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佛山什么地方有男科佛山新世纪泌尿专科医院阳痿早泄价格Science and technology科学及技术Human communication人类交流Gesture politics形体政治学People talk a lot, but their hand signals may convey more useful information 虽然人类主要通过语言交流,但是一些手势往往能传达更多有用的信息。Silence is golden沉默是金IT IS received wisdom that humanity owes a lot of its evolutionary success to its remarkable ability to communicate. 人类在进化上的成功大部分归功于其非凡的交流能力已经成为一个被接受的常识。So much so, in fact, that few have bothered to test this hypothesis in any systematic way. 尽管如此,事实上还没有人系统地验过这一假设。Now, a group of researchers led by Andrew King, of the Royal Veterinary College in Britain, has tried to plug this gaping hole. 如今,一个由“英国皇家兽医学院”的安德鲁.科恩率领的研究小组正尝试填补这块空缺。Their first results have just been published in Biology Letters.他们的第一个研究成果被发表在了《生物学快报》上。Hunter-gatherers’ practice of scouring their surroundings for edible plants is responsible for half of the name anthropologists have bestowed on them. 采猎者搜集居住区周围可食用植物的行为应了人类学家赋予他们的名字中的一半的内容。And for good reason. 而出于此理由,With hunting likely to have been an intermittent diversion, effective foraging would have been crucial to tiding early humans over to the next woolly mammoth. 狩猎可能变成了一种间歇性的活动,而有效的搜集活动对于帮助早期人类渡过冰河时期起到了关键作用。So Dr King and his colleagues conducted a study to see how, if at all, communication enhances foraging prowess.所以,科恩士及其同事主持了这项研究活动以确认交流是如何促进搜集技巧的。They recruited 121 visitors to, rather appropriately, the London Zoo, and split them into 43 groups. 他们邀请了大约121名游客访问伦敦动物园,并将他们分成了43个小组。Each group contained between two and seven people. 每个小组的成员在2到7人之间, Some were single-sex and some mixed. 且有的为单一性别,有的为男女混合搭配。Some were composed of family and friends whereas others brought together complete strangers. 部分小组由亲戚朋友组成,其他则完全是陌生人。Half the groups were allowed to communicate freely. 在这些小组中,一半可以进行自由交流,The rest were told to exchange no verbal signals or gestures of any kind. 另一半择不允许通过声音信号以及任何肢体动作进行交流。Each group was then asked to a room containing six foraging patches—boxes filled with 300 cards, some green and some white—arranged at a distance from a central home base. 每个小组会被邀请到一个设置了6个搜集区---也就是盛有300张绿色和白色卡片的盒子的房间,这些盒子被放置在离中心基地区域一定距离的地方。The green cards were defined as good and the patches varied from 5% to 95% green. 绿色的卡片为最好,每个搜集区所含绿色卡片的比例由5%到95%不等。The foragers could not see inside the boxes and were allowed to pick only one card at a time, through a hand hole, using their dominant hand. 搜集者看不到盒子的内部情况并且只能惯用手从小孔处一次取出一枚卡片。There were no restrictions on which patches to visit, but each time a card was plucked it had to be returned to the home base, irrespective of colour. 对于访问哪个搜集区并没有设置限制,但是每次卡片在取出之后无论是什么颜色,都必须送回基地区域。The goal was to collect as many good cards as possible in an unspecified short period of time (all trials actually lasted ten minutes). 小组的目标就是在给定的时间段内(事实上每次尝试持续10分钟)搜集尽可能多的绿色卡片。As an incentive, members of the best-performing group would receive an animal-adoption prize worth £30 ().作为鼓励,表现最好的小组将获得价值30英镑(47美元)的动物领养奖励。Before the modern-day foragers were let loose, radio-frequency tags, like those used in swipe cards, were wrapped around everyone’s dominant wrist. 原始社会的搜集者比较分散,所以每个成员惯用手的手腕上都配带了一个与磁卡无线电标签相似的标签。