?在MP3和其它形式的数字音乐盛行之前,CD已经出现。在CD出现之前有黑胶唱片,那么在黑胶唱片之前有什么呢?Most of us are not nearly old enough to remember, but in the early years of the twentieth century popular songs such as ;By the Light of the Silvery Moon; were recorded on shellac discs and wax cylinders. Many of these early recordings still exist, but with each passing year they grow more fragile and likely to fall apart while being played. Consequently, music archivists are faced with a delicate problem: how to preserve old-time recordings without silencing them forever?少数的老一辈人可能还记得,在20世纪早期有首流行歌曲“在银色的夜光下”被录制在虫胶唱片和蜡筒里。许多早期的唱片仍然存在,但是年复一年,在播放的时候,这些唱片越来越脆弱,极易破碎。所以唱片保管者们面临着一个微妙的难题:怎样保护好这些古老的唱片,又能让他们播出美妙的音乐?Enter Carl Haber and Vitaly Fadayev, particle physicists at the University of California, Berkeley who happened to hear a radio piece on the preservationists dilemma. These music-loving physicists suspected that the techniques they use to make sensors that track subatomic particles might help the troubled archivists. With the aid of a powerful microscope they mapped out the grooves of an old 78 RPM shellac disk and the grooves on a wax cylinder recorded in 1909.加州大学伯克利分校的粒子物理学家卡尔·哈伯和维塔利偶然在电台听到这些唱片保护者的困境。这些酷爱音乐的物理学家认为他们用于制作跟踪离子的传感器工艺可能对正处困境中的档案保护者有帮助。在两架高倍望远镜的协助下,他们绘制出了一张78转虫胶唱片,以及一张1909年录制的蜡筒上的纹道。After digitally reproducing the mapped grooves on a computer, Haber and Fadayev then created software to mimic the effect of a needle moving in the mapped grooves in order to re-create the sounds. Incredibly, the digitized version sounded even better than the original recordings. And as the mapping technique improves, the physicists hope to enable the digital preservation of large amounts of endangered music. So even if you dont remember the dark ages before CDs, you may soon be able to enjoy down-loadable old-time music, courtesy of the digital revolution.在电脑上将这些纹道处理成数字音乐后,哈伯和维塔利接着发明了一种软件来模仿唱针在纹道内旋转而重现音乐。令人难以置信的是数字版本的音效比老版更好。并且随着映射技术的不断改进,物理学家们希望能用数字储存大量频临消失的音乐。因此即使你不记得CD出现之前的黑暗时代,但很快你就能享受到可下载的旧时音乐,这是数字改革的恩惠。原文译文属!201208/195084泉州人流微创手术费用安溪县中医院医生

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