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长春市中医院网上预约咨询绿园区妇女医院门诊部电话Are you open to new experiences? Are you a risk taker? Do you like parties?你乐于体验新鲜事物吗?你愿意冒险吗?你喜欢派对吗?Odds are, questions like these were not part of your last doctor’s appointment. But one day they might be — a growing body of research suggests that your personality can influence your health. And some experts think changing people’s personal traits might one day help treat diseases — or keep people from getting them in the first place.这类问题不大可能出自你刚看过的医生之口。但有朝一日医生也许真会这么问——越来越多的研究表明,你的个性会影响你的健康。一些专家认为,在未来的某一天,改变人的性格特征或许会有助于治疗疾病——或者把病痛扼杀在摇篮之中。The research also comes at a time when many are calling for a more individualized approach to medicine. Some day, researchers hope, personality testing could be used to help your doctor design treatment specifically to you.相关研究工作取得进展之际,许多人正在呼吁医生以更有针对性的方法来给病人开药。研究者们希望,个性测试有一天可以成为你的医生为你专门设计治疗方案的辅助手段。For a study published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, Kavita Vedhara and her co-authors gave personality tests to 121 people, and tested their blood to analyze the expression of genes related to inflammation. They found that the personality trait of extroversion was associated with increased expression of genes promoting inflammation. Meanwhile, conscientiousness, which the authors define as a trait “reflecting planfulness, caution, and harm avoidance,” was associated with decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Since inflammation can be part of the body’s response to infection, higher expression of pro-inflammatory genes can mean a more active immune system; lower expression can mean a relatively less active one.《神经心理内分泌学》(Psychoneuroendocrinology)杂志发表了卡维塔·韦德哈拉(Kavita Vedhara)等人基于其研究写就的一篇论文。他们对121个人进行了性格测试;还为其做了血液检测,以分析与炎症反应有关的基因表达。他们发现,外向型的性格特征是与更高的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。与此同时,勤勉审慎型人格——按照作者们的义中,这种性格的主要特点在于计划性强、谨小慎微、能够避免受到伤害——则是和较低的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。既然炎症可以被看作人体对感染的反应,那么促炎基因表达水平较高可能意味着免疫系统更加活跃,促炎基因表达水平较低则意味着免疫系统不那么活跃。It could be, the authors write, that people with weak immune systems become more introverted to protect themselves from infection (meet fewer people, get fewer germs). They might become more conscientious for the same reason. On the other hand, it’s possible that people’s personalities affect their gene expression — people who go to a lot of fun, germy parties (or who are really bad at washing their hands) might start to undergo gene-expression changes that strengthen their immune systems.这篇论文的作者在文中写道,为了避免感染,免疫系统比较脆弱的人可能会变得更内向(少见人,少接触细菌)。出于同样的原因,他们或许也会变得更谨慎。反过来说,人们的个性也有可能在影响他们的基因表达——经常参加有趣但却在散播细菌的派对的人(或者不会好好洗手的人)或许会在基因表达方面有所变化,而这种变化能强化他们的免疫系统。This doesn’t mean everybody should get a personality test, Dr. Vedhara told Op-Talk. But it does suggest that in general, a treatment approach that considers the patient’s psychological profile may be more effective than one that just looks at physical symptoms.韦德哈拉士告诉本报Op-Talk栏目,这并不意味着每个人都该做性格测试。但由此的确可以看出,在通常情况下,把患者的心理状况考虑在内的治疗方案,可能会比只着眼于生理症状的治疗方案有效得多。