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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月20日 15:05:06
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Cartel-busting商业组织联合体机制正被打破Boring can still be bad无趣之势依旧呈现糟糕状态Market-rigging in unsexy industries costs consumers a lot. More can be done to detect and deter it.无聊行业在操纵市场方面使得消费者耗资巨大。对此,政府可以施行更多的措施检测和阻止这一现象的发生。MENTION price cartels and many people will think of big, overt ones like the one OPEC runs for oil and the now-extinct one for diamonds. But at least as damaging are the many secret cartels in such unglamorous areas as ball-bearings and cargo rates, which go on unnoticed for years, quietly bumping up the end cost to consumers of all manner of goods and services.提到价格垄断,很多人会想到一些大型和公开明显的垄断企业,如欧佩克石油输出国家组织以及现今已经退出市场的钻石垄断公司。然而,至少在单调乏味的领域,有很多秘密运营的垄断企业,诸如轴承和货运费率领域里也同样具有损害性,这些企业数年未被关注,最近在各大产品和务方面,迅速增长其对客户的所需产品和务的首尾成本。Collusion among producers to rig prices and carve up markets is thriving, with the cartels growing ever more intricate and global in scope. Competition authorities have uncovered several whopping conspiracies in recent years, including one in which more than 20 airlines worldwide had fixed prices on perhaps 20 billion of freight shipments. They were fined a total of 3 billion; and so far the compensation claims from ripped-off customers comfortably exceed 1 billion. One academic study found that the typical cartel raised the price of the goods or services in question by 20%. Another suggested that cartels were robbing poor countriesconsumers of tens of billions of dollars a year: if so, negating all the aid that rich countriesgovernments send them.随着卡特尔垄断更为复杂地增长并且呈全球范围扩展的趋势,生产者共同谋求操纵以及划分市场的现象正逐渐兴盛起来。竞争当局发现近年来存在一些巨大的阴谋,包括超过二十多条的国际航线之一的一家公司,私定200亿元的货物装运价格。他们因此被处以30亿元的罚款;并且到目前为止那些确定为敲消费者竹杠的公司被处以的赔偿金超出了10亿元。一个学术研究表明典型的卡特尔垄断使得有疑问的商品和务增长了20%。另一个研究表明卡特尔垄断是从贫困国家的消费者中剥夺了他们平均一年上百亿美元的钱财:如果正如这样所说,否定所有富有国家政府对他们施行的援助是有道理的。Investigators are still unravelling a huge global network of cartels among suppliers of a wide range of car parts. Makers of seat belts, radiators and foam seat-stuffing have had hefty fines slapped on them. Earlier this month the European Commission fined five makers of automotive bearings a total of 953m (1.32 billion). This week its investigators raided a bunch of makers of car exhausts. Also in recent days, Brazilian prosecutors have charged executives from a dozen foreign train-makers accused of rigging bids for rail and subway contracts in the countrys main cities. Price-fixing has infected high finance, too. Some of bankings biggest names stand accused of fiddling interest-rate and foreign-exchange benchmarks.研究调查者仍然在试图解决一项关于大量汽车零部件供应商的巨大国际垄断网络问题。汽车座位安全带、散热器和泡沫座位填充物的生产者,已经被处以了巨额的罚款。这个月早些时候,欧洲委员会对汽车轴承的制造商处以了总计13.2亿元的罚款。这个星期,调查者们突袭了一群汽车尾气的制造商。并且在最近几天,巴西的告发者起诉了十几个国外火车制造商的高管,缘由是他们在国家主要的城市垄断铁轨和地铁合同的竞标。操纵价格也已经同样影响到了巨额的投资。的大腕们也面临着人们对其摆弄利率和基准的指责。The good news is that enforcement has got tougher, smarter and more co-ordinated. Gone are the days when price-fixers got a slap on the wrist. Firms can expect swingeing fines, and bosses can go to jail. Since many cartels now operate across borders, so do investigators: American and Japanese trustbusters joined forces to flush out the car-parts cartels. And incentives for whistleblowers have also increased: around 50 countries now offer immunity or reduced penalties for snitches.好消息是,执法方面变得更为严格,更加智能,也更为协调。价格固定器被撞到腰的日子一去不复返了。企业可以预期被处以巨额的罚款,老板可能会进监狱。由于许多卡特尔垄断组织从事跨国经营,调查者们也同样是跨国合作的:美国和日本的反托拉斯者联手改变汽车零部件垄断现象。并使举报人的奖励也得以增加:约50个国家现在规定提供豁免权或对打小报告减少处罚。That is all for the better, but the penalties for price-fixing remain too mild. The best study of the issue so far concluded that, given the still-low risk of detection, collusion pays. Yet beyond a certain point—which the fines now imposed by American and European regulators have probably reached—fines inflict so much damage on guilty companies that they undermine competition instead of enhancing it. The answer is stiffer prison sentences, particularly for senior executives. American courts, only too y to lock up other types of miscreants for a long time, have rarely jailed egregious price-fixers for anything like the maximum of ten years that the law allows. Other countries have even more scope to increase sentences.这是为了能够使得情况有所好转,但是对于操纵价格的处罚仍然过于温和。这个问题的最好的研究,就是到目前为止的结论是,鉴于检测仍低风险,共谋会付出代价。然而,除这点之外,现在由美国和欧洲监管机构处以的罚款可能已经达到——罚款对于有罪责的公司所造成的破坏,相比提升其竞争力而言,反而削弱了该公司的竞争力。就是严厉的监狱刑,特别是对于高级管理人员的处罚。美国法院很愿意关押其他类型的歹徒达更长的时间,他们很少对过分的价格制定者实行监禁,比如法律所允许的最长可达十年的监禁期。其他国家拥有更多的增加刑罚的范围权限。Buy some geeks购买一些技术型极客More can be done to aid detection, too. Statistical tests to “screen” markets for unusual pricing patterns helped uncover the interest-rate and foreign-exchange scandals. Potential conspirators may think twice if they suspect their market is being screened. European and Latin American trustbusters are making good use of the technique; their American counterparts should do so, too. Deploying such cutting-edge technology is costly; and increased funding is a big ask at a time of public-sector parsimony. But cartel authorities in Europe and America generally bring in far more than they cost to run, so extra money pushed in their direction is likely to be well spent.同样也有更多可以帮助检测的办法。统计测试表明屏蔽市场不寻常的定价模式有助于揭开利率和外汇丑闻。如果潜在的阴谋者他们怀疑自己的市场被屏蔽,可能会三思而后行。欧洲和拉丁美洲的反托拉斯人员正利用该技术;他们的美国同行们应该也这样做。部署这种先进的技术是昂贵的;而增加的资金对公共部门而言,每次都是一个很大的要求。但在欧洲和美国卡特尔当局通常会远远超过他们的成本运行,因此多余的钱促使他们朝着自己的方向,用得其所。Another way to discourage the formation of cartels is to factor the increased risk of collusion into scrutiny of proposed mergers. Price-fixing is likelier, and easier to sustain, with fewer players. This could never be the primary determinant in competition decisions, but it should be in the mix. Blocking a few more mergers—whose benefits anyway tend to be over-egged—might both save companies from themselves and spare their customers the costs of collusion.另一种方法来阻止卡特尔的形成,是官商勾结因素的危险性增加,被作为合并建议的审查考虑在内。操纵价格是更有可能的,并且更容易维持,只需要较少的参与者。这不可能是竞争决策的主要决定因素,但它应加以进行混合调整。阻止少数几个兼并者——这种行动所带来的收益往往是在过度怂恿之下促成的—这样既为企业节省了他们自己的开,也使得企业对客户活动追踪的成本得以减少。译者:肖登怡 译文属译生译世 /201506/381629Say what? Big cities affect the trees in the countryside?你说什么?大都市的环境污染对农村的树有影响?You got it! According to a study conducted by Jillian Gregg,who now works at the EPAs western-ecology division in Oregon, Eastern Cottonwood trees grew twice as big inside the Bronx as they did growing in small towns on Long Island.没错!一项由Jillian Gregg发起的研究表明,在布朗克斯生长的美洲黑杨比小镇纽约长岛的高大两倍,Jillian Greg在美国环保署西部生态分署的俄勒冈州工作。But that just seems backwards.我怎么觉得好像说反了,Cities are where all pollution, should that hamper the growth ofthe trees?城市污染严重,就会影响到农村树木的生长吗?Cities are full of pollution, and it does have a detrimental effect on plant life–to say nothing of people life!城市的环境污染确实有害植物生长,更不要说人的生活了。But that doesnt mean, unfortunately, that the converse is true-that once you get outside of the city, the environment is clean.但是不幸的是,这并不能说明相反的是对的:远离城市的环境就是无污染的。Regions can suffer from pollution that blows in from the cities and then lingers around the countryside.城市的污染会从城市扩散到农村,In particular, ozone does this.Second-hand ozone?特别是污染农村的新鲜空气。“二手”新鲜空气?Indeed, Greggs study, along with others, are fingering ozone as the factor that most significantly affects plant growth.事实上,Greg和其他人的研究都指出影响植物生长的就是空气被污染了。So Cities make the pollution but it blows over the countryside and hurts trees there instead.That seems so unfair.也就是说城市是污染的源头,又扩散到农村,还不利农村树木的生长,听起来太不公平了。Its just another warning about the surprising effects of pollution-and how we all suffer from it,even when we think its someone elses problem.这可能是另一个有关环境污染出人意料的影响:虽然我们认为环境污染不是自己的问题,但是我们都承受着其带来的不良后果。 201501/351765

