吉安祛痘哪里好龙马常识

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 吉安祛痘哪里好当当健康
But by editorial,说到编辑I mean there are a thousand things that we could我是指我们正在做的1000件事里be doing but theres only one or two that are important只有一两件是重要的All of these ideas and来自用户的all of these stories from our users,工程师的,持者的from engineers, from support people,各种想法和故事from designers are going to constantly flood会不断冲击what we should be doing.我们应该做的事情We need to choose the one or two我需要选择那一件或两件that are really going to drive会真的带动这个网络,务,产品and sustain the network and the service and the product让它们持续发展的事情As an editor,拿编辑打比方I am effectively just the chief editor of the company.我就是公司有效率的总编As an editor, Im constantly taking all these inputs作为一个编辑,我不断地吸收这些输入程序and deciding on that one or that intersection of决定哪一点或是哪一部分a few that makes sense for what were doing.是值得去做的Theres three access points that I pay attention to,我尤其注意到in particular.三个切入点Number 1 is the team.第一就是团队We have to bring the best people in,我们必须招揽最优秀的人edit the best people in吸纳最优秀的人so we have a good cast of characters,所以我们有了强大的阵容and edit away any negative elements.剪辑走了负面元素A lot of this is just like the timing is off这项工作很难,经常会出现and our relationship just doesnt match.不论多久,关系就是调理不好的情况In some cases, we have to ask people在某些情况下,我需要让有些人to leave or they leave on their own.离开,或者等他们主动离开But its always minding that team dynamic但是团队动态需要始终放在心上because at the end of the day,因为当这一阶段结束后were just a group of people working on one single goal我们就会成为一群人在为同一个目标奋斗If we cant step in a cohesive coordinative fashion,如果我们不能成为一个相互协调相互统一的整体then were going to trip all over the place.那我们就会东扑西扑And thats a messy company. No one wants to use that.公司也会变得一团糟,团队也没人敢用So, recruiting is number 1.所以招贤纳士是第一位Number 2 is internal and external communication.第二是内部和外部的交流Internal communication is just the coordination around内部的交流就是协调我们手头的工作what were doing and why were doing it and what our搞清楚我们为什么在做这些工作goals are and why the goals are like that. Thats it.为什么我们有这些目标,就是如此If you have that sort of high-level,如果你做到这么高水准的内部交流this is where were going,就与我们的前进方向不谋而合this is the vision, this is the next 30 days and这就是未来,这是接下来30天three months and six months and a year maybe,3个月,半年或是1年的前景it makes it very, very easy to这让公司各部门的人set priorities and for all of the edges做正确的事of the company to set their own priorities设立工作重点to do the right thing.变得非常容易The external communication is the product.外部交流就是产品The product is the story were telling the world.产品就是我们告诉世界的故事We want to put everything through this.我们想将所有东西都放在里面We dont want it to be about a person.我们不想让故事只针对某人We want it to be about我们想让它成为关于how people are using it and how people are人们怎样使用它和人们怎样fitting it into their lives让它融入生活and what theyre doing with it.人们用它做什么Thats the strongest story we have.这是我们最有力的故事So, number 2 is that所以第二就是internal and external communication.内部和外部的交流Number 3 is editing the money in the bank story.第三就是像那样;编辑;钱This comes in two ways.这有两种方式It comes through investment and它来自投资和taking money from investors,从投资者那里拿钱either through swiping their credit cards while无论是当他们不注意的时候刷信用卡theyre not looking or through revenue.还是通过业务来盈利Fortunately, Square is a company幸运的是 Square是一家that has revenue from day 1从第一天就有收入的公司so we can look at constantly building that and所以我们可以看到在不断地建设它we dont have to worry about much investment.而不必担心投资问题We can focus on that revenue piece.我们可以集中在收入这一块So, my three priorities and以上依次是我的三个重点my focus areas are in that order.和关注领域Thats what Im constantly editing as a CEO.这是我作为CEO不断编辑的东西I think it makes managing a growing company我认为它让一个不断壮大的公司的管理and a fast-paced movement very,和快速发展变得very easy because非常简单there is basically one thing that you have to do.因为你必须做一件事You have to make every single detail perfect就是让每个细节都很完美and you have to limit the number of details.你必须要限制细节的数量Thats it.就是这样Every detail perfect, limit the number of details.每个细节都完美,限制细节的数量If you can do that well,如果你在这方面可以做得很好no matter where you are in the org structure,不管你在这个组织机构的哪里no matter where you are in the company or organization,不管你在公司或是组织的哪个位置youre going to succeed because youre paying你就会成功,因为你attention to the smallest things.注意到了细小的东西And if you pay attention to the smallest如果你注意到了最小的东西things while knowing whats important,并且知道什么是重要的then everything else takes care of itself.那么任何其他事情都会自然而然地好起来201503/366863A good test of a person is who turns up at their funeral and with what sincerity. Try not to sit the test too early, of course.考验一个人是否可靠的方法是看他是否参加你的葬礼,在葬礼上是否虔诚。当然不要太早就考验。Recently, I attended a funeral and the speaker said he would like to begin by ing a list of all those whose funerals he would rather have been attending, but the list was too long. It was a sweet compliment to our friend.最近我参加了一个葬礼,主持人说在葬礼开始前他想先读一个名单,名单上这些人的葬礼他本该去参加的,结果却没去。这个名单很长。这对我的朋友来说也算是一种高度的赞美了。Alternatively there was Spike Milligan, the quintessential English comic who when he was asked what he would like as the epitaph on his tombstone, replied: ;They should write: I told you I was ill.;还有一件事,当英国著名的喜剧演员斯派克#8226;密歇根被问及希望在自己的墓碑上刻什么样是碑文时,他答道:他们应该写“我都说过我生病了。”There was a colleague of mine in the British Parliament who once asked another: ;Why do people take such an instant dislike to me?; and got the reply: ;Because it saves time.;我在英国议会上的一个同事问另一个同事:“为什么人们这么快就不喜欢我了?”他得到的回答是:“因为这样节省时间。”