“If you’re confronted with a chronic condition” like diabetes or heart disease, she explained, “you may well have underlying beliefs about your condition which influence how likely you are to engage with treatment, you might have an emotional response to that condition which might influence your underlying physiology and your ability to recover or to manage your disease, you may well have an orientation which makes you more or less likely to exercise” — and looking at all of those factors as well as the physical manifestations of the condition itself might help doctors treat it better.她解释说,“如果得了慢性病”,比如糖尿病或者心脏病,“你很可能对自己的疾病有着潜在的看法,这些看法或许会影响你对治疗的投入程度;你可能因为生病而产生情绪上的反应,这种反应或许会影响你的潜在心理、康复能力以及控制疾病的能力;你很可能具有某种倾向性,这种倾向性会影响你锻炼身体的意愿”——把所有这些因素以及疾病本身的生理表现都纳入考量,或许有助于医生更好地治疗你的病痛。“Most areas of medical intervention work quite well,” she said, “but I think that we’re on the brink of seeing a future where we use psychological interventions and behavioral interventions to maximize their efficacy.”“医疗干预在大多数情况下都很管用,”她说,“但我认为,我们即将看到利用心理干预和行为干预来实现医疗干预效用最大化的未来。”Joshua Jackson, a psychology professor at Washington University, also sees understanding personality as a way to improve physical health. In a recent study, he and his co-authors looked at personality and longevity — or, more specifically, at how your friends’ assessments of your personality might predict how long you’ll live. They found that men whose friends thought they were conscientious and open tended to live longer than those whose friends found them less so; for women, the traits associated with longer life were agreeableness and emotional stability. And friends’ assessments of subjects’ personalities were better than their own self-reports at predicting how long they would live.华盛顿大学(Washington University)的心理学教授约书亚·杰克逊(Joshua Jackson)也认为,理解个性是改善身体健康状况的一条途径。在最近的研究中,他和合著者调查了个性和寿命之间的关系——或者更确切地说,是用你朋友对你个性的评估,来预测你的寿命。他们发现,那些被朋友评价为谨慎、心态开放的男性,往往比没有得到这种评价的男性寿命长;而对于女性来说,被评价为随和、情绪稳定的人往往有更长的寿命。在预测受试者的寿命方面,朋友对受试者的个性评估,往往比受试者的自我评估的更准确。Conscientiousness people, Dr. Jackson told Op-Talk, tend to “eat their vegetables and exercise,” as well as avoiding risky behaviors like driving without a seatbelt. “They seem to just live a nice, buttoned-up and tidy life, which helps them live longer.”杰克逊士对本报Op-Talk栏目说,谨慎的人往往更愿意“吃蔬菜、锻炼身体”,避免冒险行动,比如不系安全带驾车等。“他们似乎过着有条理、有规律生活,这有助于他们活得更长。”“Open individuals,” meanwhile, “are not necessarily set in their ways, they’re able to change, they’re open to new experiences.” So they may be amenable to altering their diets or making other changes that could improve their health. Openness may also be associated with a tendency to do mentally challenging activities like crosswords, Dr. Jackson noted, which may also promote good health.同时,“心态开放的人不会自我设限,可以做出改变,乐于体验新东西。”因此,他们可能会改变饮食习惯,或者其他习惯,来增进自身健康。心态开放的人可能喜欢填字游戏这样的智力挑战性活动,杰克逊士指出,这也可能会增进健康状况。He thinks the gender differences his team found may have to do with social mores in the 1930s, when the personality assessments were conducted. He and his co-authors write, “It is likely that high levels of peer-rated emotional stability and agreeableness predict mortality because they largely assess positive characteristics indicative of a supportive and easy-going wife, such as that described in the social theory of the time.” However, he told Op-Talk, some research suggests “that personality within women has a less robust relationship with health and longevity.”他认为,其团队发现的性别差异,可能与上世纪30年代进行这项个性评估时的社会风气有关。他和合著者写到,“在女性评估中,同伴在情绪稳定、为人随和方面给出的高分评价,可以预测女性的寿命,这可能是因为,当时评估的女性特性,主要显示她们能不能成为顾家、随和的妻子,就像当时的社会理论所描述的那样。”