Chicagos schools芝加哥的学校Hard work rewarded勤劳的奖励Rahm Emanuels school reforms are working拉姆·艾玛努尔的学校改革措施正发挥作用Let me teach you some new words让我来教你一些新词汇“NO FAMILY should go to the poorhouse because they are giving their kid a crack at the American dream,” said Rahm Emanuel on January 9th. Chicagos mayor was presenting his plans for education at Kenwood Academy, a high school on the citys South Side.“所有家庭都不该去救济院因为它们击碎了孩子们的美国梦,”拉姆·艾玛努尔在一月九号说道。这位芝加哥市长正在市南边的一所名叫肯沃德学院的高级中学里施行他的教育计划。On the same day in Tennessee, President Barack Obama announced plans to exempt qualified students from tuition fees at community colleges. The White House had taken a leaf out of Chicagos book, said Mr Emanuel, who last October introduced the Chicago STAR Scholarship, which pays the community-college tuition fees of the best graduates from Chicagos public-school system.同一天在田纳西州,奥巴马颁布改革豁免了有资格攻读社区大学学生的学习费用。艾玛努尔说白宫无疑是仿照芝加哥的做法,他们去年十月份推出了芝加哥明星奖学金计划,这项计划将从芝加哥公立学校系统中为优秀毕业生付社区大学学费。Mr Emanuel wants more students to enroll in a college and take courses (and, if they pass, get credits) while still in their last year of high school, which helps to reduce their tuition costs later. With the help of a donation of 500,000 over three years from General Electric, the programme will grow from almost 2,500 students to more than 6,000 next year. Kenwood Academy has more students in the programme than any other high school in Chicago.艾玛努尔想要更多学生在他们高中最后一年进入大学并参加课程学习(而且,如果他们通过就能得到学分),这将有利于随后降低他们的学费。在通用电气公司三年五十万刀捐助的帮助下,这项计划将在明年资助2500名左右的学生上涨至超过6000刀一年。在芝加哥市,肯沃德学院同任何其它学校相比有更多的学生参与这项计划。Some of the toughest decisions Mr Emanuel had to make in his first term concerned schools. He demanded merit pay for teachers and a longer school day (Chicagos was only 5 hours 45 minutes) and earmarked for closure 50 half-empty schools in poor districts. Teachers went on strike for the first time in 25 years, but Mr Emanuel got the longer day and the closures went ahead in 2013. The teachers kept their seniority-based pay system.在艾玛努尔第一任期内不得不做出的艰难选择中,有一些都是关于学校的。他要求建立教师的绩效工资及更久的学习日(芝加哥只有5小时45分钟)而且在穷困地区专门关闭50所半满员的学校。教师们在25年里第一次句型罢工,但是艾玛努尔延长了学习时长并在2013年进行学校关闭措施。教师们还是保留了他们基于工龄决定的工资体系。Mr Emanuel ploughed some of the money saved by closures into charter schools, which made him even more unpopular with the teachers unions. But charter schools have worked well in Chicago. The Noble Network, which aly runs 16 charter high schools with 10,000 pupils and plans to have 20,000 by 2020, has an attendance rate of 94% (compared with 73% for Chicago public schools) and a drop-out rate of only 0.4% (compared with 4.7%). It also gets better results on the ACT, a college-iness test. It has an even higher percentage of minority students (98% compared with 92% at Chicago public schools), and slightly less public funding.通过关闭学校省下了钱,艾玛努尔划拨了一部分给特许学校,这项举措无疑让他在教室公会中更加不受欢迎。但是芝加哥的特许学校开办得如火如荼。高尚网络系统已经经营了十六所特许学校,有着一万名左右的学生,并计划在2020年招生两万名,入学率高达94%(同公立学校73%形成鲜明对比)以及在辍学率方面仅为0.4%(公立学校为4.7%)。在ACT美国大学测试中它也有着更好的成绩。在少数族裔学生比例中它也取得领先(98%同对比公立学校的92%),而且还少占了一点公共资金。Rosa Alanis, the principal of Golder College Prep, one of the Noble network schools, says all her pupils have a teacher as a designated adviser, whom they see twice every school day. Attendance and performance are the advisers responsibility, so they go to great lengths to ensure their charges show up, dress properly in their uniform of grey trousers and blue sweaters, and work hard. Ms Alanis herself looked after a group of 13 “challenging” boys. In one case she even drove to a pupils house to get him to come to school. He was still in his pyjamas, but obeyed.洛萨·阿兰尼斯是黄金大学预科的校长,这所学校是高尚网络特许学校中的一所,他说他所有的学生有一名老师当他们的指定建议人,这些老师每天需要和学生见两次面。学生出勤和日常成绩是这些建议人的职责,因此他们在学校里花很长时间保他们的职责体现出来,统一穿着制—灰裤子和蓝毛衣,并且辛勤工作。阿兰尼斯自己则负责13名“具有挑战性”的男生小组。一次她甚至开车去学生家里将他接到学校。虽然他还穿着睡衣,但还是被许可上学。Mr Emanuel is keen on charter schools, but he didnt mention them when he presented his second-term plans for education. Instead he promised to put Wi-Fi in all classrooms, and to ensure that every family would be within three miles of a high school offering some special focus, such as science or the International Baccalaureate. Presumably, he did not want to annoy those who think that charter schools leave public schools in the dumps. In fact, competition has prodded public schools to shape up a bit. The drop-out rate has gone down and ACT scores have slightly improved, albeit from a very low level.艾玛努尔很倾向于特许学校,但是他在陈述第二期教育计划是没有提及它们。然而他承诺所有教室通上Wi-Fi,并且保每个家同在三英里内都有高中等措施则引起了特别的关注,再例如理科或者国际文凭的开展。可以推测的是,他想顺着那些持有特许学校将公立学校遗弃到垃圾堆观点的人们。事实上,竞争已经刺激公立学校改进了一些。辍学率已经下滑而且尽管ACT得分还是很低,但已经轻微上扬。译者:彭威 译文属译生译世 /201501/355131

Since it was launched in 2013, the anonymous application Yik Yak has sp across college campuses. Messages are sorted by geographic location and only posts within a mile and a half radius appear.So its perfect for saying what you want, about whom you want without anyone knowing its you, and that is posing problems and challenges for schools around the country.Director of Social Media at the University of Michigan Nikki Sunstrum says Yik Yak isnt the only anonymous app growing in popularity. She says most are text based and allow a freedom of speech you dont have on other networks.Sunstrum recently returned from the South by Southwest conference where she was able to talk to the co-founders of Yik Yak.She says they see the application as news and geography based first, and anonymity second. But Sunstrum says this view of the app is much different than how she has seen it used.;We see people spitting out anything they want with little consequences,; Sunstrum says.Michigan State University recently saw a shooting threat that was administered via Yik Yak. And Eastern Michigan University faculty members have expressed concern about Yik Yak creating an unsafe working environment when anonymous comments are posted about them even as they are teaching.Sunstrum says U of Ms social media office keeps track of apps such as Yik Yak have a sense of what is happening at the school. ;Were being proactive,; she says.With Yik Yaks rapid increase in popularity, Sunstrum says the co-founders are still working to address concerns, including changes to prevent threats, and reminders about using vulgar language.Users have a say in what gains popularity on the application, and if a message receives five votes against it the post is deleted.;What we see on campus is the community supports each other and thats probably why we havent had many large scale incidents,; Sunstrum says.201503/365899

