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2019年09月22日 20:08:03

Ever since the radical totalitarians of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant erupted into the consciousness of the world, with their lightning surge from Syria into Iraq, they have been much examined with a mixture of horror and fascination.自从激进的极权主义组织“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)横空出世、肆虐叙利亚和伊拉克以来,人们一直带着恐惧和浓厚的兴趣来研究它。The ferocity of the fighters, switching between irregular and conventional warfare; the novelty of a jihadi group that is well armed, with self-sustaining funding and the ability to place itself at the head of a mass movement of disaffected Sunni; their acute media and propaganda skills alongside a sulphurous and savage sectarianism all these facets of Isis have been duly noted.人们充分注意到了ISIS的以下特点:它的战士极其残暴,在非常规和常规的战斗手段之间切换自如;与以往的圣战组织不同,ISIS装备精良、能够自己筹集满足组织发展所需的资金,能够当起逊尼派不满教众所发起的运动的领头羊;一方面善于利用媒体、宣传手段高明,另一方面信奉疯狂、野蛮的教派主义。What is under-examined is their political sophistication, which is gradually enabling them to damage the fragile cohesion of neighbouring states, giving them a reach beyond the swaths of territory they have grasped in Syria and Iraq.人们未能恰当地认识到的一点是,ISIS极富政治手腕,使得该组织能够逐步瓦解邻近国家之间脆弱的凝聚力,从而可以将影响力扩展到叙利亚和伊拉克它已经控制的区域以外。Isis is banging violently on the doors of its neighbours Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan to some extent, and maybe eventually Saudi Arabia. While it can be repulsed militarily, it can still rack up political advantage by sowing fear and exploiting divisions. It does not need to break the doors down, just wait for the faultlines to open on the other side.ISIS正在猛烈轰击邻近国家的国门——黎巴嫩、土耳其,某种程度上还包括约旦,最终可能还会包括沙特阿拉伯。尽管我们可以在军事上击退它,但它仍然能够通过播撒恐惧的种子、利用对手阵营内部的分歧获取政治优势。它无需击破别国的国门,只需等待对手内部产生裂痕、然后乘虚而入。“They seem to have everything,says a western official intimately involved in Syria and Iraq. He is referring not to the Koran or the hadith but to Mao Zedong and Frantz Fanon. Like previous iterations of jihadism, Isis may yet over-reach and self-destruct. For now, it is a sophisticated, lethal cocktail.一名熟悉叙利亚和伊拉克情况的西方官员表示:“他们好像什么都读过。”这位官员指的不止是《古兰经Koran)或圣训(hadith,即默罕默德言行录——译者注),还包括毛泽东和弗朗茨#8226;法农(Frantz Fanon)。像之前那些经历了兴衰的圣战主义组织一样,ISIS仍有可能扩张过度、自取灭亡。但就目前而言,它是个高明、具有致命威胁的组织。The siege of the Syrian Kurdish town of Kobani, for example, on the border with Turkey, is often described as strategic or symbolic. Yet there is no especial imperative why the warriors of the Isis caliphate should expend the lives of about 500 of their number to seize this particular stretch of Turkey’s 1,300km frontier with Syria and Iraq. They have turned Kobani into a symbol, but by attacking it they have driven a wedge between the neo-Islamist rulers of Turkey and their Kurdish minority.比如说,人们通常认为,ISIS围攻位于叙利亚与土耳其边境的库尔德城市科巴尼(Kobani,阿拉伯语称艾因阿拉伯)是出于战略考虑,或是这一举动具有象征意义。然而,土耳其与叙利亚和伊拉克的边境长300公里,ISIS并无紧迫的理由牺牲约500名战士的生命,非要夺取科巴尼所处的这段边境。ISIS让科巴尼成为一个象征,但通过攻打这个地方,他们也离间了土耳其的新伊斯兰主义执政者和库尔德少数民族之间的关系。