不过,他告诉Op-Talk,有些研究表明,“女性的个性与健康以及寿命之间的关系,不是太可靠。”Dr. Jackson sees a role for personality research beyond predicting when you’re going to die. Understanding someone’s personality could help doctors determine which patients are going to have trouble following a new medication or exercise regimen (conscientious people, he said, are especially good at doing what their doctors tell them to do).杰克逊士认为,人格研究的作用不仅局限在寿命预测上。了解一个人的个性,可以帮助医生预知哪些病人难以坚持用新药物或遵循新疗法(他说,谨慎的人在遵守医嘱方面做得特别好)。He’s also involved in research into how changes in personality might affect health. “We know that personality changes across the life span” — people tend to become more conscientious and less neurotic over time — “but some people change more than others.” And since personality traits are associated with health, altering those traits might make someone healthier or sicker.他还参与研究了个性变化可能会如何影响健康状况。“我们知道,在整个生命周期里,人的性格都在改变”——随着时间的推移,人们往往会变得更加谨慎,不那么神经质——但有些人变化大,有些人变化小”。既然人格特质与健康有关,那么改变这些特质就可能会让人变得更健康或更多病。Brent Roberts, a psychology professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Dr. Jackson was once his student), has found that changes in personality can be linked to changes in health. “That sets up an interesting possibility,” he told Op-Talk: If personality can be altered, “then it could be a target of intervention.” People can become less neurotic with medication or therapy, he said, and “if that’s the case, then you have an interesting question about whether interventions like that could be used to help people be healthier at an earlier age because you could change their personality.”布伦特·罗伯茨(Brent Roberts)是伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)的心理学教授(杰克逊士曾经是他的学生),他发现,人格改变可以引起健康状况的变化。“这开启了一个有趣的可能性,”他对Op-Talk说,如果性格是可以改变的,“那它就可能成为干预目标”。通过用药物,或者采用一些疗法,人们可以变得不那么神经质,他说,“如果事实如此,那么你就会面对一个有趣的问题:你有了改变人们个性的能力,那么这样的干预是否可以在他们年轻的时候就用来改善其健康状况呢?”The psychiatry professor Benjamin Chapman says personality was long thought to be unchangeable: “the term was, personality was set like plaster.” But now, he told Op-Talk, some believe people can change their personalities if they want to: “You might be able to change at least some aspect of conscientiousness in your 40s, for instance, and not get heart disease in your 60s.”精神病学教授本杰明·查普曼(Benjamin Chapman)表示,长期以来,人们一直认为性格是无法改变的:“也就是说,人的性格都是定了型的。”不过现在,他对Op-Talk栏目说,一些人认为,如果有意愿的话,人可以改变自己的性格:“例如,你至少能在40多岁的时候在某些方面改善自己的谨慎程度,然后,在60多岁的时候就不会得心脏病了。”Therapy is one way to change personality, he added, but its scale is necessarily limited. “Psychotherapy for hundreds of thousands of people is not cost-effective,” he said, and the question is “whether this sort of thing can be accomplished with something that’s less labor-intense and reaches more people.” Some programs in schools, such as those that teach responsibility and goal setting, “probably have a de facto effect on the shaping of personality and traits like conscientiousness,” he noted. “The tricky thing is, how would you do that later in life?”他还表示,改变性格的一种方法是通过治疗,但它的覆盖范围必定有限。“让几十万人去做心理治疗可不划算,”他说。问题是,“能不能通过不那么劳民伤财的办法来达到这个目的,并且惠及更多人。”中小学的某些项目,比如培养责任感和目标设定的课程,“很可能在塑造性格以及培养谨慎等个性特征方面拥有实实在在的效果,”他指出。