  International schools国际学校The new local地方化趋势English-language schools once aimed at expatriates now cater to domestic elites英语学校,旧时外侨堂前燕,飞入寻常土豪家IN 1979, when Ken Ross was eight, his family moved from Scotland to France for his fathers job with IBM. The computer firm paid the fees at the English School of Paris, where his classmates were mostly children of expats from Britain and elsewhere: managers, army officers, diplomats and the like. A couple were Saudi princes. For the most recent class reunion, old boys and girls flew in from as far afield as China and South Africa.1979年,那时候Ken Ross年8岁,因为父亲在IBM上班,他的家从苏格兰搬到法国。IBM付了他在巴黎上英文学校的学费。在那里,他的同学大都从英国和其他地方来的移民的孩子:经理的、军官的、外交官等的孩子。其中一对夫妇是还是沙特王子。为了参加最近的一次班级聚会,已经成年的男孩子、女孩子要从中国和南非这样远的地方飞过来。 Since then, there has been a boom in such “international schools”, which teach in English in non-Anglophone countries, mostly offering British A-levels, American APs and SATs, or the International Baccalaureate. During the past quarter-century, according to the International School Consultancy Group (ISC), based in Britain, their number has grown from under 1,000 to more than 7,300. In the 2013-14 academic year they generated .6 billion in revenue and taught 3.75m pupils globally (see chart). Twenty-two countries have more than 100 international schools, headed by the UAE, with 478, and China, with 445.从他那个时代开始,许多这样的“国际学校”冒了出来,这些学校在非英语国家用英文教学,大都提供英国高考、美国预科及高考务或颁发国际文凭。在过去的25年里,根据在总部设在英国的国际学校咨询集团(ISC)的统计,这些学校的数量已经从不到1000所增长到超过7300所。在2013-14学年,它们在全球创造了416亿美元的收益,培养了375万学生(见图表)。有22个国家拥有的国际学校数量超过100所,阿联酋以478所独占鳌头,中国则紧随其后,有445所。But nowadays international schools increasingly belie their name. Though their clientele varies from place to place, four-fifths of the pupils they teach around the world are locals, the ISC calculates. Thirty years ago, just a fifth were. The main reason is increased demand for schooling mostly or entirely in English, both in rich countries (Mr Rosss alma mater now has a large French contingent), and even more from rich parents in developing countries who want their children to be able to go to university in Britain or North America. “When people make money, they want their children to learn English,” says Nicholas Brummitt of the ISC. “When they make some more money, they want them to learn in English.”可是,如今的国际学校却越来越名不副实。据ISC的计算,尽管各个地方客户的情况有所不同,但全世界在国际学校上课学生中4/5是本地人。而30年前,这个比例仅仅是1/5。这里的主要原因是对以英语为主或全英语教学的需求增加了。在富裕国家如此(Ross的母校现在就有一大票法国学生);甚至是在发展中国家的富裕家庭也是如此,这些父母希望子女有机会在英国或北美上大学。“人们挣钱了,就希望孩子学习英语,”ISC的Nicholas Brummitt如是说:“挣的钱越多,越希望孩子用英语学习”This new elite can outspend even very highly paid foreign managers—and multinationals trying to cut costs are ever less willing to pay school fees. Locals are more appealing clients, too: their children tend to stay for their entire schooling, unlike “expat brats”, who are always moving on, leaving seats to be filled. And a parent-teacher association packed with the local elite is more help with bolshie bureaucrats than one full of foreigners.本国精英阶层愿意甩出比高官厚禄的外籍经理人更多的真金白银—并且那些跨国公司正在想法缩减开而不愿付教育费用。这样,本土精英就变得炙手可热了:他们的孩子更愿意留在国内完成完整的学校教育,不愿像“小老外”那样总是颠沛流离,最后人走茶凉。另外对于古板的官老爷们来说,家长座谈会上土豪们群英荟萃可比塞了一屋子老外强多了。Further growth is on the cards. In another decade, the ISC predicts, there will be 14,400 international schools worldwide, teaching 8.9m pupils. Many will be run by local or regional firms who spy an opportunity (two-thirds of international schools are now run for profit, up from almost none 30 years ago). But ISCs market research suggests that quite a few British “public” (ie, private) schools plan to set up foreign outposts; some aly have, including Harrow, Marlborough, Wellington College and Dulwich College, the last of which opened its seventh overseas arm in Singapore in August. Most are franchise arrangements (though Marlboroughs Malaysian branch is directly managed). For-profit global chains such as Nord Anglia Education, Cognita and GEMS are also planning new schools.国际学校还可能会进一步增长。ISC预测,10年后全球将拥有14400所国际学校,在校学生890万人。许多学校将由那些一直跃跃欲试的本土或本地公司运营。(如今2/3的国际学校以盈利为目的,而30年前几乎没有。)但是ISC的市场调研认为,相当一部分英国“公立”(说白了是私立)学校计划在国外建立前哨站;一些学校已经暗渡陈仓,包括哈罗公学、马尔伯勒中学、威灵顿公学、达利奇学院等,其中达利奇学院光8月就在新加坡开设了7个海外分机构。这些机构大多数是授权当地经营(虽然马尔伯勒的马来西亚公司是直营)。此外,诺德安达教育机构 、COGNITA机构和巴乐基教育机构也都在规划新学校。The biggest growth is forecast in the Middle East and East Asia. But which countries prove the most rewarding for investors depends partly on governments. Some countries make it hard for those who have been schooled outside the national system to get into university, meaning international-school customers risk closing off their childrens future options. Chinese pupils without a foreign passport are barred from international schools. Singaporean citizens require government permission to attend international schools, rarely granted unless they have lived abroad. In South Korea a maximum of 30% of an international schools pupils can be locals.中东和东亚预计增长最快。但到底哪些国家将为投资者带来最大利润,一定程度上要取决于政府。一些国家使得那些在本国教育系统之外的学生很难进入大学,这意味着国际学校的客户冒着孩子们未来选择的权利的被剥夺的风险。例如:中国学生没有国外护照则不能进入国际学校就读;新加坡公民申请政府许可就读国际学校很少成功,除非申请人旅居海外。而在韩国,最多有30%的国际学校学生是本国人。Malaysias experience shows what would happen if any of these were to relax their rules. In 2012 it removed a 40% cap on the share of international schools pupils allowed to be locals, partly to encourage the expansion of a sector seen as important in attracting foreign investment and partly to please parents who were becoming ever less willing to send their children to boarding schools overseas. In just two years the number of locals at the countrys international schools has risen by a third, and Malaysians now account for more than half their pupils.马来西亚的经验足以说明,如果这些国家放松规则会发生什么。2012年,马来西亚取消了对于当地人占国际学校学生人数比例40%的上限,一方面鼓励学校的扩张被看作了吸引外资的重要手段,应一方面也为了取悦那些越来越不愿意送孩子们去海外寄宿学校的家长。在短短两年中,在该国国际学校的本国人的数量增加了1/3,如今马来西亚人超过学生总数的一半。China-watchers are always alert to any hint of liberalisation. The country has 2.5m dollar millionaires, many of whom would pounce at an international schooling for their offspring if they were allowed to. Since 2001 foreign groups and individuals have been allowed to own schools in partnership with Chinese ones, and since 2003 schools can be run for profit—but only authorised international schools can follow a foreign curriculum. The government fears losing control over what children are taught. Officials also argue that without strict rules Chinese parents could be gulled by greedy foreigners.中国的观察家们总是对自由化思潮防微杜渐。该国拥有250万个百万富翁(美元),如果条件允许,其中许多人愿意为其下一代取一个国际学校的功名。自从2001年以来,外国组织和个人已被允许和中方联合办学,而从2003年开始,这些学校获得盈利许可,但只有经过授权的国际学校才能引入国外课程。政府担心对孩子们的教学内容中失去控制权。此外当局还坚称,如果没有严格的规定,中国的家长们会被贪心的老外坑一把。One way to profit in China despite the restrictions is to offer English-language international programmes in Chinese schools. Dipont Education, a Chinese-owned firm that grew out of an Australian one that helped Chinese students arrange foreign study trips and apply for visas, now runs centres in 27 Chinese schools in 17 cities. These teach A-levels, AP courses and the International Baccalaureate to 6,000 15- to 18-year-olds.虽有限制,但在中国的盈利方式之一是在中国学校提供英语国际课程。狄邦教育是一家源于澳洲的中国公司,他们帮助中国学生安排国外留学行程并申请签,如今该公司在17个中国城市中经营着27个学校务中心。她们为6000个15到18岁的孩子提供英国高中,美国预科和美国大学课程。A natural next step, says Vanessa Cumbers, Diponts director of recruitment, would be for the firm to start training Chinese teachers in foreign teaching methods. “Like anything in China, its about localising,” she says. That prescription may make for less diverse class reunions, but it is ensuring the rude health of international schools everywhere.自然而然,狄邦教育的招生主管Vanessa Cumbers说:对于公司而言,必然要开始用国外教育模式培养中国教师。“像中国其他任何领域一样,都要本土化,”她说。本土化也许会让未来的班级聚会少了些许多样性,但能确保各地的国际学校的健康发展。 翻译:沈竹,校对:韦永睿 译文属译生译世 /201412/350141

