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江阴镇人民医院门诊部电话放心分享

2019年09月23日 13:39:26|来源:国际在线|编辑:龙马活动

Here is a test. Find a pencil and a scrap of paper and draw the Apple logo. Easy, no? Now compare your sketch to the real thing.来做个测试。找一铅笔和一张纸,画一个苹果公司(Apple)的标识。容易不?现在把你画的图跟真正的标识对比一下。If you are like me, or like 98.8 per cent of a sample recently tested by psychologists at UCLA, you failed. Almost everyone either puts the bite on the wrong side, draws two leaves instead of one, or in some other way bungles the simple job of reproducing an image we have all seen thousands of times.如果你跟我差不多,或者像加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)心理学家近期一批实验对象中的98.8%人一样,那么你肯定要失败了。几乎所有人都会画错,不是把缺口画在错误的一侧,就是画了两片而不是一片叶子,还有一些是其他地方搞错了。说起来不过是再现一幅我们都看过成千上万次的图像,但是如此简单的任务绝大多数人都完不成。Not only are we unable to sketch one of the most famous logos on earth, most of us cannot even pick out the real thing when we see it in an identity parade of lookalikes.我们不但画不出这个地球上最著名的标识之一,而且当这个标识和一系列相似的图形混在一起时,大多数人甚至认不出正确的那个。Why is this? The researchers talk of “attentional saturation” and “inattentional amnesia”, but I think it is simpler than that. We cannot recall it because we do not have to.为什么会这样?研究人员谈到了“注意力饱和”和“不注意健忘”,但我认为道理更简单——我们记不住它,是因为我们不必记住它。For me, the Apple logo falls into a large collection of things that I do not need to remember.对我来说,苹果标识属于一大堆我不必记住的事情之一。Increasingly, practically everything belongs in this category. At home there are a few things I still need to remember, such as buying more shampoo when we have run out and filling out a form for my son’s school trip. But at work I can safely forget almost everything — apart from one big thing and one little thing. Otherwise the slate can be wiped clean. Workplace memory has been entirely outsourced to the computer.渐渐地,几乎所有事情都属于这一类别。在家里,仍有几件事是我需要记住的,比如洗发水用完时要买新的,我儿子要参加学校组织的旅行时给他填一份表格。但在工作中,我可以放心地忘记几乎所有事情——只有一件大事和一件小事除外。其他事情完全可以抛在脑后。工作上要记的事情全部交给了电脑。In theory, this means remembering my computer password, though in fact the help desk has often bailed me out when I’ve forgotten it. There is no need to remember any facts thanks to Google, all appointments are now online, and everything anyone ever said is easily found on an email somewhere.在理论上,这意味着需要记住电脑密码,不过事实上,帮助桌面经常在我忘记密码时为我解困。多亏了谷歌(Google),我们不必记住任何事情了,因为所有约会都记在网上,任何人说过的任何话很容易在某份电子邮件中找到。A possible exception is corporate memory, which tends to be stored in heads rather than on clouds, but few corporations show much demand for that any more. Today’s decision makers do not welcome protestations from old geezers who can remember that such and such was tried before and didn’t work. Yesterday is an irritant.公司历史可能是个例外,这些通常存储于人脑中而不是云中,但如今没多少公司对此有强烈的需要。今天的决策者不喜欢那些老家伙们的说法,后者记得某些做法以前尝试过了,而且不管用。昨天是令人恼火的。So what are the two things we do need to remember at work? The small thing is the location of one’s vending cards/security passes. I try to make this easier by wearing mine on a string around my neck, although even this is not a complete solution as I sometimes take the card off the string, forget to put it back and then have to hunt around for it.那么,我们在工作中需要记住的两件事是什么呢?小事就是可在自动售货机上使用的卡/通行放在了什么地方。我设法让这事儿变得更容易——把它和其他东西串在一起挂在脖子上,不过,这也不是万全之策,因为我有时会把卡取下来,然后忘了拴回去,结果还是不得不到处找它。