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来源:国际专家    发布时间:2019年12月10日 00:18:53    编辑:admin         

BUSINESS商业报道Steve Jobs resigns斯蒂芬乔布斯辞职The minister of magic steps down魔法部长隐退Can Silicon Valleys most disruptive firm prosper without its maker?没有了创始人,硅谷曾经最混乱的公司会繁荣起来吗?IN A commencement speech to students at Stanford University in 2005, Steve Jobs, the chief executive of Apple, advised his audience to avoid being trapped by dogma and to have the courage to follow their hearts and their intuition.2005年,苹果首席执行官斯蒂芬乔布斯在斯坦福大学毕业典礼上对学生们提出建议,不要被教条束缚,要勇于跟随自己的内心和直觉。“Stay hungry. Stay foolish,” he said as he signed off.结束时,他说,永远不要裹足不前。By following his own advice, Mr Jobs, who resigned as Apples boss on August 24th, has turned the company from a basket case on the brink of bankruptcy when he returned to its helm in 1997 into a world-beater that is reshaping a big chunk of the technology industry.乔布斯于8月24日辞去苹果总裁一职。就像他所说的那样,自从1997年他登上苹果的领导地位,他将这个毫无希望的濒临破产边缘的公司带入世界领先地位,并重建为科技产业的巨头。Earlier this month, Apple even briefly surpassed Exxon Mobil, an oil giant, to become the worlds most valuable company.就在这个月初,苹果甚至超越了石油大腕埃克森美孚,成为世界上最有价值的公司。No other boss in recent history has embodied and defined a firm as completely as Mr Jobs.在近代史上,没有一个人能像乔布斯那样将一个公司做的如此风生水起。So his decision to resign as chief executive has inevitably raised the question of whether Apple will remain as hungry and as wildly successful without its entrepreneurial maestro at the helm.因此他辞去首席执行官的决定不可避免地引发了争论—在其开拓者离开后,苹果还能否保持前进的动力以及巨大的成功。Other giants in the tech industry have seen their fortunes fade after iconic leaders have departed.科技产业的其他大型公司,在招牌领导人离去后,财富就缩水了。Microsoft has struggled to regain its mojo since Bill Gates stood down as its chief executive in January 2000.2000年比尔盖茨辞去微软的首席执行官后,微软经历了一段困难时期才重拾辉煌。Could Apple suffer a similar fate?苹果也会经历同样的命运吗?That seems unlikely for several reasons.由于一些原因,苹果可能不会经历相同的命运。One is that the company has had plenty of time to plan for this moment.原因之一,公司有足够的时间对现在进行规划。Mr Jobs has stepped aside from day-to-day management at Apple on a couple of occasions before, after having surgery for a rare form of pancreatic cancer in 2004.乔布斯以前也有过不参与苹果日常管理的时候,例如04年因胰腺癌接受手术的时期。Each time, Tim Cook, Apples chief operating officer, temporarily assumed his bosss responsibilities.每次,都是由苹果的首席运营官蒂姆库克暂代总裁职位。That allowed Mr Cook, who is taking over from Mr Jobs as CEO, to get a taste for the top spot—and it gave Apples board a chance to see him in action.这让库克尝到了做第一把交椅的滋味,并且让苹果的董事会看到了他所起的作用。On each occasion, Mr Cook kept Apples money-making machine ticking over smoothly.每一次,库克都使苹果有稳定的收入。An expert in manufacturing and logistics, he closed down almost all of Apples manufacturing operations after he arrived at the firm in the late 1990s and outsourced much of these to Asia.他是一位制造学和后勤学的专家,在20世纪90年代末来到苹果后,他几乎撤销了所有的制造工序,并将其转包给亚洲国家。Announcing his promotion, Apples board said that he had shown “remarkable talent and sound judgment in everything he does.”谈到他的升职,苹果董事会表示他所做的一切显示了卓越的才能和非凡的决策力。Talent is something that Apple also has an abundance of elsewhere in its ranks.才能,是苹果的高管最不缺乏的。Executives such as Phil Schiller, who oversees the companys marketing, and Jonathan Ive, a Briton whose domain is design, are part of a team that has worked closely together for many years.像是执行官菲尔席勒,他负责公司的营销。还有乔纳森伊夫,英国人,他负责设计。这两个人都是苹果队伍的一员,队员们已经协调合作了很多年。If Mr Cook can keep this group intact, then Apples future should be bright.