So, when others think of you, let them think not with their lips but their hearts of a good friend and a gracious acquaintance.所以你们要做到,当别人想起你的时候,然他们站在一个好朋友和一个亲切的相识的角度上去评价你,而不是随便说说。Above all, however, have a purpose in life. Life is not about living but about striving. When you get up, get up motivated. Live with a perpetual sense of urgency. And make at least part of that purpose about something bigger than you.然而,最重要的是,生活要有目标。生活不仅仅是活着,而是要不断追求。每天早晨起来时都要带着一种动机。生活要时刻有紧迫感。而且在制定个人目标时,至少有一部分要超出个人能力范围。There are great careers. There are also great causes.有伟大的事业,也要有伟大的理想。 /201212/217420John F. KennedyCuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nationdelivered 22 October 1962Good evening, my fellow citizens:This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere.Upon receiving the first preliminary hard information of this nature last Tuesday morning at 9 A.M., I directed that our surveillance be stepped up. And having now confirmed and completed our evaluation of the evidence and our decision on a course of action, this Government feels obliged to report this new crisis to you in fullest detail.The characteristics of these new missile sites indicate two distinct types of installations. Several of them include medium range ballistic missiles, capable of carrying a nuclear warhead for a distance of more than 1,000 nautical miles. Each of these missiles, in short, is capable of striking Washington, D. C., the Panama Canal, Cape Canaveral, Mexico City, or any other city in the southeastern part of the ed States, in Central America, or in the Caribbean area.Additional sites not yet completed appear to be designed for intermediate range ballistic missiles — capable of traveling more than twice as far — and thus capable of striking most of the major cities in the Western Hemisphere, ranging as far north as Hudson Bay, Canada, and as far south as Lima, Peru. In addition, jet bombers, capable of carrying nuclear weapons, are now being uncrated and assembled in Cuba, while the necessary air bases are being prepared.This urgent transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base — by the presence of these large, long-range, and clearly offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction — constitutes an explicit threat to the peace and security of all the Americas, in flagrant and deliberate defiance of the Rio Pact of 1947, the traditions of this nation and hemisphere, the joint resolution of the 87th Congress, the Charter of the ed Nations, and my own public warnings to the Soviets on September 4 and 13. This action also contradicts the repeated assurances of Soviet spokesmen, both publicly and privately delivered, that the arms buildup in Cuba would retain its original defensive character, and that the Soviet Union had no need or desire to station strategic missiles. on the territory of any other nation.The size of this undertaking makes clear that it has been planned for some months. Yet, only last month, after I had made clear the distinction between any introduction of ground-to-ground missiles and the existence of defensive antiaircraft missiles, the Soviet Government publicly stated on September 11 that, and I e, ;the armaments and military equipment sent to Cuba are designed exclusively for defensive purposes,; that there is, and I e the Soviet Government, ;there is no need for the Soviet Government to shift its weapons for a retaliatory blow to any other country, for instance Cuba,; and that, and I e their government, ;the Soviet Union has so powerful rockets to carry these nuclear warheads that there is no need to search for sites for them beyond the boundaries of the Soviet Union.;That statement was false.nly last Thursday, as evidence of this rapid offensive buildup was aly in my hand, Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko told me in my office that he was instructed to make it clear once again, as he said his government had aly done, that Soviet assistance to Cuba, and I e, ;pursued solely the purpose of contributing to the defense capabilities of Cuba,; that, and I e him, ;training by Soviet specialists of Cuban nationals in handling defensive armaments was by no means offensive, and if it were otherwise,; Mr. Gromyko went on, ;the Soviet Government would never become involved in rendering such assistance.;That statement also was false.Neither the ed States of America nor the world community of nations can tolerate deliberate deception and offensive threats on the part of any nation, large or small. We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nations security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift, that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace.For many years, both the Soviet Union and the ed States, recognizing this fact, have deployed strategic nuclear weapons with great care, never upsetting the precarious status quo which insured that these weapons would not be used in the absence of some vital challenge. Our own strategic missiles have never been transferred to the territory of any other nation under a cloak of secrecy and deception; and our history — unlike that of the Soviets since the end of World War II — demonstrates that we have no desire to dominate or conquer any other