  听力参考文本:Whats being called a major battle over the states prison budget is taking shape in Lansing. To save money, John Proos, the chair of the relevant state senate subcommittee, wants to close two prisons, and lease and operate a now-private prison in Baldwin.However, those who run the Department of Corrections dont want to close any of the states 35 prisons, and say they need them in case the state prison population ever rises again.Michigan had more than 51,000 inmates nine years ago, but that number has declined by almost 10,000 over the last decade. Thats largely because violent crime has declined, and because we are less willing to sentence people to long prison terms for small amounts of drugs.Who says there isnt any good news? Still, 40,000 prisoners is more than twice as many as 30 years ago—and is a huge drain on state resources, costing us more than .2 billion a year, far more than the state spends on higher education. If I wanted to be nasty, I could say that Michigan places a higher priority on locking people up than on educating them.Naturally, Id never be the least bit sarcastic about state government. But I would tend to support closing two prisons and using the money saved—about million—to make badly needed repairs in other badly aging prison buildings. On the other hand, I think the legislature is wrong and fundamentally cruel in opposing money the governor has requested for a new drug to cure some cases of Hepatitis C, which is rampant in prisons.However, having said all that, this entire discussion misses the point. Michigan doesnt need to save nickels and dimes in our corrections system; we need fundamental sweeping reform.Basically, as any real non-political expert on prisons will tell you, we need to concentrate on locking up, as the saying goes, only those people we are legitimately afraid of, not all the ones we are mad at. Nor do we need to keep inmates locked up who may have been a threat to society in 1957, but who are now running up tremendous costs in geriatric medical care.We are paying far more for corrections than other nearby states, and there are all sorts of reasons why. We sentence inmates to longer terms, and make them wait longer for parole. A Bridge Magazine study last year found 11 inmates in the slam just for using marijuana.Locking them up costs us ,000 each per year. We could send them to college more cheaply. Two years ago, there was a growing bipartisan move for serious prison reform. The Lansing-based group CAPPS, Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending, put forth a reasonable blueprint for cutting the prison population by another 10,000 inmates.But any efforts at reform were torpedoed by Attorney General Bill Schuette, who wants to run for governor, and evidently feels it important to look tough on crime.Thanks to that attitude, we go on paying tens of millions every year in health care costs for hundreds of inmates in their seventies and eighties, and not properly fixing our roads. There are indeed words for such priorities.But irrational is the only one I can say on the radio.Jack Lessenberry is Michigan Radios political analyst. Views expressed in his essays are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of Michigan Radio, its management or the station licensee, The University of Michigan.201604/437894。

  Race relations in America美国种族问题The lessons of Ferguson弗格森的教训There is no excuse for rioting. But smarter policing would make it less likely暴乱无可原谅,但有能力的警察能尽力避免冲突。AFTER more than a week of rioting in Ferguson, Missouri, what can America learn? The first and simplest lesson is that cops should wear cameras. Knowing that they are being recorded, the police would be less likely to shoot suspects, and vice versa. Also, had Officer Darren Wilson been wearing a camera on August 9th, Americans would know what happened just before he shot and killed Michael Brown, an unarmed black 18-year-old. As it is, there are two conflicting stories and no way to choose between them. The police say that Mr Brown attacked Mr Wilson and tried to wrestle away his gun. In the ensuing struggle the officer, fearing for his life, shot and killed the teenager. Mr Browns friend, who was with him at the time, gives a completely different account: he says the officer grabbed Mr Brown by the neck and later shot him as he was trying to surrender. Early autopsy results show that Mr Brown was hit by at least six bullets but do not settle the dispute.经过超过一周的密苏里弗格森骚乱,美国能学到些什么?首先,最简单的一点,警察应该携带影像记录设备。当值班过程被记录下来,警察射击嫌犯的概率将降低,反之亦然。同时,假如戴伦·威尔逊警官在八月九日执勤时配戴相机,民众就能直观了解景观开射击了一位18岁的黑人青年迈克尔·布朗,布朗当时手无寸铁。关于此事,两个截然不同的说法无法实,警方的说法是布朗袭击了威尔逊警官,并试图抢夺他的。威尔逊警官由于生命受到威胁,开打死了这位黑人青年布朗。与布朗先生同在案发现场的朋友提供了一个完全不同的说法:警察抓住了布朗先生的脖子,后来布朗想自首的时候被开杀死了。早期的尸检结果表明,布朗身中至少六发的子弹,但这未能成为事件有力的据。His death sparked protests that soon turned violent. Looters smashed up shops and picked them clean. The police responded with a staggering display of force, rolling military-style armoured cars onto the streets, pointing rifles at the protesters, dispersing crowds with tear gas and detaining not only rioters but also peaceful demonstrators and journalists.他的死引发了暴力性的抗议活动。暴徒砸毁抢光了店铺,警方对此做出强有力的回应,将军用装甲车开上街道,用实荷弹震慑,用催泪瓦斯驱散人群,并逮捕暴徒,甚至和平示威者和记者。There is a racial gulf in how these events are perceived. Some 65% of black Americans think the police went too far in responding to the protests; only 33% of whites agree. Many blacks in Ferguson disbelieve anything the police say. Mr Browns family describe him as a gentle giant. The Ferguson police beg to differ:they released a purportedly showing him violently robbing a liquor store minutes before he met Officer Wilson. Some locals dismissed this as a smear. The liquor store was promptly looted.有一个种族隔阂的说法能说明这些事件是如何发生的。大约65%的黑人认为警察对抗议活动的反应过于激烈,只有33%的白人同意警方的做法。在弗格森许多黑人不相信任何警察的话。布朗先生的家人将他描述为一个温和的巨人。弗格森警方不敢苟同:他们发布了一个视频,据称是他遇到警官威尔逊之前几分钟暴力抢劫酒类商店。一些当地人否认了视频内容。该酒类商店经常被抢劫。Rioting will do nothing to resolve Fergusons problems. On the contrary, it will make businesses flee, leaving locals with fewer jobs and shops. So the immediate priority is to restore order. Next, the investigations of the shooting aly under way must be pursued vigorously and transparently. In the longer term, America should ponder three things.暴乱无益于解决弗格森的问题。相反,它将使商铺离开弗格森,造成一部分人失业。所以当务之急是维持秩序。下一步,正在进行的案件调查应该更加仔细和彻底。从长远来看,美国人应该思考三个问题。To protect and serve保护民众,务民众First, as Barack Obama noted on August 18th, “there is a big difference between our military and our local law enforcement and we dont want those lines blurred.” In fact, those lines have aly been blurred, as the armoured cars on the streets of Ferguson attest. In 2012, according to the FBI, American police officers shot and killed 409 people. Their British counterparts shot and killed no one. The German police, who unlike the Brits are routinely armed, shot and killed eight people; the Japanese have killed one in the past six years. In their defence, American cops face greater risks than those in other rich countries. The civilians they meet are often armed; small wonder they are jumpy when they cannot see your hands.首先,正如奥巴马总统八月十八日所说,“这是我们的军事和当地执法部门之间行事原则上的差异,我们不想要部门之间的界线模糊。“事实上,这些界线已经模糊,在弗格森的街道行驶装甲车就是明。根据美国联邦调查局的统计,首先,正如巴拉克奥巴马指出,八月十八日,“这是我们的军事和当地执法部门之间的大的差异,我们不想要那些线模糊。“事实上,这些线路已经模糊,在弗格森的街道的装甲车的明。2012,美国警察开打死409人。他们的英国同行未打死一个嫌犯。德国警方,他们不像英国人,配备常规武器,开打死八人;日本在过去六年中已经杀死了一人。在他们的正当防卫的范围内,美国警察面对比其他发达国家更大的危险。他们面对持的平民,也难怪他们看不到嫌犯双手时,心情多么紧张。Yet this is a reason for cops to work harder to improve relations with the communities they serve. Many police forces in America are good at this, but some have developed a warrior culture that stresses brute force over pounding the beat. A Pentagon programme that gives surplus military hardware to local law-enforcement agencies can make them seem like occupying armies rather than public servants. That is both costly and counterproductive—the public are more likely to volunteer information to officers they trust than to those they fear.然而,这也正是警察努力改善与所务的社区关系的原因。许多美国警察部队懂得如何与社区打成一片,但也有一些警察崇尚强权镇压的方针。有一个国防部的项目将冗余的军事装备给予地方执法机构,这使他们看起来像是占领军而不是公务员。这是花钱起到反作用的项目,因为对于执法者来说,公众的信任比畏惧更加可贵。