如果库克能使这样的队伍继续保持下去,苹果的未来就是光明的。The firm also benefits from an intensely loyal and motivated workforce. Glassdoor, an online jobs and careers community, carries reviews of the company from almost 1,000 Apple employees.公司的成功还得益于忠实而有的职工们。玻璃门—一个在线职业联盟——通过调查了大约1000名苹果职工对该公司进行了检验。Most are glowing about the firm and in particular about Mr Jobss impact on it. One post even calls Apples former boss “the Thomas Edison of this century”.大部分职工对公司充满热情,并十分肯定乔布斯对公司的影响。一个帖子甚至称苹果前任总裁为“当代爱迪生”。Paul Saffo of Discern Analytics, a financial-analytics company, reckons that this depth of loyalty will mean that even though Mr Jobs is stepping down, the firms employees will continue to ask themselves “what would Steve do?” when making decisions.保罗萨佛的识别分析—一个金融分析公司——猜想,这种程度的忠诚度意味着,即使乔布斯隐退,公司的员工们在做决定的时候依然会问自己“斯蒂夫将会如何做”。当然,提出问题比猜想正确要容易得多。Another reason for optimism is that Mr Jobs is not disappearing from the scene entirely. Instead he is taking on a new role as the chairman of Apples board, which should allow him to keep weighing in on important decisions for some time to come, assuming that his health allows.人们可以抱有乐观态度的另一原因是,乔布斯并没有完全从舞台上消失,他只不过是扮演了新的角色—苹果董事会主席。如果他的健康状况允许,他可以继续权衡未来的重要决策。Apple has a pretty clear product pipeline for the next couple of years, which is reassuring.在接下来的几年中,苹果有一条非常清晰的生产线,人们大可放心。The firm is due to unveil the latest version of its hugely successful iPhone in the coming weeks and is expected to launch a new iPad early next year.在未来几周内,苹果将会揭开新版iphone的面纱,并在明年初将新一代ipad投放市场。But Apple is far more than the sum of the devices that it sells, impressive though they are.但是,苹果不仅仅是它销售的产品的总和,虽然这些产品都让人们爱不释手。Its secret sauce lies in the integration of these with software and services such as its iTunes online content store and its recently announced iCloud online-storage offering.它的秘诀在于通过软件和务将这些设备集中为一体。例如它的itunes在线资料库和最近提供的icloud在线储备库。These form what tech types like to call an “ecosystem” that has proved so popular that it is forcing other companies to develop similar capabilities.这种类型的科技被称为“生态系统”,它是如此受欢迎,以至于迫使其他公司纷纷效仿。Google, which has long excelled at developing software, recently splashed out .5 billion for Motorola Mobility so that it could get its hands on the firms smartphones, tablets and other devices.谷歌一直擅长于开发软件,最近向托诺拉移动公司注资125亿美元以将该公司的智能手机、平板电脑和其他设备弄到手。And Amazon, which has a huge cloud business, is planning to launch its own tablet computer to compete with Apples iPad.有着巨大云业务的亚马逊公司也在计划推出自己的平板电脑与苹果的ipad竞争。The good news for Apples investors is that the firm has been given a great head start in the battle for dominance of this emerging tech landscape thanks to Mr Jobs, whose vision of the future has been honed over a long and tumultuous career.对于苹果的投资者们来说,好消息是,多亏了乔布斯,苹果公司在抢夺科技领域领导地位的竞争中占据非常有利的地位。After co-founding Apple with Steve Wozniak in the 1970s, he went on to pioneer the era of the personal computer in the following decade. He was then ousted from Apple after a boardroom coup in 1985.乔布斯对未来的远见在长期而丰富的职业生涯中经过了历练。20世纪70年代,在与史蒂夫沃兹尼亚克共同创办了苹果公司后的十年里,乔布斯开创了个人电脑的时代。然后在1985年的一次苹果董事会政变中被驱逐出苹果公司。After that, Mr Jobs followed his heart and his intuition by building up Pixar, a film studio that specialises in computer-animated films. It has produced a string of hits, from “Toy Story” to “Finding Nemo”.在那之后,乔布斯跟随了自己的内心和直觉创办了皮克斯电影工作室,它专门从事电脑动画电影,并制作了一连串的好作品,如“玩具总动员”和“海底总动员”He returned to Apple as an adviser in 1996, when the firm was in dire straits.1996年,在苹果陷入重大困境之际,他作为顾问重返公司。