The big thing is recognising other people. Clearly, it is an advantage if you can remember someone’s name but, as failing to do so is commonplace, the penalty is fairly small. The vital thing is remembering faces and incidental detail about them.大事是记住别人。如果你能记住某人的名字,你显然就获得了一种优势;但由于人们常常做不到这一点,所以后果也不算严重。关键是要记得面孔,以及面部特征。I recently went to see Still Alice , the film in which Julianne Moore plays an academic with early onset Alzheimer’s. When she forgets a word in a lecture it is briefly embarrassing, but she makes a joke and recovers quickly. Getting lost on a run is worse, but the real horror is when she can’t remember her son’s girlfriend, having just been introduced to her 15 minutes earlier.不久前我去看了电影《依然爱丽丝》(Still Alice),朱丽安#8226;尔(Julianne Moore)在片中扮演一名有早期阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer#39;s, 即老年性痴呆)症状的学者。她在演讲中忘记了一个词,有一瞬间感觉很尴尬,于是她开了一个玩笑,就不再觉得难为情了。更糟糕的是跑步时迷路,但最可怕的是,他儿子刚向她介绍了自己的女朋友,15分钟后她就忘记儿子的女朋友是谁了。You don’t need to have Alzheimer’s to forget a face, and when you do so at work it matters. Recently I met a man at a corporate event who had been at university with me and seemed to know a great deal about my life. Having no recollection of him at all put me at such a disadvantage that when he asked me to do him a favour I was wrongfooted into saying yes.你就算没患阿尔茨海默病,也很容易忘记一个人的面孔。当这种事发生在工作中时,问题就大了。最近,我在一次公司活动上遇到一个人,他是我的大学校友,而且似乎非常了解我的情况。我在记忆里找不到一丝一毫他的影子,这对我非常不利,以至于每当他请我帮忙时,我总会胡乱地一口应承下来。Equally, not long ago I ran into a senior executive with whom I had had an hour’s meeting five or six years ago. When I greeted him warmly he stared back blankly, evidently confident that we had never met. Possibly this meant nothing more than that his memory was poor, but I took it personally — as one inevitably does. Either I had aged so badly in five years that I was unrecognisable, I reasoned, or I had been too dull to remember. Neither one good.还有,不久前我遇到了一位高管,五六年前我跟他见过面,谈了一个小时。当我热情地跟他打招呼时,他目光茫然地看着我,显然以为我们从未谋面。可能他只是差吧,但我认为这是针对我个人的——人们难免会有这样的想法。我推断,要么是我在5年里老得不成样子、难以辨认了,要么就是我这人太无趣,别人记不住。无论是哪种情况都不是好事。The ability to remember people strikes me as a bigger asset than emotional intelligence at work. Most of us don’t especially want empathy in the office, but everyone wants to be remembered. The more someone is able to recall chapter and verse of all small talk exchanged at previous meetings, the more you are inclined to like and trust them. It is not just a skill for politicians: it’s for everyone.我认为,在职场上,记人的能力比情商更有用。我们大多数人在办公室里不是特别需要别人的体谅,但每个人都希望被别人记住。一个人越是能记住以往会面时所有闲聊的细节,你就越是喜欢和信任他。这并不仅仅是政客们需要的一项技能:人人都需要它。One day, probably very soon, wearable technology will do the job for us by recognising faces and connecting them to a database of trivia. But by then it will be worthless. The reason we want people to remember us is because it is so hard to do so.有一天,也许就在不久之后,可穿戴技术将帮我们承担这一任务——记住面孔,并把这些面孔跟一个琐事数据库建立连接。但到那时,这件事将变得没有任何意义。我们想让人们记住自己,是因为做到这一点太难了。If the computer does the remembering, the value of it becomes zero. No one wants to be remembered per se. We want to be remembered because it is a sign that another human being sees us as a valued individual, not just another interchangeable employee.如果由电脑来做记忆工作,那么记忆的价值就变为零。谁也不想仅仅被记住。我们想要被记住,是因为这表明别人认为我们是值得尊敬的人,而不是随便一个可以替代的员工。 /201504/370432