nation or impose our system upon its people. Nevertheless, American citizens have become adjusted to living daily on the bulls-eye of Soviet missiles located inside the U.S.S.R. or in submarines.In that sense, missiles in Cuba add to an aly clear and present danger — although it should be noted the nations of Latin America have never previously been subjected to a potential nuclear threat. But this secret, swift, extraordinary buildup of Communist missiles — in an area well known to have a special and historical relationship to the ed States and the nations of the Western Hemisphere, in violation of Soviet assurances, and in defiance of American and hemispheric policy — this sudden, clandestine decision to station strategic weapons for the first time outside of Soviet soil — is a deliberately provocative and unjustified change in the status quo which cannot be accepted by this country, if our courage and our commitments are ever to be trusted again by either friend or foe.The 1930s taught us a clear lesson: aggressive conduct, if allowed to go unchecked and unchallenged, ultimately leads to war. This nation is opposed to war. We are also true to our word. Our unswerving objective, therefore, must be to prevent the use of these missiles against this or any other country, and to secure their withdrawal or elimination from the Western Hemisphere.Our policy has been one of patience and restraint, as befits a peaceful and powerful nation which leads a worldwide alliance. We have been determined not to be diverted from our central concerns by mere irritants and fanatics. But now further action is required, and it is under way; and these actions may only be the beginning. We will not prematurely or unnecessarily risk the costs of worldwide nuclear war in which even the fruits of victory would be ashes in our mouth; but neither will we shrink from that risk at any time it must be faced.Acting, therefore, in the defense of our own security and of the entire Western Hemisphere, and under the authority entrusted to me by the Constitution as endorsed by the Resolution of the Congress, I have directed that the following initial steps be taken immediately:First: To halt this offensive buildup a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated. All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation or port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back. This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers. We are not at this time, however, denying the necessities of life as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of 1948.Second: I have directed the continued and increased close surveillance of Cuba and its military buildup. The foreign ministers of the OAS [Organization of American States], in their communiqué of October 6, rejected secrecy on such matters in this hemisphere. Should these offensive military preparations continue, thus increasing the threat to the hemisphere, further action will be justified. I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interest of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned of continuing this threat will be recognized.Third: It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the ed States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.Fourth: As a necessary military precaution, I have reinforced our base at Guantanamo, evacuated today the dependents of our personnel there, and ordered additional military units to be on a standby alert basis.Fifth: We are calling tonight for an immediate meeting of the Organ[ization] of Consultation under the Organization of American States, to consider this threat to hemispheric security and to invoke articles 6 and 8 of the Rio Treaty in support of all necessary action. The ed Nations Charter allows for regional security arrangements, and the nations of this hemisphere decided long ago against the military presence of outside powers. Our other allies around the world have also been alerted.Sixth: Under the Charter of the ed Nations, we are asking tonight that an emergency meeting of the Security Council be convoked without delay to take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace. Our resolution will call for the prompt dismantling and withdrawal of all offensive weapons in Cuba, under the supervision of U.N. observers, before the quarantine can be lifted.Seventh and finally: I call upon Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless, and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations. I call upon him further to abandon this course of world domination, and to join in an historic effort to end the perilous arms race and to transform the history of man. He has an opportunity now to move the world back from the abyss of destruction by returning to his governments own words that it had no need to station missiles outside its own territory, and withdrawing these weapons from Cuba by refraining from any action which will widen or deepen the present crisis, and then by participating in a search for peaceful and permanent solutions.This nation is prepared to present its case against the Soviet threat to peace, and our own proposals for a peaceful world, at any time and in any forum — in the OAS, in