A year later he was made interim chief executive.一年后,他成为临时执行总裁。Asked at the time what he thought Mr Jobs should do with Apple, Michael Dell, a rival computer-maker, helpfully suggested that he should shut it down.当竞争对手—电脑制造商迈克尔戴尔被问到,他认为乔布斯应如何对待苹果的时候,戴尔好心建议他应该将苹果公司关闭。Find out how much of an Apple iPhone is actually a Samsung with our ;teardown; infographic.Mr Jobs ignored that advice.Instead he led the company on to its greatest triumphs. Among them were the creation of the iMac, which revived the firms ailing computer business, and the development of the iPod, which ended up transforming the music industry. But just as important as what Apple did was what it did not do.乔布斯没有接受这个建议。相反,他将公司带入了全盛时期。在此期间,苹果生产了imac,使破败的电脑业务焕发了生机。同时,也研发了ipod,结束了音乐工业的转换。苹果做了什么,这很重要,但是,苹果没有做什么,一样重要。Charles Golvin of Forrester, a research firm, says that one of Mr Jobss greatest skills has been to decide which projects the firm should not undertake.弗雷斯特研究公司的查尔斯戈尔文说乔布斯的计策之一便是决定哪些项目公司不应该去做。It has been widely rumoured, for example, that engineers at Apple were urging its boss to create a tablet computer in the early part of the decade.例如,有件事情广为流传,苹果的工程师们曾在十年间的早期建议他们的老板生产一台平板电脑。But Mr Jobs turned a deaf ear to their entreaties and instead insisted that the company focus on producing a smartphone.但是乔布斯没有接受他们的恳求,而是坚持使公司致力于生产一款智能手机。The result was the iPhone, which transformed yet another market and is still minting money.结果便是iphone的问世,它改变了另一个市场并依然在赚钱。In a creative cauldron like Apple, ideas are rarely in short supply.在像苹果这样一家具有创造力的大公司里,从不缺乏建议。But the skill of choosing the right ones to focus on at the right time is rare.但是采纳正确的建议并在正确的时间实施,这种能力确是不多见的。Mr Jobs has it. Apples shareholders will have to hope that Mr Cook does too.而乔布斯就有这种能力。苹果的股东们应该期待库克也有这种能力。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230569。

Imagine youre camping deep in the woods on a summer night. The sun sinks below the horizon and the temperature begins to fall. You shiver, and as you pull your jacket around your shoulders, you wonder just how cold it really is. Heres a clever way for you to find out, and all you need is 1. Wrist watch 2. Your ears 3. A little of patience.设想一下,你在夏夜的树林深处露营。太阳落到地平线以下,温度开始下降,你不禁打了一个寒颤。于是你在肩上披上夹克,你想知道到底有多冷。有一个聪明的办法能帮你找到,你只需要三样东西:1. 手表;2.耳朵;3. 耐心。Start by listening for a chirping cricket. Male crickets around the world make this characteristic sound by rubbing their wings together. The edge of a male crickets right wing is covered with little ridges, like a file or a washboard. As he rubs his left wing cover across the uneven right wing, he produces an insect love song that female crickets find irresistible.首先,倾听鸣叫的蟋蟀。世界各地的雄性蟋蟀擦翅膀时都会发出一种独特的声音。雄性蟋蟀的右翼边缘上布满了小小的突起,就像文件和搓衣板一样。当它擦翅膀,左右翼交叉碰撞时就唱出了一种让雌性蟋蟀很难以抵抗的悦耳的情歌。Female crickets use this amorous chirping to find their perfect mate, listening with a pair of special ears located below the knees. Now you can use these same serenades to calculate the temperature.雌性蟋蟀凭这种多情的鸣叫来寻找完美的伴侣,它们可以用位于膝盖以下的特殊耳朵来聆听。现在你也能利用这些情歌来计算出温度。Most insects tend to be more active when its hot, and more sluggish in cooler weather. Crickets are no exception to this rule.天热时,大多数昆虫往往很活跃,天冷时则行动迟缓。蟋蟀也不例外。In cold weather, a cricket will do everything more slowly, and as the temperature drops, so does the tempo of his love song. By measuring how quickly he chirps, you can find out approximately how cold it is.天冷时,蟋蟀做所有的事情都更慢一点,因为温度下降,它们的情歌节奏也随之变慢。