All the good forage cards were similarly tagged. 所有绿色卡片上同样安置了相同的标签。These, together with antennae on top of the boxes and in the home base, allowed Dr King to track the group members’ precise movements. 这些标签和卡片盒上以及基地区域内安置的天线使得科恩士可以精准地追踪每个小组的行动。That, in turn, made it possible to determine how long it took each group to reach a consensus, defined as concentrating more than 90% of activity around a single patch.从而,有可能确定每个小组需要花多长时间来达成共识,即该小组95%的活动都集中在一个搜集区内。Unsurprisingly, the groups that were allowed to communicate proved the more effective foragers. 事实明,那些可以进行交流的小组的搜集者效率相对较高。They were much likelier than their non-communicating peers to converge on the greenest patches. 这也并让人感到不惊讶。与其他不可以进行交流的竞争者相比,他们更有可能汇聚在绿色卡片最多的搜集区。What did come as something of a surprise, however, was the nature of the communication that mattered. 然而让人感到惊讶的却是他们交流的方式。The researchers monitored noise levels and hand gestures. 研究者对他们使用发出的噪音以及手势进行了监测。Noise levels served as a proxy for verbal communication; gestures, for the non-verbal sort. 噪音可以作为有声交流的替代方式,而手势则对应无声交流。Dr King found that the only thing which explained the probability of lighting on the best patch was gesture use, which peaked just before consensus was reached. 科恩士发现唯一可以用来解释存在选择最好搜集区的可能性的原因是肢体语言的使用,并且这种肢体语言的使用在共识达成之前就已经达到了顶峰。Noise levels remained more or less constant the whole time, suggesting that verbal messages were not as important.在整个时间段内,噪音断断续续地得到了持续使用,这显示有声信息并不是那么重要。Constant volume may hide the variable importance of what was said. 不间断的声音可能会影响不同重要性语言的传达。So, Dr King plans to repeat the experiment, controlling for the meaning of both utterances and gestures. 所以,科恩士计划重复试验,以确认发音和肢体语言的意义。Moreover, hand gestures are a relatively local signal. 况且,手势是一种相对本土化的信号。It remains an open question whether they are as crucial to success in groups larger than the half-dozen or so people typical of foraging parties in hunter-gatherer societies. Spoken contributions allow information to be disseminated rapidly to group members far away. 在采猎者社会群落中,典型的搜集者人数大约占到了一半左右,对于那些人数多于搜集者的群落,手势是对于这些人的成功能否起到同样的关键作用仍然是一个问题。That may trump the importance of non-verbal messages as groups grow larger. 声音可以将信息快速地传播给远处的部落成员。并且随着群落的壮大,语言信息的重要性将超过非语言传递信息的重要性。But if gestures convey some vital extra information, people in larger groups may limit their communication to nearby co-foragers. 但是,如果肢体语言可以传达一些额外的重要信息,那么在较大群落中,人们会将交流范围仅限于附近的搜集者。This might lead to the emergence of subgroups.从而导致此次群落的出现。How all this pertains to the “hunter” in “hunter-gatherer” has yet to be investigated. 关于以上这些是如何影响采猎群落中的狩猎者目前还没有相关调查。Getting a project on that past an ethics committee might involve an interesting act of communication in its own right.如果绕开道德层面来开展研究项目,其本身就是一种有趣的交流方式。 /201302/223790容桂医院电话号码 A budget impasse between the White House and Congressional Republicans could force the federal government to shut down on Friday when the current budget law allowing the government to spend money expires. The Republican-led House passed the bill of 61 billion dollars in cuts, but of course it was rejected by the Democrat-controlled Senate. Sources are saying negotiators are now looking at a package of cuts for the rest of the fiscal year of between 33 billion and 40 billon dollars. President Barack Obama hosted the Senate and House leaders at the White House at a rare late night meeting on Wednesday, but so far theres still no deal.