“棘手的地方在于,在此后的人生阶段,该怎样开展这种项目?”The time may be ripe for a focus on the personal. “The personalized medicine movement,” said Dr. Chapman, seeks “to get a very individualized prediction of, will you get this disease, will this treatment work for you, how long will you live?” Such predictions are usually made based on demographic information and risk factors like smoking, he said (some, like the chief executive of England’s National Health Service, have called for a personalized-medicine approach focusing on genetic information). But Dr. Chapman believes personality may be a useful element in such predictions: “What we’ve suggested is that certain aspects of personality pick up on a very unspecified and general but highly relevant set of factors related to future health, and you might be able to augment those predictive models with personality-type measures.”关注个体的时机可能已经成熟。查普曼称,“个性化医疗运动”旨在“针对以下问题进行非常个体化的预测:你是否会患某种疾病?这种治疗方法对你是否管用?你还能活多久?”目前,这些问题的预测通常是根据人口统计信息及吸烟等风险因素做出的,他说(有些人已经呼吁采取关注基因信息的个性化医疗手段,包括英国国家医疗务体系[National Health Service]的首席执行官)。不过查普曼认为,在此类预测中,个性或许是一个有用的元素:“我们的意思是,个性的某些方面强化了一系列不明确且笼统、但却非常重要的与未来健康有关的因素,而把性格纳入考虑的话,也许可以提升这些预测模型的效果。”“Especially with the Affordable Care Act,” he added, “there’s been a big shift in medicine toward patient satisfaction and patient-centered care.” And collecting some information on patients’ personalities might be one way of fostering better relationships between patients and doctors: “the question would be, can the doctor use that information to better understand the patient, better understand how to approach them, how to interpret their behavior?” As Dr. Chapman, Dr. Roberts, and Paul Duberstein write in a 2011 review article in the Journal of Aging Research:“尤其随着《合理医疗费用法案》(Affordable Care Act)的出台,”他还说,“在医疗领域出现了向重视病人满意度,以及提供以病人为中心的医疗务的重大转变。”此外,搜集某些关于患者个性特征的信息可以帮助建立更好的医患关系:“问题是,医生能否通过这些信息更好地理解病人,更好地懂得如何接触他们、如何解读他们的行为?”查普曼、罗伯茨和保罗·杜伯斯坦(Paul Duberstein)在2011年刊登在《衰老研究杂志》(Journal of Aging Research)上的一篇综述文章中写道:“Personality assessment could improve the provision of patient-centered care because the physicians better understand how to approach and interact with different kinds of patients. The mere presence of these assessment tools in primary care waiting rooms would convey to patients that the provision of high quality health care is not solely about ordering diagnostic tests, arriving at the correct diagnosis, and prescribing appropriate treatments. It is also about expressing concern and empathy and understanding the patient’s perspective.”“个性评估或可改善以患者为中心的医疗务,因为医生可以更好地了解如何与不同类型的病人接触和互动。单是在基本医疗候诊室设置这样的评估工具,就会向患者传递这样的信息:高质量的医疗务不光是预定诊断检查、得到正确的诊断结果,以及医生开出适当的治疗方案。它也包括表达关心和同情,以及理解患者的想法。”At The New York Times’s Well Blog, Dr. Sandeep Jauhar writes, “quality improvement in medicine is too often a blunt instrument. We try to take what works in certain situations and apply it to all situations. Our methods yield results for populations, not individual patients.” And, he adds, “a shift to more personalized medicine will be needed to continue to make the kind of progress to which patients and doctors have become accustomed.”桑迪普·乔哈尔(Sandeep Jauhar)士在《纽约时报》的健康客(Well Blog)中写道,“医疗质量的提高方法常常十分笨拙。我们总是设法把在特定情形下有效的方式,应用于所有情况。我们的方法对某些类型的人有效,而不是具体的某些个体。”此外,他接着说,“要继续实现患者和医生已经习惯的那种进展,必须向更加个性化的医疗方式进行转变。”Personality research could become part of such a shift. As Dr. Vedhara puts it, “the individual who has the disease is almost as important as the underlying disease itself. So if medicine treated not only the pathology but the person with the pathology, it would probably get more bang for its buck.”