Lesson one: New challenges require new ways of thinking1.面对新挑战,要有新思路Part car, part jet fighter, part spaceship, Bloodhound SSC aims to be the first land vehicle to break the 1,000mph barrier. One of the key challenges has been to design the wheels. How do you create the fastest wheels in history, make them stable and reliable at supersonic speeds, and with limited resources?部分汽车、部分喷气式飞机、部分宇宙飞船,猎犬号超级汽车的目标是做世界上第一辆时速突破1000英里的汽车。而这面临的一项关键挑战是车轮的设计。如果换做是你,你会如何在有限的资源下发明出超音速汽车上用的轮子呢?After much deliberation, and devising ideas that pushed the boundaries of material technology, Mark Chapman, chief engineer of the Bloodhound project said the team decided to take a step back and change the way they were trying to solve problems. “There’s very little we’ve actually developed that’s new,” he says, “what’s unique is how we apply technologies.”猎犬号项目的总工程师马克·查普曼思来想去,觉得材料还是不够好。最后他和他的团队决定退回一步、换个角度看有没有别的办法。“我们实际创新的东西并不多”,马克说:“我们的独特之处在于应用技术的方式别具一格。”They adopted an approach called the design of experiments – a mathematical technique of problem solving through doing lots of little experiments and then looking at the statistics all glued together. “All of a sudden, where we’d been knocking our head against the wall for maybe two, three, four months, we came up with a wheel design that would hold together and was strong enough,” he says.他们采用实验设计的方法做了很多的小实验,综合所得的数据再得出精确设计。“花了三四个月绞尽脑汁做尽各种实验之后,很突然地我们做出了一个大胆的设计:把各种可用的(飞机、飞船所用的)技术都融合在一辆车上,从而使它足够强大。”马克说。Lesson two: Let evidence shape your opinion2.观点要用据来明Like his peers, geophysicist Steven Jacobsen from Northwestern University believed that water on Earth originated from comets. But by studying rocks, which allow scientists to peer back in time, he discovered water hidden inside ringwoodite, which lies in the Earth’s mantle, and which suggests that the oceans gradually made its way out of the planet’s interior many centuries ago.美国西北大学地球物理学家史蒂文·雅各布森曾认为,地球上的水源于彗星。但通过对岩石的研究,他发现地幔的林伍德石里面也藏有水,这一发现表明或许在N个世纪之前,海洋是从地球内部自己慢慢溢出来的。“I had a pretty hard time convincing others,” he admits. Yet two key pieces of evidence uncovered this year seem to support his point of view. Time will tell whether the new theories are true, and there may be further twists to the tale. “But thinking about the fact that you may be the first person to see something for the first time doesn’t happen very often,” he says. “When it does it’s thrilling.”“那时候我难说别的学者相信这个。”史蒂文说。但是今年新发现的两个关键据似乎持了他的理论。所以,一个新理论的正确与否可能需要时间来慢慢印,在被世人接受前可能会经历很多曲折。“但是如果你发现你是第一个发现这个规律的人,且时间又明你是对的之后,你会倍受鼓舞的。”史蒂文说。Lesson three: It really is 99% perspiration3.天才的99%确实是汗水Sheila Nirenberg at Cornell University is trying to develop a new prosthetic device for treating blindness. Key to this was cracking the code that transmits information from the eye to the brain. “Once I realised this, I couldn’t eat, I couldn’t sleep – all I wanted to do was work,” says Nirenberg.康奈尔大学希拉·尼伦伯格正在研究治疗失明的新型假体,其中破解眼睛与大脑的信息交流密码是最关键的。“我意识到这一点之后,就吃不下饭、睡不着觉,只想全身心投入工作。”尼伦伯格说。“Sometimes I’m exhausted and I get burnt out,” she adds. “But then I get an email from somebody in crisis or somebody who’s getting macular degeneration, and they can’t see their own children’s faces, and it is like, ‘How can I possibly complain?’ It gives me the energy to just go back and keep doing it.”“每次觉得筋疲力尽、江郎才尽的时候,我都会收到一些到正处于危险状态马上要失明的、或是患有黄斑部退化症的病人的邮件,这些人将没办法看清自己孩子的长相、无法看这五颜六色的世界。每当这个时候,我就跟自己说‘我怎么能够抱怨呢’,然后就又动力十足的继续工作。”Lesson four: The answer isn’t always what you expect4.