通过测量鸣叫的速度,你就能知道大概有多冷。Its easy to do: Simply count the number of chirps a single cricket makes in a fifteen second period, then add thirty seven. Although individual species might be a little faster or slower, this should give a fair approximation of the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.方法很简单:只要数一只蟋蟀每15秒钟鸣叫的次数,然后加上37就行了。尽管有时候会因个体差异而忽快忽慢,但计算结果仍然很接近华氏摄氏度的温度。Remember: fifteen seconds worth of chirps, plus thirty seven. Even if the chirping keeps you awake all night, at least youll know the temperature.记住:15秒内鸣叫的次数,加上37。尽管这种鸣叫会让你一夜难眠,但至少你能靠它计算出温度。原文译文属!201212/212257。

As human being,作为人类,It’s the share gigantism of Mars is amazing.能够亲身经历火星的这种景观是惊人的。The valleys marvelous is best grand canyon hollow if your ever see the grand canyon, you will never forget it.不可思议的是如果你看过大峡谷,这个最好的空心大峡谷,你将永远不会忘记。Its so colossal the Grand Canyon will be easier swallowed by the one of the smaller side branches.这么庞大的大峡谷会很容易被一个较小的侧翼吞噬。We are talking about something year with ed States with Australian across here.我们正在谈论的是澳大利亚和美国在这里的岁月。Here will be the place to go I mean you dont allege on the room you can look in.这是个必须要去的地方,我是说你不需要离开这个房间就可以看到。The attraction goes beyond sheer scenic splendid deep than canyon itself is the mysterious surrounding its formation.超越深的峡谷风景区的吸引力是围绕其形成的神秘的周围。This giant figure once failed by mighty lacks has been scowl by floods of proportions.而这一美景面临着将会被怒容满面的洪水淹没的风险。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/180508。

Wit M Theory, it seemed at last there was a theory which might explain everything in the universe. But before they could decide if this was true, the scientists need to know about this new eleventh dimension. It quickly became clear it was a place where all the normal rules of common sense have been abandoned. For one thing, it is both infinitely long, but only a very small distance across.智慧的M理论,似乎终于有一个理论可以解释宇宙中的万物。但他们还没决定是否这是真实的,科学家们需要了解这个新的第十一维度。很快就变得清楚,这是一个所有正常的规则常识一直被遗弃的地方。首先,它既是无穷长,但又有一个非常小的距离。That eleventh dimension, well at its maximum size, could be something like a trillionth of a millimeter.第十一维度,在其达到最大值时,可以是一万亿分之一毫米。Well, this is tenth the minus 20 of a millimeter, thats taking a millimeter and dividing it by ten with 20 zeroes after it. So, thats very, very small.嗯,这是第10维度减去一毫米的20分之一,之后再除以一万亿后的结果。因此,那是非常,非常微小。That means that it exists only one trillionth of a millimeter from every point in our three dimensional world. Its closer than your clothes to your body, and yet we cant sense it. In this mysterious space, our membrane universe is floating. But first, no one could imagine how that worked. It began with Lisa Randall.这就意味着在我们的三维世界它只存在于每个角度的一万亿分之一毫米。这比你的衣离你的身体还近,但我们不能感知它。在这个神秘的空间,我们的膜宇宙是浮动的。但首先,没有人能想象它如何工作。它始于丽莎;兰德尔。People look at rock climbing and its of course very physical, but youll soon find that you can concentrate on little thing. I like solving problems, I like games, I like figuring things out.人们喜爱攀岩而且当然岩石属于物理学,但是很快你就会发现你能专注于每一件小事。我喜欢解决问题,我喜欢游戏,我喜欢把事弄清楚。Randall had been fascinated by apparently inexplicable phenomenon, the weakness of gravity.兰德尔显然对令人费解的现象,失重现象着迷。There are various forces we see in nature. Most of them, we understand at some level. And then theres a gravity...我们在自然界中看到有各种各样的力。他们中的大多数,我们已经在某种程度上有所了解。而重力;注:听力文本来源于普特201201/169276。

Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Scitech Today on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。Well, you may have heard the myth, but do all of those antibacterial products really make bacteria stronger? Joining us now from the Museum of Science, Boston is Dr. Duane Hill. Good to have you here.我们都听说过关于抗菌产品的传说,抗菌产品真的只是会使细菌进化得更加强大吗?来自波士顿科技馆的士Duane Hill将向我们做详细介绍。你好。Oh good morning. How are you?观众们上午好,主持人你好。Im good. So are we talking about, you know, what you spray on your kitchen counter and wipe up?你好。我们需要谈论的是喷洒在厨房台面然后再擦掉的消毒剂吗?Sort of, I mean, a lot of those common household disinfectants, ur, that we think of things like Lysol or even things like wet wipes, things like that, have disinfectants in them. Theres one research. Theres one piece of research that was on in Ireland not too long ago, looked at a common disinfectant called benzalkonium chloride which is the disinfectant that we find in wet wipes, things like Lysol and a lot of those products, even cosmetics that we use everyday.某种程度上说,是的。我是说一般的家用除菌用品比如煤酚皂溶液,湿纸巾这类用品都含有消毒剂。有一项研究,也就是不久前爱尔兰的一项研究显示在湿纸巾,煤酚皂溶液这类产品,甚至是每天都可能用到的化妆品中存在一种名叫氯化苯甲烃铵的物质。Ok,and the findings are interesting.It was actually making the bacteria grow stronger.好的,这项研究结果很有趣,因为这些物质可以促进细菌的生长。Exactly. What they did was they exposed these bacteria, a kind of bacterium called Pseudomonas, it causes a lot of different health conditions in humans. They exposed these bacteria to this benzalkonium chloride, this just infecting for only about a month. And what they found was that the bacteria became not only more resistant to the disinfectant itself but also to the antibiotic Sypro. So the bacteria kind of got a two for one learning by being exposed to this common disinfectant.没错,研究人员找到一种名为假单胞菌的细菌,一种能引起人类疾病的细菌。研究人员将这种细菌与氯化苯甲烃铵相互接触。仅仅一个月的时间,研究人员发现这些细菌的抗药性就增强了,甚至能对抗抗生素。因此,暴露在抗菌药物下,细菌反而生长得更加旺盛。And why does that happen?那么,为什么会这样呢?Well, I mean, when you think about it, a lot of the things that we have at our disposal, disinfectants, antibiotics are poisons from the point of view of the bacteria. And bacteria have these little things calls efflux pumps. Just little pumps that the cells use, we actually use them ourselves, different ones to pump poisons out of their cells. And what they think was happening is that the bacteria that could figure out how to defend themselves against this disinfectant also use those same pumps to protect themselves against the antibiotic sypro.当我们想要对付细菌的时候,有很多选择。消毒剂,抗生素都是细菌的天敌。细菌细胞有一种叫做外排泵的功能,和我们人类的基本相同,都是将有毒物质排出机体的功能。正如人体细胞,细菌细胞同样能对抗抗细菌产品甚至是抗生素,把它们排出体外以保护自己。Does that mean you should throw away your little wet wipes?这是说我们要扔点湿纸巾这些产品吗?Absolutely not. No one is saying that we should stop using disinfectants. Disinfectants are really important part of our arsenal against bacteria. But I think what the research is suggesting is that physicians, public health professionals, we ourselves need to kinda think about what some of the side-effects might be from these disinfectants and not just grab them and use them so indiscriminately. We need to kind of think about it.当然不是,没有人说我们不能够实用抗细菌产品。抗细菌产品是我们对抗细菌的有效武器。但我认为这项研究想要做的是提示医生们,以及所有的卫生行业从业者们,我们不能不加选择地一味使用抗菌产品而忽视它的副作用,我们应当适当地考虑一下。Woo its interesting, Dr. Duane Hill, thank you so much for joining us this morning.很有趣,Duane Hill士,谢谢你的介绍。Oh, my pleasure!不客气!And youll be sure to join us every Thursday morning at this time for Scitech Today. You can also log on to the Museum of Science website at MOS.ORG欢迎每周四早上准时收看Scitech Today,或者关注我们的网站mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/182735。