白宫和以共和党为主的国会之间在预算案上的分歧持续,这可能迫使联邦政府于星期五关闭。临时的财政法案规定了政府开销的期限。由共和党领导的众议院通过了这项削减出610亿美元的财政法案,当然遭到由民主党控制的参议院的反对。据消息称,谈判代表试图将剩余财政年的财政削减缩小至330亿美元至400亿美元之间。奥巴马总统于星期三深夜在白宫召见参议院和众议院领导,但目前为止仍然没有达成一致协议。;A shutdown could have real effects on everyday Americans. It means that small business owners who are counting on that loan to open their business, to make payroll, to expand, suddently they cannt do it; it means folks who are potentially processing a mortgage, they may not be able to get it; it means that hundreds of thousands of workers across the country suddenly would work without paycheck—their families are counting on their being able to go to work and do a good job.;“联邦政府关闭会对美国人民造成实实在在的影响。这就意味着那些指望贷款开张,付员工薪水,扩大经营的小企业老板们突然就经营不下去了,这意味着那些准备抵押贷款的人,可能就拿不到贷款了;这意味着全国成百上千辛勤工作的工人突然就拿不到薪水了——他们的家庭还指望着他们好好工作。”Now if the government shuts down, that means thousands of workers will be off the job. The White House estimates that 800,000 workers could be asked to stay home. So what else does a government shutdown mean? Well, here are some of the possible outcomes if the U.S. government closes the shop temporarily: the military would still function, but paychecks would be delayed until after April 8th, because the government just wouldnt have the funds for payroll; national parks and national museums would close; passport applications could also be delayed; and tax audits would be suspended--keep in mind that Tax Day in the U.S. is in a week, on April 15th, but vital services like national defense, law enforcement, emergency medical care and air traffic control would still continue.如果联邦政府关门,这意味着数千名工人将下岗。白宫预计有80万雇员将失去工作,在家待业。政府关门还意味着什么呢?这里有一些可能的后果:如果美国政府临时关掉兵工厂,军方仍然要履行职责,但是薪酬则要推迟到4月8号,因为政府没有资金周转;国家公园和物馆也会关掉;申请护照也会延期,税收审计将推迟;牢牢记住美国的报税季是在4月的一个星期,4月15日截止。但是像国防部,执法部门,急救部门,空中交通管制部门这样的重要部门还是要照常运转。201206/185688南方医科大学顺德医院网上预约

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佛山省妇幼保健院治疗包皮包茎多少钱 Science and technology.科技。Carbon capture and storage.碳的收集和储存。A shiny new pipe dream.闪亮的管子 崭新的梦想。Capturing the carbon dioxide from power stations is not hard. But it is. expensive. A new project in Norway aims to make it cheaper从发电站收集二氧化碳不难,但花费很高。挪威的一个新项目旨在降低碳捕捉的成本。AS Helene Boksle, one of Norways favourite singers, hit the high notes at the Mongstad oil refinery on May 7th, the wall behind her slid open. It revealed, to the prime minister and other dignitaries present, an enormous tangle of shiny metal pipes. These are part of the worlds largest and newest experimental facility for capturing carbon dioxide.五月七日挪威最受欢迎的歌手Helene Boksle 在蒙斯塔德炼油厂引吭高歌,她身后的大幕缓缓打开。首相和其他政要现身,一个巨大闪亮的金属管网也映入观众的视线。这是世界上最大最新的收集二氧化碳的试验装置的一部分。