the ed Nations, or in any other meeting that could be useful — without limiting our freedom of action. We have in the past made strenuous efforts to limit the sp of nuclear weapons. We have proposed the elimination of all arms and military bases in a fair and effective disarmament treaty. We are prepared to discuss new proposals for the removal of tensions on both sides, including the possibilities of a genuinely independent Cuba, free to determine its own destiny. We have no wish to war with the Soviet Union — for we are a peaceful people who desire to live in peace with all other peoples.But it is difficult to settle or even discuss these problems in an atmosphere of intimidation. That is why this latest Soviet threat — or any other threat which is made either independently or in response to our actions this week— must and will be met with determination. Any hostile move anywhere in the world against the safety and freedom of peoples to whom we are committed, including in particular the brave people of West Berlin, will be met by whatever action is needed.Finally, I want to say a few words to the captive people of Cuba, to whom this speech is being directly carried by special radio facilities. I speak to you as a friend, as one who knows of your deep attachment to your fatherland, as one who shares your aspirations for liberty and justice for all. And I have watched and the American people have watched with deep sorrow how your nationalist revolution was betrayed — and how your fatherland fell under foreign domination. Now your leaders are no longer Cuban leaders inspired by Cuban ideals. They are puppets and agents of an international conspiracy which has turned Cuba against your friends and neighbors in the Americas, and turned it into the first Latin American country to become a target for nuclear war — the first Latin American country to have these weapons on its soil.These new weapons are not in your interest. They contribute nothing to your peace and well-being. They can only undermine it. But this country has no wish to cause you to suffer or to impose any system upon you. We know that your lives and land are being used as pawns by those who deny your freedom. Many times in the past, the Cuban people have risen to throw out tyrants who destroyed their liberty. And I have no doubt that most Cubans today look forward to the time when they will be truly free — free from foreign domination, free to choose their own leaders, free to select their own system, free to own their own land, free to speak and write and worship without fear or degradation. And then shall Cuba be welcomed back to the society of free nations and to the associations of this hemisphere.My fellow citizens, let no one doubt that this is a difficult and dangerous effort on which we have set out. No one can foresee precisely what course it will take or what costs or casualties will be incurred. Many months of sacrifice and self-discipline lie ahead — months in which both our patience and our will will be tested, months in which many threats and denunciations will keep us aware of our dangers. But the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing.The path we have chosen for the present is full of hazards, as all paths are; but it is the one most consistent with our character and courage as a nation and our commitments around the world. The cost of freedom is always high, but Americans have always paid it. And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender or submission.Our goal is not the victory of might, but the vindication of right; not peace at the expense of freedom, but both peace and freedom, here in this hemisphere, and, we hope, around the world. God willing, that goal will be achieved.Thank you and good night. 演讲者简介:约翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪(John Fitzgerald Kennedy,1917年5月29日-1963年11月22日),通常被称作约翰·F·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)、JFK或杰克·肯尼迪(Jack Kennedy),美国第35任总统,他的任期从1961年1月20日开始到1963年11月22日在得克萨斯州达拉斯市遇刺身亡为止。他是在美国颇具影响力的肯尼迪政治家族的一员,被视为美国自由主义的代表。在第二次世界大战期间,他曾在南太平洋英勇救助了落水海军船员,因而获颁紫心勋章。肯尼迪在1946年-1960年期间曾先后任众议员和参议员,并于1960年当选为美国总统,成为美国历史上唯一信奉罗马天主教的总统。在他总统任期内的主要事件包括:试图废除联邦储备委员会、猪湾入侵、古巴导弹危机、柏林墙的建立、太空竞赛、越南战争的早期活动以及美国民权运动。在针对总统功绩的排名中,肯尼迪通常被历史学家列在排名中上的位置,但他却一直被大多数美国人视为历史上最伟大的总统之一。肯尼迪于1963年11月22日在得克萨斯州达拉斯市遇刺身亡,官方在随后的调查报告中公布的结果表明,李·哈维·奥斯瓦尔德是刺杀总统的凶手。他的遇刺被视为对美国历史的发展产生重大决定性影响的事件之一,因为这一事件在其后数十年中一直影响了美国政治的发展方向。演讲背景:1962年10月中旬,华盛顿的USA情报官员在进行例行情报资料库分析时,从飞临古 巴上空的U—2飞机所拍摄照片中发现了问题。他们确认,苏联正在古巴首都哈瓦那西南的圣克利斯托瓦尔修建基地,部署中短程导弹和运载核武器的伊尔-28重型轰炸机。 从这些基地发射的导弹,可以击中从秘鲁利马到加拿大哈得逊湾的大多数美洲重要城市。对此,USA政府作出了强烈的反应。10月22日USA东部时间晚上7点,肯尼迪总 统在白宫他的书房里,向USA和全全球发表点播讲话,通告了苏联在古巴部署核导弹的事实,并指出,这一“秘密、迅速和异乎寻常的导弹设施”是“蓄意的挑衅和对现 状作出的毫无道理的改变,是USA不能接受的”。因此,USA一方面公开向苏联发出 警告,要求苏联从古巴撤出其中短程核武器,同时以USA海空力量在加勒比海的广大 海域对古巴设立了海上封锁线,进行所谓的“隔离”。就这样,在当时全球两个超级 大国——USA和苏联之间爆发了一场危机,将整个全球带到了核灾难的边缘。 /201408/321615