性格研究可以成为这种转变的一部分。正如韦德哈拉士所说,“患病的个体几乎与疾病本身同样重要。因此,如果医务务治疗的不光是病症,还包括患有这种病症的那个人,可能会产生更好的效果。” /201501/351620南关区中医医院在那里 MY kids have recently picked up a worrying French slang word: bim (pronounced “beam”). It’s what children say in the schoolyard here after they’ve proved someone wrong, or skewered him with a biting remark. English equivalents like “gotcha” or “booyah” don’t carry the same sense of gleeful vanquish, and I doubt British or American kids use them quite as often.我的孩子们最近学会了一个令人担心的法语俚语词:bim(发音与英语的“beam”相似)。孩子们在校园里明别人犯了错,或者用尖刻的话把对方驳得体无完肤时,就会说“bim”。英语里类似的词语“gotcha”或者“booyah”并没有完全传达出那种碾压别人的喜悦。而且我也怀疑,英国和美国的孩子说这些词并没有那么频繁。As an American married to an Englishman and living in France, I’ve spent much of my adult life trying to decode the rules of conversation in three countries. Paradoxically, these rules are almost always unspoken. So much bubbles beneath what’s said, it’s often hard to know what anyone means.作为一个嫁给英国人、目前生活在法国的美国人,我成年后的大把时间,都在努力破译这三个国家语言交流的规则。可矛盾的是,这些规则几乎总是心照不宣的。人们说出的话里有太多掩饰,常常很难明白真实的用意。I had a breakthrough on French conversation recently, when a French sociologist suggested I watch “Ridicule,” a 1996 French movie (it won the César award for best film) about aristocrats at the court of Versailles, on the eve of the French Revolution.在理解法国式对话方面,我最近取得了重大进展。一位法国社会学家建议我看一看1996年的法国电影《荒谬无稽》(Ridicule)。这部片子赢得了凯撒奖的最佳影片奖项,讲述了法国大革命前夕凡尔赛宫廷里贵族的故事。Life at Versailles was apparently a protracted battle of wits. You gained status if you showed “esprit” — clever, erudite and often caustic wit, aimed at making rivals look ridiculous. The king himself kept abreast of the sharpest remarks, and granted audiences to those who made them. “Wit opens every door,” one courtier explained.凡尔赛宫的生活似乎就是漫长的唇舌剑,如果能展示出“esprit”——聪明、学且时常很尖刻的机锋,并让其他人显得可笑——那么你就能赢得地位。国王本人也时刻关注着最犀利的言辞,而说出这种话的人会得到接见。一位侍臣解释道,“机智能打开每一扇门。”If you lacked “esprit” — or suffered from “l’esprit de l’escalier” (thinking of a comeback only once you had reached the bottom of the staircase) — you’d look ridiculous yourself.但是,如果你缺乏“esprit”,或者遭遇“l’esprit de l’escalier”(走到楼梯最下面,才想起如何反击),那么你自己就会显得十分可笑。Granted, France has changed a bit since Versailles. But many modern-day conversations — including the schoolyard cries of “Bim!” — make more sense once you realize that everyone around you is in a competition not to look ridiculous. When my daughter complained that a boy had insulted her during recess, I counseled her to forget about it. She said that just wouldn’t do: To save face, she had to humiliate him.诚然,法国比起凡尔赛的时代已经发生了一些变化。但是当你意识到,周围的所有人都在为了不显得可笑而奋力竞争,那么当代的很多对话,包括校园里高呼的“Bim!”,就都显得合理了。我的女儿抱怨,一个男孩课间欺负了她,我建议她别在意这件事。但她说那是不行的:要想挽回面子,就必须羞辱回去。Many children train for this at home. Where Americans might coo over a child’s most inane remark, to boost his confidence, middle-class French parents teach their kids to be concise and amusing, to keep everyone listening. “I force him or her to discover the best ways of retaining my attention,” the anthropologist Raymonde Carroll wrote in her 1987 book “Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience.”许多孩子在家就接受了这种训练。为了激发孩子的信心,美国人对子女最愚蠢的言论或许都会柔声赞许,但是法国中产阶级父母却会教导孩子要讲话简洁风趣,好让所有人都愿意听。“我会强迫他或她,想方设法地吸引我的注意力,”人类学家雷蒙德·卡罗(Raymonde Carroll)在她1987年出版的《文化误解:法国和美国的经验》(Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience)一书中写道。