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平乐县花龟亚达伯拉象龟金头闭壳龟黑颈乌龟金钱龟大头乌龟价格怎么养沽源县苏卡达象龟地龟刺山龟麝香龟欧洲陆龟日本石龟哈米顿氏龟价格怎么养Mei Wending (1633~1721) was a Chinese writer on astronomy and mathematics whose work represented an association of Chinese and Western knowledge.梅文鼎(1633~1721 ),天文学家、数学家。梅文鼎的著作是中西知识联合的结果。In 1645 China adopted a new, controversial calendar that had been prepared under the direction of the Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell.1645年中国采用了一种新的、有争议的历法,这种历法是在耶稣会传教士汤若望指导下编制的。Together with his three younger brothers, Mei studied calendar design under the Daoist Ni Guanghu.梅文鼎和三个弟弟一起跟道士倪观湖学历法。A member of a loyalist family, Mei remained independent rather than join the ;foreign; Manchu administration, but his fame sp far beyond the boundaries of his Province.作为忠于明朝的家庭的一员,梅文鼎没有在外族满人的政府做官,但是他的声名传到了外省。The Kangxi emperor was interested in Mei#39;s work, the Lixue yiwen(c. 1701; ;Inquiry on Mathematical Astronomy;), and summoned him to an audience in 1705.康熙帝对梅文鼎的著作《历学疑问》(约1701)很感兴趣,于1705年召见梅文鼎。Mei#39;s comparative studies of Chinese and Western mathematics and astronomy expanded on the earlier work of Xu Guangqi (1562~1633).梅文鼎对中西数学和天文学的比较研究是以徐光启(1562一1633 )的著作为基础的。Mei tried to situate the new European knowledge properly within the historical framework of Chinese astronomy and mathematics.梅文鼎试图将欧洲知识恰当地融入到中国天文学和数学的历史框架中去。In his view, Chinese astronomical knowledge had advanced following the adoption of the new, more accurate Jesuit calendar following the reform initiated by Xu Guangqi in 1629. 在他看来,中国天文学知识随着采用比较精确的汤若望历法之后已经取得了进步,而这次更改历法是徐光启1629年发起的改革的结果。In his historical studies, Mei stressed that Chinese astronomy had improved from generation to generation, progressing from coarseness to accuracy.在他的历史研究中,梅文鼎强调中国天文学在一代一代地进步,从粗糙走向精确。Mei gave precisely the same description for the development of Western astronomy.他也对西方天文学进行了同样的描述。In other words, he believed that progress was a universal historical pattern. This was Mei#39;s historical rationale for synthesizing Western and Chinese knowledge.换句话说就是梅文鼎认为进步是一个普遍的历史规律,这是梅文鼎融汇中西方知识的基本原理。In Jihe bubian (“Complements of Geometry”) Mei calculated the volumes and relative dimensions of regular and semi-regular polyhedrons by traditional Chinese methods. 在《几何补编》里,梅文鼎使用中国的传统方法计算了正多面体和半正多面体的体积和相对尺寸。He reinterpreted Euclid#39;s Elements in his Jihe tongjie (;Complete Explanation of Geometry;), by reference to the chapter devoted to right-angled triangles in Jiuzhang suanshu (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Procedtcres), a mathematical classic completed during the Han Dynasty.梅文鼎在《几何通解》里,通过提到《九章算术》里处理正三角形的那一章,重新解释了欧几里德的《几何原本》(约前300年)。《九章算术》是中国汉代完成的经典数学论著。Mei helped rehabilitate traditional Chinese mathematics, and he was most widely admired by the scholars of the Qing Dynasty, who generally assumed that the Nine Chapters included all of mathematics without exception. 梅文鼎促进了中国传统数学的地位的恢复,受到清朝学者的广泛钦佩。清朝学者一般都认为《九章算术》涵盖了数学的各个方面。The comprehensive collection of Mei#39;s works, Lisuan quanshu, was published in 1723.梅文鼎的著作总集《历算全书》出版于1723年。 /201603/431768兴城市拟鳄龟艾氏拟水龟鼋伯格海角陆龟挺胸龟饼干龟缅甸星龟中华草龟价格怎么养 隆林各族自治县苏卡达象龟地龟刺山龟麝香龟欧洲陆龟日本石龟哈米顿氏龟价格怎么养