Second, unlike plumbers or accountants, it matters what colour police officers are. Fergusons population has shifted from 75% white in 1990 to 67% black in 2010, but the police force is still 95% white. This is partly due to bureaucratic inertia. Public servants have rock-solid job security and generous pensions, so the workforce turns over slowly. A fast-food joint in a town that becomes Hispanic will quickly hire Spanish-speaking cashiers. The police are much slower to hire officers with a feel for a changing community. This is not to say that Ferguson should have sacked the white officers and replaced them with blacks; that would be illegal. But it ought to be easier to shift officers between towns, bring in fresh faces and retrain the old hands to be more racially sensitive.第二,不像管道工和会计师,警官的肤色似乎也影响到办案过程。弗格森的黑人人口已从1990年的75%变为2010年到67%,但警察中仍然是95%的白人。一是因为官僚主义的传统,公务员失业风险低,待遇相对较好,工作节奏相对较慢。而其他岗位不如公务员稳定,比如快餐店的收银员就可以随时雇佣母语为西班牙语的雇员。社区警察却很难让不同背景警员适应社区治安工作。这虽然不是说弗格森应该用黑人警官代替白人警官,这也不合法,但这样的做法应该能更加方便开展社区工作,也能减少因为种族问题带来的不便。Third, policing would be a lot easier, and race relations a little more cordial, if America legalised drugs. One reason why so many African-Americans distrust the police is that so many young black men are sent to prison for non-violent drug offences. If drugs were legal, no one would be patted down for pills or jailed for possessing them. Illicit drug gangs would go out of business. And the police would be able to concentrate on tracking down thieves and rapists, making everyone safer. Legalising marijuana would be a good first step, following the examples of Colorado and Washington state.第三,假如美国让民间药品流通合法,警察会轻松很多,种族问题也能得到缓和。如此多的非洲裔美国人之所以不信任警察是因为许多年轻的黑人男性由于违禁药品犯罪入狱。如果药物是合法的,没有人会因为药物而入狱。非法贩卖药物团伙自然会消失。和警察能够专注于追捕小偷,强奸犯,使社区更加安全。在科罗拉多州和华盛顿州,大麻合法化将是一个很好的尝试。The ills of shrinking rust-belt towns with tetchy race relations cannot be fixed quickly. But the broken windows of Ferguson should remind Americas leaders that they have to try.有种族矛盾问题缠身的城镇不能迅速解决。但弗格森的惨剧应该提醒美国领导人,他们必须解决类似的问题。 /201409/329640

  France, Africa and terrorism法国,非洲和恐怖主义An African journey非洲之行The French government has new African worries in the Sahel法国政府对萨赫勒地区忧心忡忡Hollande with rare new friend奥朗德和其罕见的新朋友It is a rite of passage for every new French president to head to French-speaking Africa and reaffirm faith in la Francophonie. So it was with Francois Hollande, who has just visited Senegal and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Like his predecessor, Nicolas Sarkozy, he said “francafrique”—the cosy post-colonial ties of party financing, arms, contracts and influence—was over and that human rights were paramount. He praised the shared use of French, “language of liberty”. But behind the warm words lie grimmer concerns, the biggest being the entrenchment of terror networks in the al-Qaeda-held Sahel.每个新上任的法国总统都要经历这样一个仪式:走访非洲讲法语的国家,并重申其对法语区的忠诚。法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德刚刚访问了塞内加尔和刚果民主共和国。和前任总统尼科拉·萨科奇一样,他强调“法兰西非洲”——这个包含政府融资、武器输送、契约协定、施加影响在内的”亲密“的后殖民关系——将不复存在,人权才是至高无上的。他对共同使用法语的做法大加赞赏,称之为“语言自由”。但是在这一番温暖人心的话语背后却隐藏着深切的担忧,尤其是针对萨赫勒地区的基地组织网络的防卫工事。Islamist fighters tied to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) have ruled a big swathe of northern Mali since March, dividing the country in two. In the far north extreme sharia law is being applied. Mr Hollande spoke in Senegal of “a reign of terror” in Mali, with “hands cut off, women raped and an area awash with weapons”. There are also two French hostages in Mali, whose families the president has just met in Paris, as well as four in Niger.3月份以来,伊斯兰北非基地组织的武装分子们已经控制了马里北部的大部分地区,马里被分成了两片,其遥远的北部开始施行极端伊斯兰教法。在塞内加尔,奥朗德怒斥其为“恐怖统治”马里,“人质双手被砍断,妇女被奸淫和机扫荡了整个地区。”还有2个法国人质被困在马里,奥朗德总统刚在巴黎会见了他们的家人,除此之外,尼日尔也有4名受困人质。Despite France’s reluctance to play post-colonial gendarme, Mr Hollande is starting to sound tougher on Mali. During his African trip, he tried to rally regional leaders to the cause. Manuel Valls, the interior minister, visited Algeria to narrow differences. France drafted a UN Security Council resolution, unanimously adopted on October 12th, that authorises the dispatch of an African force to retake rebel-held territory in Mali. Jean-Yves Le Drian, the French defence minister, says such a force could be y “within weeks”.尽管法国不愿意扮演后殖民宪兵的角色,但是奥朗德先生已经对马里问题发表了严正声明。在这次非洲之旅中,他试图号召地区领导人加入这项事业。法国内政部长曼纽尔·瓦尔斯拜访了阿尔及利亚以试图缩小分歧。法国起草了一份联合国安理会决议,批准派遣一驻非洲军队以重新夺回反动派在马里控制的地区,该决议受到一致通过,并于10月12日施行。法国国防部长让一伊夫·勒德里昂表示“几周之内”就能组建好一驻非队伍。Yet his enthusiasm may be overdone. The plan is that a force would be made up of troops from Mali and other countries in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). But, even if willing ones can be lined up, regional forces do not have the capacity to mount an offensive operation without logistical and intelligence support. The French are y to contribute, but have ruled out sending in ground troops. Although the European Union says it will send trainers under an EU flag, the Americans are reluctant to get involved.然而,他信誓旦旦的表态似乎有些夸张了。他们原计划由马里和其他西非国家经济体国家的军队组成一军事力量。但是,即使这些有意愿的国家可以组成一队伍,但是地方军队在没有后勤和情报持的情况下却不能发动袭击行动。法国已经准备好了付诸行动,但是却不会派遣地面部队。尽管欧盟表示他们会在欧盟的旗帜下派遣训练员,美国却不愿意卷入其中。France’s anxiety is that, if nothing is done, the Sahel might become a crucible for Islamist terrorism. “What makes people very nervous is the idea that it will become Africa’s Afghanistan,” says Francois Heisbourg of the Foundation for Strategic Research, a think-tank. France, with its colonial history and commercial ties, is an obvious target. One Malian Islamist group has explicitly threatened Mr Hollande since his push for military action, and said that French hostages are in greater danger.法国担心的是,如果不采取行动,萨赫勒地区可能会成为伊斯兰恐怖主义的聚集地。“最让民众所担忧的是马里可能会变成非洲的阿富汗,”战略研究基金会的研究员弗朗索瓦·海斯伯格说道。拥有殖民历史和贸易关系的法国很显然会成为恐怖分子袭击目标。一驻马里的伊斯兰组织已经对奥朗德推进军事行动的行为发表了明确的威胁,宣传法国人质将会更加危险。As it is, France is aly fretting about terrorist threats. Although there is no direct link to AQIM, French police dismantled an Islamist cell in France earlier this month, arresting 12 suspects and shooting one dead. Two were wanted in connection with an attack on a kosher grocer in a Paris suburb last month, which rattled France’s big Jewish population. Seven have been charged with terrorist offences.事实上,法国已经开始担心恐怖主义威胁。本月初,法国警方捣毁了位于法国的一个伊斯兰组织,抓捕了12个嫌疑人,并击毙了一人,虽然他们与伊斯兰北非基地组织并没有直接联系。还有两个嫌犯正在被通缉,他们与上个月巴黎郊区发生的一起袭击犹太食品杂货店的案件有关,这使法国犹太群体人心惶惶。其中七个人以恐怖袭击罪被起诉。Francois Molins, the Paris public prosecutor, called the cell “extremely dangerous”. Some suspects were French converts to Islam. The threat is “increasingly coming from within”, Mr Valls told the Senate, adding that radicalisation can take a matter of months. The country was shocked earlier this year when seven people, including three Jewish children and a rabbi, were shot dead in Toulouse by a French Islamist who claimed to have been trained by al-Qaeda. The surveillance of radicals has been stepped up. Mr Valls is putting a law before parliament to give the police new powers to pursue French nationals abroad suspected of links to terrorism or of attending foreign training camps. With or without a French-backed operation in Mali, France is on high alert.法国公共检察官弗朗索瓦·莫林斯声称这个组织“非常危险”,一些嫌疑人是皈依伊斯兰教的法国人。“越来越多的威胁来自我们的内部”,瓦尔斯先生通告参议院,并强调极端主义可能会持续几个月。今年年初,图尔兹发生的惨案令法国震惊,包括三名犹太小孩和一名法师在内的七个公民被击毙。凶手是法国伊斯兰教主义者,他声称受到基地组织的训练。法国已经加强了对激进分子的监控。瓦尔斯先生正在向议会提交一部法律,该法律将赋予警方追踪可能与恐怖主义有联系的或参加外国训练营的在外法国公民的新权力。不管法国有没有插手马里的运动,他们都将处于高级戒备状态。 翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201608/459766Gay marriage同性婚姻合法化Ties that divide备受争议A row over plans to let gay couples marry in church同性伴侣可在教堂举行婚礼这一法案争议不断Pity the prime minister. With most news bleakly austere these days, changing the law to let gay couples marry must have seemed a sure way to sp crowd-pleasing sweetness and light. Countries around the world are giving homosexuals full marriage rights. More than half of British respondents usually tell pollsters they favour gay marriage. Besides, David Cameron truly believes in it, as he told the Conservative Party conference in October 2011.