This is probably worse in Paris, and among the professional classes. But a lot of French TV involves round-table discussions in which well-dressed people attempt to land zingers on one another. Practically every time I speak up at a school conference, a political event or my apartment building association’s annual meeting, I’m met with a display of someone else’s superior intelligence. (Adults don’t actually say “bim,” they just flash you a satisfied smile.) Jean-Beno#238;t Nadeau, a Canadian who co-wrote a forthcoming book on French conversation, told me that the penchant for saying “no” or “it’s not possible” is often a cover for the potential humiliation of seeming not to know something. Only once you trust someone can you turn down the wit and reveal your weaknesses, he said. (I think the French obsession with protecting private life comes from the belief that everyone’s entitled to a humiliation-free zone.)这种现象在巴黎,在专业阶层当中或许更严重。不过,法国的很多电视节目都有圆桌讨论的情形,让衣着考究的嘉宾用尖刻的口吻相互嘲弄。在学校会议、政治活动,或者公寓楼居民协会的年会上发言时,我几乎每次都会遇到别人炫耀高超的智力。(成年人并不会真的说出“bim”,只是脸上闪现出一丝满意的微笑而已。)加拿大人让-贝努阿·纳多(Jean-Beno#238;t Nadeau)与人合著了一本关于法国式谈话的书,即将出版。他告诉我,爱说“不”、“不可能”的习惯,常常是为了避免因为看起来不知道某事而可能受到的羞辱。他说,只有当你信任某人时,才能不必那么机智,袒露自己的弱点。(我想,法国人对保护私生活的偏执,源于他们认为每个人都有权得到一个免受羞辱的空间。)At least it’s not boring. Even among friends, being dull is almost criminal. A French entrepreneur told me her rules for dinner-party topics: no kids, no jobs, no real estate. Provocative opinions are practically required. “You must be a little bit mean but also a little bit vulnerable,” she said.至少这样聊天不会无聊。即使是在朋友之间,表现得无趣几乎也是犯罪行为。一名法国企业家告诉我,她为聚餐话题立下的规矩是:不谈孩子、不谈工作、不谈房地产。这实际上就需要提出争议性的意见。她说,“必须要有一些恶毒,但也要有一些脆弱。”It’s dizzying to switch to the British conversational mode, in which everyone’s trying to show they don’t take themselves seriously. The result is lots of self-deprecation and ironic banter. I’ve sat through two-hour lunches in London waiting for everyone to stop exchanging quips so the real conversation could begin. But “real things aren’t supposed to come up,” my husband said. “Banter can be the only mode of conversation you ever have with someone.”切换到英国式的交谈模式则会令人不知所措。在这种模式里,人人都努力表现得不把自己当回事,结果就是大量的自嘲和讽刺性的调侃。在伦敦,我曾好几次耐着性子坚持到两个小时的午餐结束,一直等着所有人停止相互打趣,这样才能开始真正的交谈。但“可别以为一定会谈什么实质内容,”我丈夫说。“和有的人,只存在戏谑这一种谈话模式。”Earnestness makes British people gag. Viewers respond to the “gushy, tearful” speeches of American actors at the Oscars with a “finger-down-throat ‘I’m going to be sick’ gesture,” writes Kate Fox, author of “Watching the English.” Moralizing politicians get this, too.真诚会让英国人呛着。《观察英国人》(Watching the English)的作者凯特·福克斯(Kate Fox)写道,对美国演员在奥斯卡颁奖礼上“含泪发表的煽情”感言,英国观众会做出“把手指塞进喉咙里,表示‘我要吐了’的动作”。面对爱说教的政客,他们也不会客气。Even British courtships can be conducted ironically. “ ‘You’re just not my type,’ uttered in the right tone and in the context of banter, can be tantamount to a proposal of marriage,” Ms. Fox writes.就连英国式的求爱,也可以在冷嘲热讽中展开。“在戏谑语境下用恰当的语调说出‘你决不是我喜欢的类型’,简直无异于求婚,”福克斯写道。Being ridiculous is sometimes required. The classic British hen night — a bachelor party for brides — involves groups of women wearing feather boas to a bar, then daring one another to “kiss a bald man” or “remove your bra without leaving the room.” Stumbling around drunk with friends — then recounting your misadventures for months afterward — is a standard bonding ritual.有时候,表现得滑稽可笑是必须的。