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双鸭山市靴脚陆龟咸水泥彩龟安哥洛卡象龟凹甲陆龟红腿象龟价格怎么养The Tang was the most brilliant dynasty in Chinese history, it’s also China’s second golden age after Han.唐朝是中国历史上最为辉煌的朝代,是中国继汉代之后的第二个黄金时期。Tang accomplished splendid achievements in the areas of politics, economy, military affairs, culture, and foreign relations.唐代时,中国在政治、经济、军事、文化、中外关系等各个方面都取得了辉煌的成就。Its especially important position in Chinese history may be summarized as follows :唐朝在中国历史上的特殊重要地位可以从以下几个方面来认识:First, it was a second peak of development in Chinese history. In Chinese history, the development of economy, politics and culture peaked three times after the Warring States Period. The first peak appeared in the Western Han Dynasty, the second in the Tang, and the third in the Ming and Qing dynasties.首先,中国历史自战国以来,社会经济、政治、文化等在发展过程中出现过三次高潮,即三次鼎盛局面:第一次在西汉,第二次在唐代,第三次在明清。The second period of development, especially the early years of the Tang Dynasty, saw ever rising agricultural production, increasingly fined handicrafts, a prosperous commodity economy, and vigorous urban life.在第二次高潮中,尤其是唐朝前期,农业生产蒸蒸日上,手工艺品日益精巧,商品经济空前繁荣,城市生活繁华似锦。In the late Tang, areas in the south of the Yangtze River developed further, which laid a foundation for the economy of the south to overtake the north.唐朝后期,江南经济进一步发展,为以后南方经济水平超越北方奠定了基础。The peaceful and stable periods of Zhenguan and Kaiyuan administrations exceeded even that of Emperors Wen and Jing of the Western Han.当时在政治上,先后出现了“贞观之治”和“开元之治”,国家统社会安定,呈现一派升平景象,其成就超越西汉的“文景之治”。The reign of Emperor Xuan Zong was the pinnacle of Tang culture and the thriving scene permeated all aspects of the arts-literature, in particular, reached new heights.唐玄宗统治时期,鼎盛局面达到了高峰,甚至在文坛上也出现了“盛唐气象”。The early stage of Tang witnessed the booming of liberal arts and a large scale of prominent artists were sprouted in such as fields of poem, writing and painting.唐朝前期的人文艺术发展迅速。诗、书、画各方面大批名家涌现。The renowed are “the four elites of the early Tang”(Wang Bo, Luo Binway,Yang Jiong and Lu Zhaoling),the pastoral poet Wang Wei (699 ~ 759) and the “immor-tal poet” Li Bai( (707 ~762) etc.其中包括 “初唐四杰”、“田园山水派”的代表王维(699 ~759);“边塞派”诗人岑参(715 ~ 770)以及素有“诗仙”之称的唐代大诗人李白(707 ~762)等等。In addition, the well-known representative artists are the “Sage painter” Wu Daozi, Li Sixun; the celebrated musician Li Guinian etc.此外,还有令人熟知的“画圣”吴道子,李思训,大音乐家李龟年,都是盛唐气象的代表。Without disturbance from both inside and outside, the economy in early Tang grew unprecedently.唐朝前期由于没有内忧外患,其经济得到了空前的发展。From the period of Zhenguan to Kaiyuan, the population, lands and food production exceeded to its previous dynasties.自贞观至开元年间,唐朝的人口、土地和粮食产量都大大超过了前朝。People enjoyed their contented and comfortable life.人民安居乐业,丰衣足食。All these achievements laid a solid base for future growth of handicraft industry.这也为之后大力发展手工业提供了有力的保障。From an international point of view, China under the Tang was one of the strongest and most important empires in the world.总体比较,就当时的世界范围来看,唐帝国也是最重要、最强盛的国家之一。At that time, the Franks and the Byzantine empires were the two most powerful regimes in Europe. But they were far surpassed by the Tang in social and economic development.欧洲的封建强国主要有法兰克王国和拜占庭帝国,但就社会发展阶段而言,他们都远远落后于唐朝。In the east, there was India and Japan.东方重要的国家有印度和日本。