Encounter one: Ocean City, New Jersey, 1980.遭遇一: 1980年,新泽西的欧欣城.This was the summer when the special edition of那是个夏天,正好赶上《第三类接触》的;Close Encounters of the Third Kind; was released.特别版发布.And I went on vacation with my parents to the Jersey shore.我和父母一起去新泽西的滨海度假.Within 12 hours, I was horribly sunburned,我在12个小时内被严重的晒伤,just like Richard Dreyfuss in the movie.严重的就像电影里的Richard Dreyfuss.And so I spent the rest of the vacation所以我剩余的假期,largely sitting outside our little rental house at night,基本上只能在晚上坐在我们租来的小房子外面,the sidewalk still warm from the sun,享受人行道残存的太阳余温,watching the skies for UFOs.寻找着天空的不明飞行物.What did I see? Stars, satellites,我都是看到了什么?星星,人造卫星,blinking airplanes -- typical sky junk.闪砾的飞机 --典型的天空垃圾.Occasionally, kids would come and小朋友们偶尔会过来,join me and watch,加入我一起观察,but their necks soon got sore, and they would go off to the boardwalk他们的脖子很快就酸了,所以他们离开人行道to play games and mingle with humans.去玩游戏机或找别人玩.I was pretty good at the games. I was not very good at the other part,我曾很擅长游戏机.但我不擅长别的,so I stayed alone with the cosmos.所以我还是一个人跟宇宙呆着吧.And thats when it happened.就是在这时发生的,An elderly couple came walking down the street.一对老夫妇在街上溜达.I would say they were in their late seventies,我觉得他们有七十多了,and I would say that they were on a date,还觉得他们在约会,because he was wearing a very neat little suit因为他穿着很整洁的套装with a yellow tie -- a brown suit.棕色套装里还打着黄领带.And she was wearing a cardigan, because it was now fully night因为并不是深夜,女士穿了一件羊毛上衣,and a chill was coming in off the ocean.凉风从海面上吹过来.I remember, for some reason,我记得,出于某种原因,that they were exactly the same height.他们身高相同.And then they stopped, and the man turned to me然后他们停住了,这个男人转向身and said,问我,;What are you looking for,;你在看什么呢?;flying saucers?;;飞碟?;You have to admit, thats a pretty boss piece of detective work你不得不承认,这个老男人在约会时for an old man on a date.非常像一名侦探.But what was stranger still --但还有很奇怪的是 --and even I realized it at the time,我意识到了在那个时间,as a nine-year-old child --作为一个九岁的小孩 --was that they stopped at all.他们停下来That this old man would interrupt his moonlight stroll这个老男人在跟他女朋友在月光下停下来with his sweetheart with the precise reason用一个准确的问题of making fun of a child.去跟一个小孩看玩笑.;Oh,; he said,;哦.; 他说,;little green men.;;小绅士.;And then his girlfriend joined in, too.这时,他女朋友也加入进来.;Theres no such thing as space men,; she said.;外星人根本不存在,; 她说.;Theres no such thing.;;没那种东西.;And then they both laughed. ;Ha, ha, ha.;然后他们同时哈哈一笑.I looked around.我环顾四周.The street was entirely empty.街道已经全空了.I had stopped hearing the sound of the ocean.我听不到大海的声音.It was as though time had stopped.仿佛时间停止了.I did not know why they were teasing me.我不知道他们为什么逗我.I looked into their strangely angry faces,我观察他们陌生的脸孔,and I remember wondering,并且我感觉很奇怪are they wearing rubber masks?他们是不是带的橡胶面具?And what would be behind those rubber masks, if they were?躲在面具后面的是什么?Giant, almond-shaped, unblinking eyes?他们是不是有一双巨大的,一眨不眨的杏仁一样的双眼?Slits for mouths?裂缝一样的嘴巴?The old man crooked his finger as though he were firing a gun,这个做了一个开的手势,and then he made laser sounds.并且他发出激光的声音,;Kew, kew, kew --咻,咻,咻--watch out.;;小心!;And they turned at once and walked away.然后他们转身接着散步.The old man reached out那个老男人伸出his knobbly claw他年迈粗糙的手for the womans hand,拉住女人的手,and found it, and left me alone.然后留下我一个人.Now, you could describe this as a simple misunderstanding --现在,你可以把这个当成一次简单的误会 --a strange encounter among humans.一个人类之间的奇怪的邂逅.Maybe it was swamp gas, but --也许它只是浮云,但是 --I know what I saw.我知道我看到了什么.201506/381122As we look, we get into all sorts of uncomfortable areas.如我们所见,我们涉及各种各样艰难的领域We look, for example, about the fact我们来看一个例子,现实情况是that we share at least 95 percent of our DNA我们用95%的人类的DNAwith chimpanzees.与大猩猩进行对比What are we to make of the fact得出的事实是that we differ from them only really by a few nucleotides?人类和大猩猩的DNA只是在一些核苷酸上有所不同And as we get farther and farther with our science,科技越发展we get more and more into a discomforted zone我们越会涉及到让人苦恼的领域where we have to acknowledge我们必须承认that the simplistic categories weve had那些沿用的简单的分类are probably overly simplistic.是过于简单化了So were seeing this正因如此,我们正在审视着in all sorts of places in human life.人类生活中的各个领域One of the places were seeing it, for example,其中的一个领域,举个例子in our culture today, in the ed States today,就是我们的文化领域,当今美国的文化领域is battles over the beginning of life and the end of life.热议着生命的起源和终结We have difficult conversations我们有一个艰难的讨论about at what point we decide a body becomes a human,关于我们什么时候从一个躯体变成了一个人类such that it has a different right than a fetal life.从而有了不同于胎儿的权利We have very difficult conversations nowadays --我们当今有一个非常有争议的话题——probably not out in the open as much as within medicine --也许在外部不如在医学界内争论的激烈——about the question of when somebodys dead.是关于何时认定为人死亡的疑问In the past, our ancestors never had to struggle so much过去,人死的时候with this question of when somebody was dead.我们的祖先从来不会过多的纠结于此At most, theyd stick a feather on somebodys nose,最多也就是把一个羽毛粘在人的鼻子下and if it twitched, they didnt bury them yet.如果羽毛动了,旁人就不会把他们埋掉If it stopped twitching, you bury them.如果羽毛不动,就会埋了他们But today, we have a situation但是如今的情况都是where we want to take vital organs out of beings我们希望把死者的器官and give them to other beings.移植到其他人的身体上And as a consequence,结果were stuck with having to struggle with this really difficult question我们开始纠结在上面所提到的难题中about whos dead,关于到底死了没有and this leads us to a really difficult situation这导致我们进入一个很困难的情况where we dont have such simple categories as weve had before.这个情况没有之前简单的分类了Now you might think that all this breaking-down of categories现在你也许会想,所有的这些正在崩溃的分类would make somebody like me really happy.也许会让像我这样的人感到高兴Im a political progressive, I defend people with unusual bodies,我是一个在政治观点上不断进步的人,我维护那些身体异于常人的人but I have to admit to you that it makes me nervous.