Such capture is the first part of a three-stage process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS) that many people hope will help deal with the problem of man-made climate change. The other two are piping the captured gas towards a place underground where the rocks will trap it, and then actually trapping it there. If the world is to continue burning fossil fuels while avoiding the consequences, then it will need a lot of CCS. There is no other good way to keep the CO2 emitted by power stations, and also by processes such as iron- and cement-making, out of the atmosphere. To stop global warming of more than 2°C-a widely agreed safe limit-carbon-dioxide emissions must be halved by 2050. According to the International Energy Agency, an intergovernmental body that monitors these matters, CCS would be the cheapest way to manage about a fifth of that reduction.很多人希望用三个阶段的这种碳收集储存(CCS)来应付人为的气候变化问题,这种收集是第一部分。其他两个部分用管道会把收集到的气体引入地下由岩石吸收,实际上接下来气体会被隔离在岩石里。如果人类继续燃烧矿物燃料并且避免其不利影响,将用到很多的CCS。没有其他的好办法来保存发电厂、钢铁厂和水泥厂排放到大气层的二氧化碳。为了阻止全球变暖超过2℃(被广泛认可的安全指标),必须在2050年以前把二氧化碳的排放量降低一半。按照国际能源署(监督这些事项的国际政府间组织)的说法,CCS能用最便宜的方式在降低碳排放中做出两成的贡献。To do this, the agency reckons, requires the building of 100 capture facilities by 2020 and 3,000 by 2050. Which is a problem, because at the moment there are only eight, none of which is attached to a power station. Another 28, mostly in North America, are under construction or planned. But some are likely to be cancelled-as happened on May 1st to a project in Alberta. CCS is thus having difficulty reaching escape velocity.为实现目标,国际能源署呼吁要在2020年以前建造100座收集装置,在2050年之前要建造3000座收集装置。这就是问题所在,因为目前只有八座,而且没有一座装置是联接发电厂的。其他28座装置大部分在北美,有的处于施工阶段,有的还在计划中。很有可能取消一些装置的建造,因为五月一日在亚伯达的一项工程中发现CCS在达到脱离速度方面存在难度。That is not because it is hard. Since 1996, for example, Statoil, Norways largest oil company, has captured and stored the CO2 which forms part of the natural gas extracted from the Sleipner field in the North Sea. Rather, the process consumes a lot of power that would not otherwise have to be generated-which is ironic, and also makes it expensive. Hence the need for experiments like those at Mongstad, to try to improve and cheapen it.这些并不是因为难度问题。比如自从1996年以来,挪威最大的石油公司(挪威国家石油公司)就从北海的斯莱普内尔气田开采的天然气里收集并储存二氧化碳。但是有讽刺意味的是这个过程成本高昂并且会消耗大量能源。因此需要做类似蒙斯塔的试验,做出改进,降低消耗。Burying bad news隐瞒坏消息The most common capture technologies involve running the gas to be processed through a solution of amines or ammonium carbonate. These react with CO2 to form soluble chemicals called carbamates and bicarbonates. The remainder of the exhaust (mostly nitrogen) can then be vented safely to the atmosphere. The carbon-rich solution, meanwhile, is treated in a separate vessel to release its burden of CO2, which can then be piped away and stored, and the amines or ammonium carbonate thus liberated recycled.最普通的收集技术是用胺类溶液或者碳酸铵处理这些气体。这些物质和二氧化碳发生反应生成氨基甲酸盐和碳酸氢盐(都是可溶的)。废气的剩余物(大部分是氮)可以安全地排到大气。与此同时,在单独的容器中处理含碳丰富的溶液,将其负载的二氧化碳释放,用管子排走并储存起来,离析的胺或碳酸铵可以被循环利用。All of which is fine and dandy except that, if rigged to the average coal-fired power station, this process might use a quarter of the energy the plant produces. According to Howard Herzog, a chemical engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has made a study of the matter, that implies a cost of between and 0 per tonne of carbon stored. Carbon dioxide can sometimes be sold to oil companies for injection into partially depleted wells, in order to force more petroleum out of them. For that use it fetches at most a tonne. But much CO2 is not produced near depleted oil wells-and anyway, the price would surely drop if CCS became widesp. In one way or another, then, the technology will need to be subsidised if it is ever to become important.