India had just established its feudal system when King Jieri reunified the subcontinent. But after his death the country fell again into disunity, which lasted until the end of the 12th century.印度戒日王重新统一次大陆刚刚确立了封建制,可他死后次大陆随即分崩离析,割据局面一直持续到12世纪末。The Japanese “Grand Reform”, though trying hard to imitate the Tang policies and systems, was nothing but a transition from slavery to feudalism.日本的“大化革新”虽然尽量模仿唐朝的制度,但改革本身却具有由奴隶制向封建制过渡的性质。Therefore, in the world-wide range, the Tang Dynasty stands by itself not only as an powerful nation but also the most developed one.所以,在世界范围内,唐朝不但能够自立于世界民族之林,而且属于最先进的行列。Secondly, the Tang Dynasty played an important role in unifying the many ethnic groups within its borders.其次,唐代在中国多民族国家的发展壮大中也具有重要的历史地位。Although the Sui Dynasty achieved reunification it only lasted a short time. As a result, it was up to the Tang rulers to consolidate and bring into its culture new influences from its many peoples.中国社会经过魏晋南北朝的民族融合和文化整合,到隋朝重新实现了政治统一。The Tang lasted nearly three hundred years. In its early years, it enjoyed harmonious unification, powerful national strength, and vast territories.但隋朝毕竟太短,中华民族新的统一体的巩固和发展,中国新文化的形成和繁盛,就成了 李唐王朝的历史任务。唐历时近300年,前期统一,国力强盛,疆域辽阔。Its advanced civilization attracted neighboring peoples who quickly adopted many of its practices. These people frequently intermingled, allowing a closer understanding of each others cultures.高度的物质文明和高水平的文化使周边各族增强了向心力,于是国内各民族间的接触和交往空前发展,民族关系进一步密切。Therefore, the Tang is regarded, along with the Han Dynasty an important period in the development of a unified and multi-racial country.因此,唐代是继汉代之后,中国统一的多民族国家壮大、发展的又一重要历史阶段。Thirdly, it facilitated the interaction between China and the world, its advanced civilization made the Tang Empire the envy of Asia, Europe and Africa, who frequently sent envoys and merchants. The Tang Empire thus became a centre of economic and cultural communication in Asian countries and played a pivotal role in communication between the East and the West.第三,唐帝国崇高的国际地位和辉煌的经济文化成就,使亚洲各国乃至欧洲、非洲国家对其产生了由衷的欣羡之情,他们争相与唐朝交往,遂使中国成为亚洲诸国经济文化交流的桥梁和中心,在东西方交往中发挥了显著重要的作用。Of the three main cultural centres in the world at that time, India, Arabia, and China, the latter was the most important one.在当时的世界中,文化交流中心主要有印度、阿拉伯和唐朝中国,其中又以唐朝地位最为 突出。Therefore, the Tang Dynasty was another significant stage after Han in that the economic and cultural communication was brought to another pear in the world.唐代是继汉代之后,中国历史上中外经济文化交流的又一高峰期,具有特别重要的地位。Fourth, Tang is an important period in history because it was a transitional stage from the early feudal to the late feudal system.第四,唐朝正处于中国古代社会由前期向后期发生转折的关键时期,从这个意义上说,唐朝也具有重要的历史地位。During this period, various systems underwent frequent and all-round reforms.与此相应是各项制度不断的、全面的变革更新。Therefore, many things that appeared in the Tang Dynasty had long-lasting influence on history for more than a thousand years.唐朝后期出现的很多萌芽状态的新事物,对此后千余年的历史发展产生了深远的影响。For example, the “two taxes” system of the Song Dynasty, the “ single whip method of taxation”of the Ming Dynasty were originated from the Tang’s taxation system.例如:宋时的“两税法”和明朝时的单税法都来自于唐朝的赋税制度。The philosophical thoughts of Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan in the mid-Tang laid a foundation for Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties.中唐时期韩愈和柳宗元的思想为宋和明朝时的“新儒家”思想奠定了基础。