结果并不总是和预想的一样Sylvia Earle has spent decades trying to see the ocean with new eyes. Her “dream machine” is a submarine that could take scientists all the way to the bottom of the deepest ocean floor. What sort of material could best withstand the types of pressure you would encounter thousands of miles below the ocean surface? “It could be steel, it could be titanium, it could be some sort of ceramic, or some kind of aluminium system,” says Earle. “But glass is the ultimate material.” By her estimates, a glass sphere about four-to-six inches (10-15cm) thick should be able safely explore the ocean depths she dreams of exploring.西尔维亚·厄尔花了几十年的时间试图让人们用新的方式亲近海底,她的“梦想号”潜艇可以让科学家潜入到最深的海底。那种材料才能够承受住深海的巨大压力呢?厄尔说:“我想过用钢、钛、陶瓷等,但最终发现其实玻璃才是终极王者。”根据她的预计,一块10-15厘米厚的玻璃板就能让她进入梦寐以求的那片深海世界。Glass is the oldest material known to man and one of the least understood, says Tony Lawson, Earle’s engineering director at Deep Ocean and Exploration Research Marine. “It has a higgledy-piggledy molecular structure a bit like a liquid, rather than the ordered lattices often found in other solids. As a result, when glass is evenly squeezed from all sides – as it would be under the ocean – the molecules cram closer together and form a tighter structure.厄尔的项目技术总监称,虽然玻璃是人类已知的最古老材料,但是我们对它的了解却甚少。“玻璃的分子结构有点像是液体,排列方式没有一般固体的有规律。因此,当玻璃被海洋里的压力从四面八方压迫时,它的分子会被压在一起,形成更紧密的结构。”Lesson five: A little luck goes a long way5.偶尔的一点好运也可以维持很久It was hailed as one of the biggest success stories in the history of space exploration – 20 years of planning ended earlier this year with the Philae lander rendezvousing with Comet 67P over 300 million miles (480 million kilometres) away from Earth.菲莱探测器被誉为太空探索史上最大跨越之一,历经20年的策划期终于在年初发射并成功在离地球四亿八千万公里的67P彗星上着陆。The biggest challenge, says Stephan Ulamec, manager of the Philae lander programme, was how to design a probe to land on a body whose makeup they had little knowledge about. “We had no idea of the size, we had no idea of the day-night cycle, which influences the thermal design, we had no idea of the gravity, so how fast would the lander impact, we had no idea how the surface looked,” he says.据菲莱项目的负责人斯蒂芬介绍,在这20年里遇到的最大挑战是对彗星构造了解较少,不知道该如何设计这个探测器。“我们不知道彗星的昼夜循环情况会影响保热设计,不知道彗星的重力也无法预测探测器着陆后对转速的影响,甚至不清楚彗星表面的样子。”They needed to create design parameters that could cope with an extremely wide range of possible comet structures – but banked on the comet being a relatively even potato shape with enough flat surfaces for the probe to land on. Even then, not everything went to plan, and two decades of meticulous planning could have failed within minutes at touchdown. Philae#39;s anchoring harpoons didn#39;t fire as planned, and it bounced off the comet before settling onto its icy surface and successfully beaming data back to its relieved creators.科学家们需要建立尽可能符合多种彗星结构的设计参数,但是还是得寄希望于彗星的表面要够平坦。可即便是花了20年设计、缜密计划过的菲莱还是在着陆的几分钟里有点小失败:“鱼叉”系统未如计划打开,无法准确钉入彗星表面。不过幸运的是,菲莱还是成功地把数据发回了地球。Lesson six: Genius is indefinable6.“天才”定义不明“It’s a funny word: the word ‘genius’,” says Nirenberg. “I just sort of ignore it and just go on with life. You just do what you do independent of whatever label’s attached to you. I don’t know really how else to explain it.”“天才这个词很有趣”,尼伦伯格说,“我常常忽略这个标签继续走自己的路。只需要抛掉别人在你身上贴的各种标签做自己想做到的事就好了。因为所谓天才真是判断标准不一、无法解释的事情。” /201501/356302

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