在传统的英国女子婚前单身派对上,会有很多姑娘戴着羽毛围巾前往酒吧,然后用激将法撺掇彼此“亲吻一个秃顶男人”或是“当场脱掉内衣”。醉醺醺地和朋友一起出丑——然后在接下来的几个月里一直回顾自己当时做的糗事——是建立友情的标准仪式。After being besieged by British irony and French wit, I sometimes yearn for the familiar comfort of American conversations, where there are no stupid questions. Among friends, I merely have to provide reassurance and mirroring: No, you don’t look fat, and anyway, I look worse.被英国式的嘲讽和法国式的机智包围后,我时不时会渴望美国式谈话给人带来的那种熟悉的舒适感。这种谈话里没有问题会被认为是愚蠢的。在朋友之间,我只需要宽慰对方,并拿自己做参照:不,你看起来不胖,而且不管怎样,我看上去更遭。It might not matter what I say, since some American conversations resemble a succession of monologues. A 2014 study led by a psychologist at Yeshiva University found that when researchers crossed two unrelated instant-message conversations, as many as 42 percent of participants didn’t notice. A lot of us — myself included — could benefit from a basic rule of improvisational comedy: Instead of planning your next remark, just listen very hard to what the other person is saying. Call it “mindful conversation,” if you like. That’s what the French tend to do — even if it ends with “bim.”我说什么可能根本不重要,因为有些美式谈话其实是一连串的独白。叶史瓦大学(Yeshiva University)的一名心理学家在2014年牵头进行的一项研究中发现,当研究人员将两个不相干的即时通讯对话交叉在一起时,多达42%的参与者毫无察觉。我们中的很多人,包括我在内,可以从即兴喜剧的一条基本规则中受益:与其构思接下来要说什么,不如干脆非常认真地听对方在说什么。不妨称之为“用心交谈”。法国人往往会这么做,尽管最后会加上一个“bim”。 /201503/364986Wheat Baba小麦粑粑Wheat Baba, a traditional snack made of wheat like pies in Qujing, Yunnan, enjoys great popularity among locals. According to the local customs, it is served as an indispensable cuisine during events like traditional festivals, birthdays for the elderly, weddings and funerals. Additionally, it plays a significant role in engagement and invitation to the wedding. As far as locals can remember, Wheat Baba must be included in bride-price paid by the bridegroom’s family as part of betrothal gifts. Furthermore it supersedes invitation card to the wedding, for receiving the Wheat Baba indicates that one is being officially invited as a distinguished guest.一些当地人回忆,小粑粑在曲靖的城乡有着牢固的根基,是当地普及程度最高的零食,它被用来招待客人,也是一种是较为通行的民间礼节。传统节日、祝寿、红白喜事等民间重大场合中,都少不了小粑粑。据说曲靖小粑粑还是当地人婚嫁聘礼的一部分,男方家到女方家下聘时,必须要准备“曲靖小粑粑”,按照当地传统习惯,“曲靖小粑粑”有类似请柬的作用,凡是收到“曲靖小粑粑”的人,都会被邀请参加婚宴。 /201506/378355长春哪家医院做流产好呢

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长春市四院专家预约Is there any major holiday that isn#39;t celebrated with a special festive food? Given the important role food plays in Chinese culture, it is not surprising that many foods have symbolic meaning. The symbolic significance of a food may be based on its appearance or on how the Chinese word for it sounds. Here are several symbolic Chinese foods:哪个特殊的中国节日会没有美食的陪伴呢?美食在中华文化中扮演着重要角色,也自然地有了象征意义。食物的象征意义可以来源于外形本身或者名字发音。以下是一些中华文化中极具象征性的食物:1. Eggs1. 鸡蛋Eggs hold a special symbolic significance in many cultures, and China is no exception. The Chinese believe eggs symbolize fertility. After a baby is born, parents may hold a ;red egg and ginger party,; where they pass out hard boiled eggs to announce the birth. (In some regions of China the number of eggs presented depends on the sex of the child: an even number for a girl, and an odd number if a boy has been born).鸡蛋在很多文化中都有着特殊的象征意义,在中国也不例外。中国人相信鸡蛋象征着繁衍。婴儿出生后,父母可以组织一个“红鸡蛋和生姜宴”,传递煮好的鸡蛋以宣布新生儿的出生。(在中国有些地区,拿出的鸡蛋个数代表着孩子的性别:偶数代表女孩,奇数代表男孩。) /201412/347556 长春妇科检查医院长春宫外孕多久能查出来




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