The influence of the classicist prose writing advocated by Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan continued through the Song Dynasty until the eve of the Vernacular (baihua) Movement during the May Fourth Movement. )由韩愈和柳宗元提倡的散文写作方法,传至宋直到五四运动前的白话文运动。Clearly, the two hundred years from the mid-Tang to the establishment of the Northern Song saw drastic changes in Chinese society.从唐中叶开始到北宋建立,200年间酝酿了中国古代社会的重大变化,许多新事物都萌发产 生于唐代。To sum up, the Tang was the greatest dynasty after the Han for its prosperous economy, vigorous culture, powerful strength, and high international status. It was remembered as “the strong Han and flourish Tang” in Chinese history. Developments in the late Tang served as a forerunner for future events that profoundly influ-enced China.总之,唐朝经济发达、文化繁荣、国力强盛,国际地位超越往古,是中国历史上继汉代之后出现的又一鼎盛局面,史称“强汉盛唐”;唐朝后期的发展又为中国古代社会的巨大变革开了先河。The Tang Dynasty fully deserved the “the greatest time” in the history of Chinese people.唐代当之无愧是中华民族历史上最光辉灿烂的伟大时代! /201602/421847 People living in small cities generally enjoy better sleep than those in larger ones in China, according to the China Sleep Quality Index 2016.近日发布的《2016全国睡眠指数报告》显示,我国小城市居民的睡眠质量普遍高于大城市居民。The report showed that negative emotions were a major obstacle to quality sleep for people in China.该报告显示,不良情绪是妨碍国人拥有高质量睡眠的罪魁祸首。The research was based on feedback between January and March to online questionnaires sent to netizens in 30 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions.这项研究是基于今年一到三月的一项在线问卷调查的反馈结果,该调查覆盖了30个省、市、自治区。Those surveyed had an average sleep index of 69 out of a possible 100, indicating an overall gap in the quality of sleep for Chinese people, the report said.该报告指出,这一调查设定的满分为100分,结果显示受访者平均睡眠指数为69分,这显示了中国人睡眠质量的总体差距。The sleep index was based on seven subindices, including the ability to fall asleep quickly, the ability to have regular sleeping hours and the ability to control emotions.该睡眠指数是依据快速入睡能力、规律睡眠能力、控制情绪能力等七个维度得出的。Respondents scored 49.3 in their ability to control emotions, ranking the lowest of all seven subindices, which means negative emotions were the biggest contributor to bad sleep, the report said.报告显示,受访者在控制情绪能力上的得分是49.3分,是七项评估里得分最低的一项,这表明负面情绪是睡眠不好的最主要因素。The report also showed that residents of bigger cities in general had slightly worse sleep. Residents in first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou averaged 67.2 in the index, while those in middle-sized and small cities averaged 70.4, the report said. Of all provincial capitals, Nanjing in East China#39;s Jiangsu province, ranked highest at 71.4, while Hohhot in North China#39;s Inner Mongolia autonomous region ranked lowest at 65.5.报告还指出,大城市居民的睡眠质量较差。北京、上海、广州等一线城市居民的平均睡眠指数为67.2,而中小型城市居民的平均睡眠指数为70.4。在所有的省会城市里,中国东部江苏省南京市睡眠指数以71.4分高居榜首,而中国北部内蒙古自治区的呼和浩特以65.5分倒数第一。Freelancers and salespeople were among the professionals that have the longest sleep on working days, averaging 8.3 hours, while newspaper journalists sleep 7.5 hours per workday, the shortest of all 18 major professions covered in the survey.工作压力大、夜间过度使用电子产品等因素会造成睡眠障碍。在受调查的18种主要职业中,自由职业者和销售员的工作日睡眠时长最长,平均达8.3小时,而新闻记者的工作日睡眠时长最短,为7.5小时。 /201603/433443安南乌龟买一只多少钱黄缘盒龟能活多少年多少钱一只2019



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