英国最近都没有什么好消息。可怜了首相卡梅隆,但修改法律允许同性伴侣结婚似乎让民众心里一暖。很多国家都在逐步给予同性恋完全婚姻权。民意调查显示,英国超过一半的受访者都持同性婚姻合法化。此外,在2011年10月的保守党大会上戴维·卡梅隆(David Cameron)也表示他本人是完全赞同同性婚姻合法化。But government plans to let same-sex couples not only marry but marry in church, detailed on December 11th, have startled the ecclesiastical horses and divided the aly fissiparous Conservatives. The Anglican and Catholic churches, along with the Muslim Council of Britain and Lord Sacks, the Chief Rabbi, oppose the move, which contravenes their belief that marriage is between a woman and a man. High-profile Tories including Michael Gove, the education secretary, and Boris Johnson, London’s mayor, are for the change, but over 100 Conservative MPs are believed to oppose it. That will not put the outcome in doubt, as Labour and the Liberal Democrats support the shift, but it guarantees a continuing row.12月11日,英政府公布了详细条例——不仅允许同性伴侣结婚,也可在教堂举行婚礼。这让教会的那些老匹夫大吃一惊,使已出现分歧的保守党更是争论不断。圣公会和天主教,以及英国穆斯林协会和首席拉比萨克斯勋爵(Lord Sacks)都反对这项提议,因为这和他们一男一女才能结婚的信仰相否。几名高调的保守党人,包括教育大臣迈克尔·戈夫(Michael Gove)和伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson),赞成此提议,估计过百的国会议员将会反对。由于工党和自由民主党都持这项提议,所以这些反对者对结果没有什么影响,但不可避免的会引起不断的争论。At issue is how to balance competing rights—to freedom of religious expression and freedom from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. This clash last hit the headlines in 2007, when a Catholic adoption agency was required to consider gay couples as adoptive parents, and the religiously minded owners of a small hotel were told they could not refuse to rent a double bedroom to a gay couple. This time, the dispute is over core religious activities, not charitable or commercial services. But once same-sex marriages are permitted, and on religious premises at that, some fear that churches, mosques and temples could be forced into solemnising relationships of which they disapprove profoundly. Are they right to worry?目前的问题是如何去平衡这两种相对抗的权利——宗教表达自由权和性取向不受歧视的权利。此矛盾最近一次上头条是在2007年,那一年,一条新闻报道了一对同性恋夫妇要求一个天主教收养机构允许他们收养孩子,还有一条新闻报道了一家小旅店虔诚的业主们被告知他们不得拒绝向同性恋伴侣出租双人间。这次的争议核心是宗教活动,而非慈善或商业务。一些人担心,一旦同性婚姻合法化允许在宗教处所举办婚礼的话,教堂、清真寺和寺庙都将被迫为其举办隆重的典礼,而这种同性婚姻他们根本不能接受。这样的担心难道毫无道理吗?The government assures them they need not. All same-sex couples will be entitled to civil marriage, not just the civil partnership they have been allowed since 2005. Those who wish to marry religiously may do so, if a church is willing. A “quadruple lock” has been designed to protect churches that are not against suits for discrimination or breaching human rights.政府承诺这样的担心没必要。2005年,英国允许同性伴侣有民事伴侣关系权,现所有同性伴侣将享有民事婚姻权。如果某个教堂愿意,同性伴侣可去教堂举行婚礼。政府还制定了一个“四重法律锁”来保护那些不愿意为其主持婚礼的教堂免于歧视和侵犯人权的诉讼。The new law (which should be on the statute books in 2015) will state that no religious organisation or minister can be compelled to marry same-sex couples. There will be a formal “opt-in” system for those that are interested. The Equality Act of 2010 will be amended. The Church of England, whose canon law is intertwined with the law of the land and normally has a duty to marry people, will not, at its own request, splice same-sex couples, unless canon law and legislation are changed.新法(预计2015年实施)规定,不强迫任何宗教组织和牧师给同性伴侣举行婚礼。届时会为那些有兴趣的宗教组织和牧师提供正式的“自由选择”流程。2010年的《平等法》将会修订。英国国教会的教会法与当地法律关系紧密,通常还肩负为公民举办婚礼的义务。但在它的要求下,英国国教会不会为同性伴侣举办婚礼,除非教会法和法律改变。That still leaves Strasbourg, which has cheerfully overlooked Parliament’s declared wish and told Britain to let at least some convicted prisoners vote. “There’s no way you can stop a couple going to the European Court of Human Rights and arguing that the fact British law does not oblige religious organisations to marry them is a violation of their rights,” says Robert Wintamute, a barrister who teaches at Kings College London. But they won’t get far, he reckons. Others agree. The European Convention is a touch ambiguous. The court does not require governments to let gay couples marry, still less churches.斯特拉斯堡(欧洲人权法庭的所在地),跟英国政府在囚犯是否享有选举权问题上有分歧。在伦敦国王学院教书的大律师罗伯特(Robert Wintamute)说:“你没法阻止一对伴侣跑到欧洲人权法庭去控告英国法律——宗教组织可不为同性伴侣举办婚礼——是对他们的侵权。”但他们也不会成功。其他人也同意这样的说法。欧洲人权公约对此有点模糊不清。法庭不会要求国家政府允许同性婚姻,更不用说教堂了。But debate over the limits of religious freedom is lively. The hotel owners lost in the Court of Appeals in February, but Lady Justice Rafferty had this to say: “It would be unfortunate to replace legal oppression of one community (homosexual couples) with legal oppression of another (those sharing the Appellants’ beliefs)” The Supreme Court has accepted their case.但关于宗教自由限度的讨论热烈了起来。之前提到的旅馆业主2月份在上诉法庭又败诉了,但是女大法官Rafferty补充说道,“如果把一部分人(同性伴侣)的自由建立在另一部分人(那些和上诉人有着同样信仰的人)身上,这也是不幸的。”最高法庭已经受理了此案件。Strasbourg too has seen action. Four British people who say their employers denied them religious expression—including Nadia Eweida, initially refused permission by British Airways to wear a visible cross—were heard by the court there in September. A judgment may emerge in January. All of which suggests that politicians may enact as many “locks” as they please, but in the end courts hold the keys.斯特拉斯堡也有过类似情况。四名英国人称其雇主不顾自己的宗教信仰,其中纳迪亚·艾薇达(Nadia Eweida) 首当其冲,她所在的英国航空公司不允许她带的十字架露在外面。他们四位9月已经接受欧洲人权法庭聆讯。判决结果也许在1月份公布。这一切都告诉我们,政客们可以随意颁布各种“保护锁”,但法庭有最终解释权。翻译:薛瑞译文属译生译世201609/464797

  Euro crisis欧洲危机The end of the euro’s Indian summer欧元区小阳春之末After a few sunny weeks, a political and economic storm is battering the euro zone once again度过几个星期的好日子后,政治经济风暴再度席卷欧元区THE sugar-rush brought on by the European Central Bank’s pledge to intervene in bond markets to help troubled euro-zone countries—some diplomats call it “Mario Draghi’s ice cream”—was bound to fade at some point. But nobody expected it to fade quite so suddenly this week.欧洲中央承诺干预债券市场用来帮助欧元区国家摆脱困境,这些“短暂的春天”被一些外交官称为“马里奥.德拉吉(Mario Draghi)的冰淇淋”,在某种程度上注定会失效的。但没有人预料到它在本周消退得如突然。Anti-austerity protests in Spain and Greece, uncertainty over their bail-out terms, the resurgence of Catalan secessionism, the likely departure of Mario Monti as Italy’s prime minister next year, obstacles to creating a credible banking union (see Charlemagne) and a darkening economic outlook all combined to dispel hope that the euro zone was out of the woods. Spanish and Italian bond yields shot back up and European stockmarkets fell.西班牙和希腊的对紧缩的抗议活动,他们获得救助条件的不确定性,加泰罗尼亚分离主义的复苏,可能离任的马意大利总理Mario Monti(马里奥·蒙蒂),以及建立一个安全可靠联盟(见Charlemagne专栏)的诸多障碍和经济前景的暗淡无光,所有这些不利因素都预示着欧元区走出困境的希望越来越渺茫。西班牙和意大利两国债券收益虽有所回升,但欧洲股市整体却已跌入谷底。The summer’s panic about the euro zone had been assuaged by the ECB’s announcement of plans to buy unlimited amounts of short-dated debt of vulnerable countries such as Spain and Italy. This backstop would depend on their governments first seeking assistance from the euro-zone rescue funds, and then submitting to a formal, externally monitored reform programme.今年夏天和欧元有关的恐慌,在欧洲央行的一份申明中——计划向西班牙、意大利等经济危机较为严重的国家,购买大量其无限的短期债务,使得其困境有所缓解。这一担保会取决于他们的政府首先向欧元区救助基金申请帮助, 然后提交一份正式并接受国外监管的改革计划。Both out of national pride, and because Germany does not want Spain to ask for more money, the Spanish government has hesitated about taking the ECB’s outstretched hand. Behind European officials’ public praise for the deficit-cutting measures taken by Mariano Rajoy, the Spanish prime minister, there is dismay over his ineptness in handling the crisis, not least the ever-changing estimates of the money needed to recapitalise Spain’s banks.这些都出自于民族自豪感,因为德国不希望西班牙借贷更多资金, 西班牙政府对于欧洲央行提供的资金帮助犹豫不定。在欧洲各国对于西班牙首相马里亚诺·拉霍伊(Mariano Rajoy)的赤字削减政策一片赞扬声的背后,这位西班牙首相在处理这些危机时总是让人们对他的无能感到失望,特别是在西班牙重组所耗费的资金的数目上,这个数字总是一而再再而三地发生改变。