In Lebanon, where wounds from its 1975-90 sectarian war are still livid, the spillover can be more direct. In August the jihadis burst through the Syrian border into the Sunni town of Arsal. Heavy fighting between the army and Sunni Islamist radicals continues in the city of Tripoli. The Lebanese army, in operational alignment with Hizbollah the Iran-backed Shia paramilitaries fighting for the Assad regime in Syria and holding the political ring at home seem able to cope. But this is at the cost of Sunni alienation, a political benefit for Isis.在黎巴嫩975年至1990年的教派战争留下的创伤仍在隐隐作痛,ISIS在这里的影响可能更加直接。ISIS月突破叙利亚边界线、打入以逊尼派为主的阿萨尔城(Arsal)。在的黎波里,军方与逊尼派伊斯兰极端分子之间的激战仍在持续。黎巴嫩军方在与得到伊朗持的什叶派准军事组织黎巴嫩真主Hizbollah)并肩作战,后者对外力挺阿萨德政权,对内有能力左右黎巴嫩国内的政治集团。联合作战的双方看上去能够掌控局面,但代价是疏远了逊尼派,这在政治上对ISIS有利。Isis will keep trying to link up with local radicals and their sympathisers among the millions of Sunni refugees in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan where a notorious al-Qaeda spiritual guide, Abu Mohammed al-Makdisi , was arrested on Monday for incitement against the US-led “crusadercoalition against Isis that Jordan has now joined. Salafi fundamentalism has long incubated in Jordanian cities such as Zarqa and Maan, and helped spawn the precursor of Isis. “I’m not worried that Da’esh [an Arabic acronym for Isis] will break through our borders,says a leading businessman in Amman, “I’m worried about what’s aly inside them.”ISIS将继续设法联合地方极端分子,以及土耳其、黎巴嫩和约旦境内数百万逊尼派难民中的同情者。因为煽动民众反对美国领导的对抗ISIS的“十字军”联盟(约旦如今加入了这个联盟),臭名昭著的基地组织(al-Qaeda)“精神导师”阿#8226;穆罕默德#8226;马克迪西(Abu Mohammed al-Makdisi)不久前在约旦被捕。长期以来,萨原教旨主义在约旦的萨卡(Zarqa)、马Maan)等城市滋生,帮助育了ISIS的前身。“我们不担心Da’esh(ISIS的阿拉伯语缩写)会冲破我们的边界线,”约旦首都安曼的一名商业大亨表示,“我担心的是原本就存在于我们境内的东西。”Isis is conjuring from the Sunni sense of betrayal in Syria and dispossession in Iraq the fanciful idea that Sunni worldwide about 1.3bn of 1.6bn Muslims are in some way a victimised minority. Countering this narrative politically needs mainstream Sunni leadership. What we have instead is a west slipping back into its comfort zone of backing Sunni autocracies. Chief among those is Saudi Arabia, with which Isis shares Wahhabi doctrines such as that the Shia are idolatrous apostates, and which has filled the void of Sunni leadership with petrodollars and poisonous bigotry.在逊尼派看来,叙利亚背叛了教义,伊拉克逊尼派遭到强取豪夺,针对逊尼派的这种看法,ISIS提出了一个奇妙的观点:尽管全世界16亿穆斯林中有3亿为逊尼派,但逊尼派在某种程度上却是受到迫害的少数派。要在政治上驳斥这种说法,需要主流逊尼派发挥领导力。然而,西方眼下却退回了持逊尼派独裁政权的老路。其中最大的独裁政权就是沙特阿拉伯,它和ISIS都信仰瓦哈比(Wahhabi)教义,比如认为什叶派是盲信的背教者,沙特还用石油美元和有害的偏见填补了逊尼派领导权缺失留下的空癀?来 /201411/342272吉安青原区人民中医院瘦腿针多少钱Iraqi forces appeared poised to regain control of the city of Ramadi on Monday in what would mark their most significant victory against Isis fighters to date, although analysts warned myriad difficulties still lay ahead.伊拉克部队周一似乎有望夺回拉马Ramadi),这将标志着他们在打击“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)作战人员的战斗中迄今取得的最重大胜利,尽管分析人士警告称,无数困难仍然摆在面前。State television broadcast footage of government soldiers raising the Iraq flag over Ramadi’s main government complex while a Sunni politician said that Isis fighters were fleeing the city towards rural areas. But questions still remained over just how much of the city, which Iraqi forces were forced to abandon in May, was under government control and just what was left of the city for civilians to return to.官方电视台播出了政府军官兵在拉马迪主要政府大楼升起伊拉克国旗的画面,同时一名逊尼派政界人士表示,ISIS作战人员正从该市逃往农村地区。但是,对于伊拉克部队在今年5月被迫放弃的这座城市有多大部分处于政府控制之下,对于该市还剩下些什么在等待平民重返家园,仍有很多问号。