但是我必须承认,这种改变让我感到不安Understanding that these categories认识到这些分类制度are really much more unstable than we thought makes me tense.比我们想象的还不稳定,使我感到紧张And it makes me tense同时,我的紧张来自于from the point of view of thinking about democracy.民主的观点So in order to tell you about that tension,所以,为了告诉大家这种紧张的程度I have to first admit to you that Im a huge fan of the Founding Fathers.我首先要承认,我是国父们的忠实粉丝I know they were racists, I know they were sexist,我知道他们是种族主义者,他们是男性至上主义者but they were great.但是他们非常伟大I mean, they were so brave and so bold我的意思是,他们是如此的英勇、无畏and so radical in what they did并且积极的从事他们的事业that I find myself watching that cheesy musical ;1776; every few years,我自己每隔几年就要重新去欣赏那个挺土的音乐剧“1776”and its not because of the music, which is totally forgettable.并不是因为音乐好,音乐是完全可以被忽略的Its because of what happened in 1776是因为1776年围绕着with the Founding Fathers.建国者们发生的事情The Founding Fathers were, for my point of view,建国者们,我认为他们是the original anatomical activists,最早的解剖学活动家and this is why.这是我爱他们的原因What they rejected was an anatomical concept他们反对了一个解剖学的概念and replaced it with another one并且用另一个取而代之that was radical and beautiful and held us for 200 years.这个新进的美好的概念保持了200年So as you all recall,大家回忆一下what our Founding Fathers were rejecting was a concept of monarchy,我们的建国者们反对的是一个君主制度的概念and the monarchy was basically based并且这个君主制是基于on a very simplistic concept of anatomy.过于简单化的解剖学概念上的The monarchs of the old world旧体制下的帝王们didnt have a concept of DNA,没有DNA的概念but they did have a concept of birthright.但是他们遵从的是“出身”的理念They had a concept of blue blood.他们有贵族的概念They had the idea that the people who would be in political power他们认为,身在政治权力下的人should be in political power就应该掌握权力because of the blood being passed down是因为贵族血统要from grandfather to father to son and so forth.从祖父到父亲到儿子一代代传承The Founding Fathers rejected that idea,建国者们反对这种观点and they replaced it with a new anatomical concept,他们用一种新的解剖上的概念取而代之and that concept那种概念就是was all men are created equal.人人平等They leveled that playing field他们消除了等级观念and decided the anatomy that mattered并且确定解剖学的重要性was the commonality of anatomy,在于全民平等not the difference in anatomy,而不是出身的贵贱and that was a really radical thing to do.在当时那确实是一个很激进的改革Now they were doing it in part某种程度上,这种改革现在仍然在进行because they were part of an Enlightenment system因为他们是启蒙运动系统的一部分201508/394692You should be nice to nerds.你们要对书呆子好点。In fact, Id go so far as to say, if you dont aly have a nerd in your life, you should get one.实际上,我想说如果你生活里还没有个书呆子赶紧找一个。Im just saying.我也就是说说而已。Scientists and engineers change the world.科学家和工程师们改变这个世界。Id like to tell you about a magical place called DARPA where scientists and engineers defy the impossible and refuse to fear failure.我想谈谈个神奇的地方,叫DARPA美国国防部高级研究计划局。在那儿科学家和工程师们都喜欢挑战不可能的事情,不惧怕失败。Now these two ideas are connected more than you may realize, because when you remove the fear of failure,impossible things suddenly become possible.现在,这两个观点联系紧密超乎你的想象,因为当你摆脱了对失败的恐惧,不可能的事情,就突然变成可能。If you want to know how, ask yourself this question:如果你想知道如何做到,那么,先问自己这样一个问题:What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail?如果你知道自己不会失败你会打算做什么?If you really ask yourself this question,you cant help but feel uncomfortable.如果你真的问自己这个问题,你会禁不住感到不舒。I feel a little uncomfortable.我觉得有点不舒。Because when you ask it,you begin to understand how the fear of failure constrains you,how it keeps us from attempting great things, and life gets dull,amazing things stop happening.因为当你这样问的时候,你就开始明白失败的恐惧怎样束缚了你,怎样阻碍了我们追求伟大的事情,生活变得无趣,奇妙的事情不再发生。Sure, good things happen, but amazing things stop happening.当然,好事情还是有,但是神奇的事情不再发生了。Now I should be clear, Im not encouraging failure, Im discouraging fear of failure.现在,我要说明一点,我不是在鼓励失败。我在反对。惧怕失败。Because its not failure itself that constrains us.因为不是失败本身束缚了我们。The path to truly new, never-been-done-before things always has failure along the way.在通往真正新鲜没有人做过的事情的路上总会有失败。Were tested.我们受到了考验。And in part, that testing feels an appropriate part of achieving something great.而考验是我们获得巨大成功的应有条件。Clemenceau said, Life gets interesting when we fail, because its a sign that weve surpassed ourselves.克里蒙梭说过:在我们失败时,生活变有趣了,因为它表明了我们超越了自己。In 1895, Lord Kelvin declared that heavier-than-air flying machines were impossible.1895年,开尔文爵士宣称,重过空气的飞行器都是不可能飞起来的。In October of the prevailing opinion of expert aerodynamicists was that maybe in 10 million years we could build an aircraft that would fly.1903, 1903年10月,动力学专家。普遍认为千万年以后人类才能造出能飞的飞机。And two months later on December 17th, Orville Wright powered the first airplane across a beach in North Carolina.但是两个月后,12月17日,奥维尔赖特驾驶第一架飞机飞过了北卡罗来纳州的一个沙滩。The flight lasted 12 seconds and covered 120 feet.这次飞行持续了12秒钟行程为120英尺。That was 1903.那是1903年。One year later, the next declarations of impossibilities began.一年后又一个不可能宣言开始了。Ferdinand Foch, a French army general credited with having one of the most original and subtle minds in the French army, said, Airplanes are interesting toys,but of no military value.斐迪南福煦,法国军队中一位将军,他被人们赞誉具有最原始的和微妙的思想之一,他说:飞机是个好玩的玩具,但是毫无军用价值。201411/343326