As The Economist went to press, Mr Rajoy was due to unveil a budget for next year and a new set of structural reforms, as well as the results of a detailed assessment of Spain’s bank-recapitalisation needs. These have been co-ordinated with European officials, perhaps to allow Mr Rajoy to claim that Spain will face no fresh conditions beyond the ones he has announced himself. But the gains from any such choreography have been offset by clashes on the streets of Madrid during anti-austerity protests and by the resurgence of Catalan nationalism. Mr Rajoy’s attempt to rein in spending in Spain’s autonomous regions has prompted Artur Mas, the president of Catalonia, to call an election on November 25th, after his demand for more tax autonomy was rebuffed. Mr Mas is talking of holding a referendum on independence, which could throw Spain into a constitutional crisis on top of its economic one.正当《经济学人》印刷之时,拉霍伊将公布一个下一年预算和一套新的结构改革,以及一个西班牙的资本重组的详细的评估结果。这些都需要与欧洲官员协调,也许是为了让拉霍伊先生声明,西班牙将不再对已声明的条件外另加新的条件。但是,由于反紧缩抗议期间,马德里街巷的冲突,及加泰罗尼亚民族主义的复苏,任何预算之中的收益都已经被抵消了。拉霍伊先生试图控制在西班牙自治区的出的想法,刺激到泰罗尼亚地区长官Artur Mas ,在拉霍伊要求更多自治权遭到拒绝后,他提出11月25日举行一次选举的意见。而Artur Mas先生所提出的举行独立公投,可能使得西班牙不仅要面临经济行危机,又即将陷入宪法危机。If Mr Rajoy’s stock in European capitals has fallen, that of Antonis Samaras, the Greek prime minister, has risen. Once reviled for resisting austerity while in opposition, the conservative leader has, since his election in June, impressed fellow leaders with a new-found zeal for fiscal discipline and reform. Yet it will be hard to reconcile Mr Samaras’s call for an extra two years to bring down the deficit with creditors’ refusal to lend him more money, in effect a third bail-out.如果拉霍伊先生在欧洲各国政要的声望已经下跌,那么希腊总理Antonis Samaras将会逆势上升。这位反对派保守党领袖向来在抵制紧缩中被诟病,然而他在今年6月的选举中上任以来财政纪律和改革上的果断干练风格, 给各派领导人留下了深刻的印象。然而,一方面Samaras要求延长两年时间以缓解财政赤字,另一方面希腊的债权人又拒绝继续向其借贷资金(这其实是第三次援助计划)。Mr Samaras is caught between the rescuers’ demands for more spending cuts and boiling anger on the streets. Police fired tear gas at hooded protesters hurling petrol bombs on September 26th, the day of a general strike, while tens of thousands of demonstrators outside the Greek parliament shouted “EU, IMF Out!”. European officials say much now depends on whether, after some massaging of Greece’s figures, the IMF can be cajoled into declaring its gargantuan debt to be “sustainable”. The fund, for its part, is privately urging euro-zone countries to write off some of their loans to Greece, but that is unlikely until after Germany’s election next year.Samaras 现在被夹在援助者要求更大程度地减少开和希腊民众对此要求沸腾的怒火之间。在9月26日这天的大罢工中,警察向蒙面投掷汽油炸弹的抗议者发射了催泪弹, 而成千上万的示威者在希腊议会大楼外高喊“欧盟、国际货币基金组织滚出去!”。欧洲官员表示,现在大部分取决于,国际货币基金组织经过希腊的‘’是否相信并宣布其庞大的债务是“可持续的”。该基金组织,就其本身而言,在私下敦促欧元区国家放弃他们对希腊的债权,但是这到明年德国大选之前都是不可能的。In Italy there is nervousness about the course of still-fragile reforms after the technocratic prime minister, Mario Monti, declared that he would not seek to stay in office beyond general elections due next spring. Mr Monti told CNN: “I think it’s important that the whole political game resumes in Italy, hopefully with a higher degree of responsibility and maturity.” Given Italy’s politics, and the reforms that Italy still has to undertake, that is asking a lot.而在意大利,学者型总理Mario Monti宣布在明年的大选中,将按照原计划不会寻求连任,而举国上下都对还未完成稳定的改革进程还有些担心。Monti对CNN(美国有线新闻网)称: “在我看来,意大利政治弈的重启是很重要的,希望时机成熟的时候,会实行新的制度,与此同时还需要高度的责任感。”但是考虑到意大利政治现状,和现在仍在进行中的改革,这个似乎有点困难。Confidence in the future of the euro is hardly being helped by signs that Germany and other creditor countries are backtracking on last June’s summit deal to create a new euro-zone bank supervisor and, thereafter, to recapitalise troubled banks directly, in countries such as Spain and Italy, with money from a euro-zone rescue fund. Along with the Netherlands and Finland, Germany now wants direct recapitalisation to exclude “legacy” assets. Karl Whelan, a prominent Irish economist, summed it up with a blog post headlined: “Germany to Spain and Ireland: drop dead”.去年六月峰会上,德国和其他债权国达成创建一个新欧元区监管机构的协议,并希望借此通过欧元区救助基金来直接重组西班牙、意大利等国的问题。而今这些国家开始背弃这一协议,这一信号丝毫无助于增强大家对于欧元前景的信心,因此,就算有欧元区援助基金的贷款的帮助,但是对欧元区一些国家困难重重的(比如西班牙和意大利)重组没有什么直接性的帮助。除了荷兰和芬兰,现在德国也想通过直接资金重组,以冲减“遗留”下来的资产。一名著名的爱尔兰经济学家Karl Whelan用一篇客的题目总结了这一切:“德国对西班牙和爱尔兰说:去你的”。 翻译:周颖译文属译生译世 /201607/454835

  This weekend, the electronic musical festival called Movement will bring in more than 100,000 people from around the globe to the birthplace of techno: Detroit. Techno is actually a much bigger deal in Europe than it is here. A lot of Detroit techno artists still live in the city, they just have to travel overseas in order to make a living, but changes to Detroits techno scene might change that.Detroit Techno artists have to travel overseas to make a livingWhen Detroit techno artist Kevin Reynolds performed in London for the first time, he got stopped on the subway by a stranger.;A guy grabbed me and asked if I was Kevin Reynolds, and Im like, ‘yeah, are you the police?; Reynolds says, ;(In Detroit), Im just a regular guy.;Like a lot of Detroit techno artists, Reynolds still lives in the city, but in order to make a living he has to travel to Europe or Tokyo to perform every other month or so. Overseas he plays shows for thousands of people.;Here in Detroit I play for 50 people, 100 people, maybe a couple hundred if Im lucky,; Reynolds says.But that might change.A big idea from Berlin to bring techno back to its hometownDimitri Hegemann is the owner of one of the first electronic clubs in Berlin. He wants to bring the scene back to the hometown of techno. He has his eye on the abandoned and run-down Fisher Body Plant in Detroit.Hegemann is full of big ideas.Not only does he want to have an electronic dance club in the Fisher Body Plant, he also wants to have a hostel, a pop up restaurant, and another space that could be used for art exhibits, dance, or even opera performances. ;I think people would come from all over the world to see whats happening, and this is what Detroit needs,; Hegemann says.Detroit vs. BerlinBut Detroit isnt Berlin. Berlin gets a ton of funding to support the arts. Its also easier to use old buildings there.If you want to open up a creative space in a vacant building, and the city doesnt know who owns it, theyll let you use it temporarily until the owner is tracked down.And Berlin doesnt have a curfew. Electronic clubs start hopping around 1 am Friday and the party does not stop until Monday morning.A less ambitious idea so Detroit can embrace its techno artistsMeanwhile, a less ambitious electronic club recently opened up in Detroits Midtown. Amir Daiza is the owner of the new club, called Populux.I went to the club on a Friday night, and by 10:30 there were only about 30-50 people there, and no one was dancing.Daiza says business could always be better, but he says he has ;confidence enough that this is going to be a great place, [but] it takes a while to build a business.;Why techno artists stay in DetroitIn the meantime, Detroit artists like Reynolds will keep traveling overseas to find work to perform, but as Reynolds says, theres just something about Detroit that keeps this city his home base.;I dont know what it is. There is something in the air. Theres something in the water. There is something in the ground. There is an energy here,; Reynolds says. ;That struggle of living in Detroit -- I like that struggle.;Support for arts amp; cultural reporting on Michigan Radio comes in part from a grant from the Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs and the National Endowment for the arts.201505/376673