如果普通的烧煤发电厂使用这些被赋予美好愿望的先进技术,这个过程会消耗电厂产生的四分之一的能源。麻省理工学院的化学工程师霍华德·赫佐格研究过这个事情,他说这意味着每储存一吨碳的成本在50到100美元之间。有时候可以把二氧化碳卖给石油公司,他们用来注入部分耗尽的油井,这样就能出更多的石油。每吨最多能卖到40美元。但是在这些将近开采殆尽的油井的周围不能生产更多的二氧化碳,总之一旦广泛采用CCS技术,这个价格一定会降下来。如果这项技术的重要性要得到提高,必须对其进行资助。There was a rush of interest in CCS in the late 2000s, including billion for it in Americas stimulus package of . But many projects are now being cancelled. Either the developers have lost confidence in government commitments to support them or their costs have turned out higher than expected. Mongstad-a billion-dollar development owned jointly by the Norwegian government and three oil companies, Statoil, Shell and Sasol of South Africa-is a rare exception that has actually opened. Hence the hoopla.二十世纪末,有一阵子人们对CCS感兴趣,年美国曾对其直接投入三十亿美元。但是很多工程现在被取消了。不是持工程的开发商对政府的承诺失去信心就是成本超出预期。蒙斯塔出人意料地联合挪威政府和三家石油公司( 挪威国家石油公司、壳牌和南非的萨索尔)开发的价值十亿美元的项目已经正式开工。关于CCS的争论更加激烈。The facility itself consists of two capture plants fitted with more than 4,000 instruments to monitor what is going on, and with a total capacity of 80,000 tonnes of carbon a year. These plants are connected to the exhaust flues of the refinery and also to a nearby gas-fired power station. That lets operators experiment with different flow rates and carbon-dioxide concentrations, which can be tweaked to be anything from 3.5% to 14% (roughly equivalent to those from a coal-fired power station).这个装置本身包括装配着两个收集设备,这两个设备里面安置了四千个用来监控设备运行的仪表,每年能收集八万吨碳。这些设备和炼油厂的废气管相连,而且附近就是一座燃烧天然气的发电站。操作人员可以用不同的流速和二氧化碳浓度进行试验,这些参数可以从3-5%调整到14%(和烧煤发电厂的大致一样)。The operators will also experiment with the capture technology itself. At one of the two plants Aker Clean Carbon, a Norwegian firm, will have 14 months to try out a new amine solution. At the other Alstom, a French concern, has 18 months to test the ammonium-carbonate process.操作人员也可以用设备本身的收集技术做试验。一家叫阿克清洁碳的挪威公司在其中的一台设备上用了十四个月的时间提炼出一种新的胺溶液。另一家法国公司阿尔斯通则用十八个月的时间测试碳酸铵工艺。Amine- and ammonium-carbonate-based CCS are not, however, the only ways to do things. Two other techniques, called gasification and oxy-combustion, work by reacting coal with pure oxygen rather than air, and thus produce exhausts that require little treatment before burial. The former uses coal, oxygen and steam to produce burnable hydrogen. The latter burns coal directly. Purifying oxygen and raising steam, however, both consume energy. And gasification also requires bespoke plants. Unlike the other processes it cannot be retrofitted to existing power stations.然而,基于胺和碳酸铵反应的CCS并不是唯一的方法。其他两种叫做气化和富氧燃烧的技术,用纯氧气而不是空气烧煤,这样产生的废气在掩埋之前几乎不用处理。以前用煤、氧气和蒸汽生产可燃氢气。以后可以直接烧煤。提纯氧气提升蒸汽都要消耗能量。气化也要专门的设备。不像其他的工艺,没有必要为了现有的发电厂对其实施改造。The upshot is that there is no free lunch. If people are serious about carbon capture and storage, they will have to pay for it. The best that facilities like Mongstad can do is make the meal as cheap as possible.天下没有免费的午餐。如果人们要认真对待碳的收集和储存,他们需要为此埋单。蒙斯塔德的设备是最好的,能让这顿大餐最省钱。 /201208/196371顺德区第二人民医院割包皮南海人民医院治疗前列腺疾病多少钱

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