Today, I’m wearing my red ribbon with pride for World AIDS Day. In the last thirty years, since the first cases of HIV were discovered, we’ve travelled a huge distance in terms of research and treatment. Not least because advances in medication now mean that, if diagnosed and treated early enough, people living with HIV can live just as long as people without it.In the UK we’re committed to tackling the global impacts of this disease – the ambition has to be a future with zero new infections and AIDs-related deaths. That’s why last year we invested £1 billion in the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. This money is helping hundreds of thousands of people around the world get lifesaving treatment.But, of course, there is still a long way to go. And while the science has moved on, too many people’s attitudes have not. One in three people living with HIV say that they have experienced discrimination, because of their condition. That’s simply unacceptable. So, this World Aids Day, please visit HIVaware.org.uk to get the facts about HIV and tell the people you know.It’s critical that people have the right information, and that the next generation – through good sex education – understand the facts. Together, by wearing your red ribbon and tweeting your support using the hashtag Put A Ribbon On It, we can help break down the stigma that still surrounds this condition and show that there’s just no place for this kind of discrimination in modern Britain. So please get involved.Today, let’s all do our bit.201506/381106And what I want to suggest is that,我想提出的一个想法是having talked to girls, because I just finished a new book called我们,都来跟女孩开展对话。;I Am an Emotional Creature: The Secret Life of Girls Around the World,;我最近写,了一本书,叫《我是一个情感动物:全球女孩秘密故事》Ive been talking to girls for five years,过去五年,我一直在跟女孩对话and one of the things that Ive seen is true everywhere不管去到那里,一样事情是肯定的is that the verb thats been enforced on girl即人们谈论到女孩的时候,所用的动词is the verb ;to please.;这就是“取悦”Girls are trained to please.人们训练女孩去“取悦”他人I want to change the verb.我想改变这个动词I want us all to change the verb.我希望大家都可以改变这个动词I want the verb to be ;educate,;我希望将其改为“教育”or ;activate,; or ;engage,;或者“鼓动”、“介入”or ;confront,; or ;defy,; or ;create.;或“对抗”或“反抗”或“创造;If we teach girls to change the verb假如我们能够教育女孩改变这个动词we will actually enforce the girl inside us我们也会让我们体内的女孩变得更加有力and the girl inside them.让女孩自身的女孩特质变得更加有力量And I have to now share a few stories接下来就跟大家分享几个故事of girls Ive seen across the planet都是我在全世界看到的一些女孩,的故事who have engaged their girl,她们都曾鼓舞了其他女孩who have taken on their girl in spite of都曾在种种障碍之下all the circumstances around them.成功的活出了一个完整的女孩I know a 14-year-old girl in the Netherlands,我认识一个14岁的荷兰女孩子for example, who is demanding that she take a boat她要自己坐一艘小船and go around the entire world by herself.独自环游世界There is a teenage girl who just recently还有,最近一个,少女went out and knew that she needed 56 stars她要在自己的右脸tattooed on the right side of her face.做56颗星星状的文身There is a girl, Julia Butterfly Hill,还有一个叫朱莉亚·希尔的女孩who lived for a year in a tree她在一棵树上住了一年because she wanted to protect the wild oaks.因为她想保护野生的橡树There is a girl who I met 14 years ago in Afghanistan还有,14年前,我在阿富汗认识了一个女孩who I have adopted as my daughter我把她收养了,将她当成自己的女儿because her mother was killed. Her mother was a revolutionary.她母亲是一位革命家,被人杀死了And this girl, when she was 17 years old,而这个女孩,当她还只是17岁的时候wore a burqa in Afghanistan,在阿富汗,就穿着一件布卡and went into the stadiums走到会场里,and documented the atrocities that were going on towards women,记录了那里发生的针对妇女的血腥暴力underneath her burqa, with a .在布卡底下,是她的摄像机。And that became the that went out all over the world那个视频也传遍了世界after 9/11 to show what was going on in Afghanistan.向人们揭示了911之后发生在阿富汗的一些事实I want to talk about Rachel Corrie还有雷切尔·科莉who was in her teens when she stood in front of an Israeli tank她十几岁的时候,就曾走到一辆以色列坦克跟前to say, ;End the occupation.;说,“停止占领。”And she knew she risked death and she was literally gunned down她知道这是在送命,并且遭到了连番击and rolled over by that tank.最后坦克从她身上开过And I want to talk about a girl that I just met recently还有,我最近认识的一个女孩in Bukavu, who was impregnated by her rapist.那是在布卡维,这个女孩因为被强暴而怀And she was holding her baby.她把孩子抱在怀里And I asked her if she loved her baby.我问她,是否喜欢这个孩子And she looked into her babys eyes and she said,她看着孩子的眼睛,说;Of course I love my baby. How could I not love my baby?“那当然。我怎么可能不喜爱自己的孩子呢?Its my baby and its full of love.;这确实是我的孩子啊,他的身上流淌着爱。;The capacity for girls to overcome situations女孩那种对抗困境并且and to move on levels, to me, is mind-blowing.穷而益坚的精神着实让我感动There is a girl named Dorcas, and I just met her in Kenya.还有个叫多卡丝的女孩,我是在肯尼亚见到她的Dorcas is 15 years old,那时候多卡丝15岁and she was trained in self-defense.她学习自卫A few months ago she was picked up on the street几个月前,by three older men.她在路上被三个男人劫持了,They kidnapped her, they put her in a car.他们绑架了她,把她丢到车上And through her self-defense, she grabbed their Adams apples,她勇敢地自卫,抓住他们的喉咙she punched them in the eyes用拳头打他们的眼睛and she got herself free and out of the car.终于得以逃脱那班人的魔爪,逃离了那辆车201511/407329