  There was God himself, we young people believed all of that.他本人就是上帝,我们年轻人都深信不疑Young people werent just being taught to all but worship Adolf Hitler.在年轻人受的教育当中,除了崇拜希特勒,别无其他。They learnt his racist, hate-filled values as well-that they were better than everyone else,and that they should despise the weak.他们也学到仇恨的种族主义价值观,认为自己比其他人更优等,应该蔑视弱势群体。What mattered in life was to be strong.生命的意义在于强壮。Hitler made big decisions in isolation.希特勒总是喜欢独自做出决定。And when he had the biggest decisions of all to make,he liked to come here-to the mountains of Southern Bavaria near the border with Austria.当需作出最重要决定时,他喜欢来到巴伐利亚南部的山中,此处与奥地利接壤。 译文属201602/426117。

  The second type of vaccine contains an attenuated virus. 第二种类型的疫苗包含一种减毒病毒。This virus is alive, but has been grown in the lab for several generations, so it isnt able to multiply very well in humans. 这种病毒本身是活的,但在实验室中已成长了几代,所以无法在人体中很好繁殖。With the attenuated virus multiplying very slowly,your body is able to produce the correct antibodies before you get sick. 由于减毒病毒繁殖慢,因此你的身体在患病前就能够产生正确的抗体。Measles and mumps vaccines are both made with attenuated viruses. 麻疹,腮腺炎疫苗都是用减毒病毒疫苗。When most people in a community have become resistant to the virus, either through a vaccination or by having the virus and recovering, the community develops what is called “herd immunity”. 经过接种疫苗或感染病毒恢复,一个社区的大多数人已对病毒变得具有抵抗力,社区就会发展成为“群体免疫”。The nice thing about herd immunity is that it becomes statistically less likely for the germ to find a person without immunity. 群体免疫的好处是,从统计角度病菌不太可能找到一个没有免疫力的人。This protects members of the community who havent been vaccinated, or had the disease, by reducing their chances of encountering an infected person.这样通过减少接触感染者,社区未接种疫苗或有疾病史的人就会得到保护。201501/354540

  Nicaraguas canal尼加拉瓜运河Digging for truth挖掘真相Chinese construction is due to start—but of what?这个中国建设的工程是为了什么而动工。ON DECEMBER 22nd an odd couple—Nicaraguas left-wing government and a Chinese-born telecoms magnate—say they will begin the realisation of a dream that has captivated Nicaraguans for generations: the construction of an inter-oceanic canal to rival Panamas. According to Manuel Coronel, an octogenarian who runs the canal authority, their intentions are now beyond dispute. “When the bride and groom set a date, you know its serious,” he says.12月22日,尼加拉瓜左翼与中国电信巨头这对神奇的组合宣布他们将会实现尼加拉瓜几代人的梦想,那就是建造一条可以与巴拿马运河相匹敌的通洋运河。运河权威部门的元老,Manuel Coronel表示他们的计划是无可争议的,“就像新郎和新娘约会一样,这是一件天经地义的事。”But ask Mr Coronel just where construction will begin and who will pay for it, and he has no answers. Neither does HKND, the Hong Kong-based company run by Wang Jing, which is to build the billion waterway. The project has been shrouded in secrecy since Nicaraguas National Assembly awarded a 50-year concession to HKND in 2013. No feasibility study, environmental-impact report, business case or financing plan has yet been released. Instead come platitudes from the Sandinista government of Daniel Ortega about how it will bring a jobs bonanza and end poverty.但问到工程地点以及资金来源时,Coronel不能给出。HKND也没法给出。这家由王靖经营的香港公司将建价值500亿美金的水路。自从13年尼加拉瓜议会决定将50年的使用权转给HKND时这个项目就被保密了。没有可行性研究,没有环境影响报告也没有商业案或者金融计划。相反的奥特加带领的桑地诺政府倒是说了一堆关于这个项目可以提供就业终结贫困的陈词滥调。So far, it has brought as much fear as hope. Since Chinese-speaking surveyors, backed by Nicaraguan soldiers and police, began assessing land and houses along the canals proposed 278km (172-mile) route a few months ago, peasants fearful of their land being expropriated have taken to the streets 16 times. On December 10th several thousand, shouting “We dont want the Chinese”, protested in Managua, the capital, despite police efforts to keep them in their villages, activists say. Boatmen in Punta Gorda on the Caribbean coast have refused to ferry heavy machinery to be used to begin construction, fearing their livelihoods will be harmed.迄今为止,这个项目带给人们更多的是恐惧而非希望。几个月前,由尼加拉瓜士兵和警察撑腰的中方调查员开始估算运河沿岸287KM(172-m)房屋与土地。农民很担心他们的土地被征收,于是走上街头16次。活动者表示虽然警察努力让大家呆在村庄,但12月10日,首都马那瓜还是爆发抗议,几千人走上街头高喊:“不要中国人”。加勒比沿岸Punta Gorda的船夫拒绝运送用于建设的重型器械。他们担心自己的生活会遭到破坏。In November the Nicaraguan Academy of Science convened a panel of experts to demand clarification of the impact of dredging sediment along a 105km stretch of Lake Nicaragua. They said it could damage drinking water, irrigation systems, fishing and biodiversity in one of Latin Americas greatest tropical lakes. Engineers say the proposed canal, which is aimed at enticing bigger ships than those now able to cross between the Atlantic and Pacific, could run massively over budget and provoke further widening of the Panama Canal, which would ruin its business case.11月,尼加拉瓜科学学院召集专家澄清沿着尼加拉瓜湖105km的地方动工的影响,他们表示这可能会使拉美最好的热带湖中的饮用水被污染,灌溉系统、渔业和生态多样性被破坏。工程师表示这条旨在能使更大的船只往来大西洋与太平洋的运河,其预算和引起的不满可能会远远大于巴拿马运河。而这会毁了建造运河这个计划。Many still doubt it will ever be built. Carlos Fernando Chamorro, editor of an anti-Ortega publication, Confidencial, says the only groundbreaking on December 22nd will be for an access road to a proposed port near Brito, on the Pacific coast, at what is expected to be one entrance to the canal. Some experts think the port, a proposed airport nearby and a free-trade zone may be as far as the canal gets.很多人还在怀疑运河是否会建。反奥特加的出版物Confidencial的主编Carlos Fernando Chamorro表示12月22号唯一的创举就是要建一条通向港口的路。这个港口在太平洋沿岸的Brito附近,仍在计划中,它也是运河的入口之一。 许多专家认为,建港口,飞机场和自由贸易区的好处比运河大得多。But the case for a canal may not rest only on tolls and jobs. China may see it as a strategic route to the Atlantic, says Evan Ellis of the ed States Army War College. If so, it might be built after all.运河不单单能提供同行费与工作。美国陆军战争学院的Evan Ellis表示中国可能将其视作通往大西洋的战略要道。如果真的是这样,运河就一定会建。译者:严晓晴 译文属译生译世 /201412/350288

  听力参考文本(文本与听力不全一致,敬请谅解):The Next IdeaCould the ancient search for the Fountain of Youth lead to Ann Arbor?Thats where a company called Forever Labs is working to solve the universal problem of getting old.Its solution: store your stem cells when youre a young adult so you can use them as you age.Forever Labs CEO Steven Clausnitzer? and president Mark Katakowski? joined us today to talk about their plan, how stem cells work in our bodies, and why Southeast Michigan is fertile ground for companies such as theirs.For a quick stem cells crash course, Katakowski explained that we have stem cells in just about every tissue of our bodies.;They replace and they rejuvenate the tissue,; he said. ;Basically all systems of your body are replenished by stem cells to some degree.;The number of stem cells in our bodies decreases over time, along with their level of activity and ;therapeutic potential,; he said. While that does reduce their immediate usefulness within the body, Katakowski told us this diminishing functionality is actually part of a defense mechanism against cancer.;As cells get older, they get damaged,; he said. ;Its part of this natural process as cells grow older, the stem cells that have all this potential, that they start to decline in number and just kind of turn off over time.;Clausnitzer told us what theyre doing at Forever Labs can be thought of as a kind of ;stem cell time travel.;;What were doing is were storing that ability that you have which is amazing when were younger and diminishes as you get older,; Clausnitzer said. ;We take your bone marrow, and we isolate out your stem cells, and we ... freeze them at a temperature that essentially renders them biologically inert.;Effectively, he told us, your stored stem cells stay the same age, y to be reintroduced into your system when youre older.To hear more about the process and potential health benefits of this ;stem cell time travel,; listen to our full conversation below.201609/465505

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