“Militarily speaking, we can say that the city of Ramadi has fallen back into the hands of the Iraqi forces,Sunni politician Jaber Jaberi told the Financial Times. “It is considered a fallen city because there is no resistance from Isis.”“从军事上说,我们可以说,拉马迪市已经回到伊拉克部队手中,”逊尼派政界人士贾比尔贾比Jaber Jaberi)对英囀?金融时报》表示,“它之所以被认为是一座已经攻陷的城市,是因为ISIS方面没有抵抗。”Still, Iraqi forces had yet to enter some areas of Ramadi where Isis fighters had left explosives behind, Mr Jaberi cautioned and another Iraqi analyst, Hisham al-Hashimi, said only 14 of the 43 neighbourhoods in central Ramadi were under government control.话虽如此,贾比瑞告诫称,伊拉克部队还没有进入ISIS作战人员留下炸药的拉马迪某些地区。伊拉克另一名分析人士希沙姆哈希Hisham al-Hashimi)表示,拉马迪中心城区3个地段中,只4个处在政府控制下。Any victory could also be Pyrrhic with months of heavy bombing appearing to have left much of the city in ruins, other analysts cautioned.其他分析师告诫称,任何胜利也可能是得不偿失的惨胜,因为连续几个月的猛烈轰炸使该市大片地区沦为废墟。“Getting a town back that you should not have lost in the first place is not going to matter very much if it has been completely destroyed,said Anthony Cordesmann, a military expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington.“收复一个你本来就不应该失守的城市,而这座城市已被彻底摧毁,那没什么了不起,”华盛顿智库——战略与国际问题研究中心(CSIS)的军事专家安东尼科德斯曼(Anthony Cordesman)表示。来 /201601/419678吉安哪里有祛疤的整形医院吉安医学整形美容祛眼袋多少钱

吉安e光祛蝴蝶斑哪家医院好吉安保仕柏丽整形医院激光去痣多少钱吉安抽脂医院Australia is the biggest donor of foreign aid in the South Pacific but China is challenging its influence in a region it regards as its back yard, according to research by the Lowy Institute think-tank.根据智库洛伊研究所(Lowy Institute)的研究,澳大利亚仍是南太平洋地区的最大外援提供国,但中国正在澳大利亚视为后院的地区挑战澳大利亚的影响力。Between 2006 and 2013 Australia provided .8bn in bilateral aid to the region, the US gave .7bn and China spent .4bn. But Beijing is now the biggest overseas backer of Fiji, providing 9.2m to the island nation in the same period while Australia gave 2.2m.2006年至2013年间,澳大利亚向南太平洋地区提供8亿美元双边援助,美国提供7亿美元,中国提供4亿美元。但北京方面现在是斐济最大的海外持者,在上述期间向这个岛国提供.392亿美元,多于澳大利亚提供.522亿美元。Chinese grants and loans are helping to build roads, schools and other infrastructure in the eight countries with which it enjoys diplomatic relations in the region. Chinese companies are active and are backing the .6bn Ramu Nickel mine in Papua New Guinea.在与中国建立了外交关系的8个南太平洋国家,中国的赠款和贷款正在帮助建造公路、学校和其他基础设施。中国企业正在积极持巴布亚新几内亚耗资16亿美元的Ramu镍矿。“In some specific countries in the Pacific, the amount of aid provided by China is rivalling that of Australia and other traditional partners,says Philippa Brant, Lowy Institute researcher and author of the report.“在某些特定的太平洋国家,中国提供的援助金额正在比肩澳大利亚和其他传统合作伙伴,”洛伊研究所研究员、报告作者菲莉帕#8226;布兰Philippa Brant)表示。“Perhaps one of the reasons the Pacific was quarantined from the cuts was to help maintain Australia’s dominance as a donor in the face of increasing engagement from China and other emerging donors.”“对太平洋国家的援助之所以没有减少,原因之一可能是,面对中国和其他新兴援助国触角越伸越长的情况,(澳大利亚希望这么做能)帮忙保住澳大利亚作为头号援助国的地位。”China does not publish a definitive list of aid projects, considering them a state secret. The Lowy Institute drew on 500 sources, including budgets, tender documents, and government statements, as well as interviews.中国并不公布确切的援助项目清单,将其视为国家机密。洛伊研究所参考了500个信息来源,包括预算、招标文件、政府声明以及采访。来 /201506/380300吉安做双眼皮多少钱

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