The geriatrician will intervene late in the day,老年医学医生会在一个人老化过程的后段,when pathology is becoming evident,病理越来越明显的时候,and the geriatrician will try and hold back the sands of time,做治疗来尽量阻止老化时间and stop the accumulation of side effects和副作用积累from causing the pathology quite so soon.并且阻止那么快就造成不可避免地死亡。Of course, its a very short-term-ist strategy; its a losing battle,当然,这是一个非常短暂的战略,是一个败仗,because the things that are causing the pathology因为导致病理不可避免地死亡的这些副作用are becoming more abundant as time goes on.会随着时间的推移越来越多。The gerontology approach looks much more promising on the surface,老年学的方法在表面上看起来更充满希望具发展前景,because, you know, prevention is better than cure.因为你们也知道,预防胜于治疗。But unfortunately the thing is that we dont understand metabolism very well.但不幸的是,我们对新陈代谢的理解非常少。In fact, we have a pitifully poor understanding of how organisms work --事实上,我们对生物体的了解少的可怜 –even cells were not really too good on yet.甚至细胞,我们都不是很懂。Weve discovered things like, for example,连对细胞如何操作的RNA interference only a few years ago,基本知识,例如核糖核酸机能失常,and this is a really fundamental component of how cells work.在仅仅几年前,我们才发现它。Basically, gerontology is a fine approach in the end,基本上,如果我们要讨论在我们一生中能用到的延长寿命的治疗,but it is not an approach whose time has come老年学以后将会是一个很好的方法,when were talking about intervention.但它的时机未到。So then, what do we do about that?然后呢,这怎么办呢?I mean, thats a fine logic, that sounds pretty convincing,我的意思,这是一个很好的逻辑,pretty ironclad, doesnt it?听起来非常有说力的,不是吗?But it isnt.但事实并非如此。Before I tell you why it isnt, Im going to go a little bit在我告诉你为什么不能之前,into what Im calling step two.我要谈谈我所谓的第二步。Just suppose, as I said, that we do acquire --我们假设,如果正如我所说的,lets say we do it today for the sake of argument --我们 -假设说今天 –the ability to confer 30 extra years of healthy life就拥有能够给现在已是中年,假设说五十五岁的人,on people who are aly in middle age, lets say 55.多三十年的健康寿命的治疗方法。Im going to call that ;robust human rejuvenation.; OK.我称这为‘强健人类再生’ 。好。What would that actually mean那么实际上这对于现在不同年龄的人们,for how long people of various ages today --或者相等地,当这些治疗方法到达时or equivalently, of various ages at the time that these therapies arrive --已是不同年龄的人有什么影响呢?would actually live?他们会活多久些呢?In order to answer that question -- you might think its simple,你可能会认为回答这个问题很简单,but its not simple.但它并不简单。We cant just say, ;Well, if theyre young enough to benefit from these therapies,我们不能只是说:“好吧,如果他们足够年轻,得益于这些治疗方法,then theyll live 30 years longer.;那么他们就会活多三十年的时间。”Thats the wrong answer.这是错误的。And the reason its the wrong answer is because of progress.而错误的原因是因为进步。There are two sorts of technological progress really,对于我们这方面的治疗,for this purpose.科学进步有两种。There are fundamental, major breakthroughs,第一种是突破性的进步,and there are incremental refinements of those breakthroughs.然后还有第二种就是不断的在那些突破性的进步上做出改良和提高它们的有效率。Now, they differ a great deal这两种科学进步所需的in terms of the predictability of time frames.时间的预测度有很大的不同。Fundamental breakthroughs:我们很难预测very hard to predict how long its going to take多久才会有to make a fundamental breakthrough.突破性的进步。It was a very long time ago that we decided that flying would be fun,人类很有可能在很多年前就想在天空上飞行了,and it took us until 1903 to actually work out how to do it.可是要等到一九零三年才发现到底怎么飞行。But after that, things were pretty steady and pretty uniform.可是这之后,人类飞行的科技就很有步骤地发展下去。I think this is a reasonable sequence of events that happened我认为这是一个很合乎情理才导致了in the progression of the technology of powered flight.动力飞行的科技进展。We can think, really, that each one is sort of我们可以想象这些科技发展的每一步都是beyond the imagination of the inventor of the previous one, if you like.上一步的研发人所想不到的。The incremental advances have added up to something比起原先每次都递进增值which is not incremental anymore.有进展。This is the sort of thing you see after a fundamental breakthrough.在每个科学突破性的进步后,您都会看到这些有步骤性的发展。And you see it in all sorts of technologies.而且在很多科技上都是这样。Computers: you can look at a more or less parallel time line,比如说电脑,和飞行科技也很类似,happening of course a bit later.只是发生的时间不同罢了。You can look at medical care. I mean, hygiene, vaccines, antibiotics --您也可以看一看医药保健科技,比如说卫生,疫苗,抗生素,you know, the same sort of time frame.也有着一样的发展时间表。So I think that actually step two, that I called a step a moment ago,因此,我认为其实两个步骤,我刚才称为一个步骤,isnt a step at all.并不完全是一个步骤。That in fact, the people who are young enough事实上,很年轻的人to benefit from these first therapies会从这些实验治疗方法受益,that give this moderate amount of life extension,能使人们的生命适量延长,even though those people are aly middle-aged when the therapies arrive,即使这些人已经中年,当这些治疗方法来到will be at some sort of cusp.人们还可以尝试治疗方法。They will mostly survive long enough to receive improved treatments他们多数活得足够长来接受改进的治疗方法,that will give them a further 30 or maybe 50 years.从而使他们多活30年甚至50年。In other words, they will be staying ahead of the game.换句话说,他们将领先于老化的速度。201508/392305Life will continue to be a journey of discovery if you tend the fires of curiosity that burn brightly in all of us生命是一场持续发现的旅程只有好奇心的火焰 能够照亮我们未来的前路Such curiosity led Eric Kandel here at NYU, to his lifetime goal to discover the chemical and cellular basis of human memory正是这份好奇心让埃里克·坎德尔能够在纽约大学实现他的人生目标他在这里发现了人类记忆的化学和细胞基础A few years after his graduation, he was doing research on cats毕业之后的几年里 他本应当对猫进行研究But he had the idea of focusing on an animal with a simpler, more fundamental brain: the California sea slug但他突然想到一个点子 要研究一种脑部结构更简单更基本的动物加利福尼亚海参His colleagues all but ridiculed him for the idea这个想法遭到了同事们的嘲笑They ;knew;that the study of the lowly sea slug was irrelevant for understanding human memory Kandels surgically-skilled collaborator deserted him他们认为对低等海参的研究 同人类记忆的理解毫无关联具有手术技术的合作者也抛弃了坎德尔To get up to speed on sea slugs, he had to go abroad to study为了加快对海参的研究 他不得不出国研究But Kandel persistedand in 2000 his curiosity won him the Nobel Prize坎德尔坚持了下来2000年 他的好奇心为他赢得了诺贝尔奖It was, as you must have guessed, for deciphering the chemistry of memory in humans as revealed by his research on sea slugs他贡献卓著 破译了人类记忆的化学本质这些都是通过对海参的研究取得的201504/365818

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