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同安区激光去痣多少钱一颗厦门玻尿酸隆眉弓多少钱 5. Chinese Drought Graffiti5. 中国的求雨“涂鸦”Not all graffiti is personal. In the Dayu Cave in the Quinling Mountains of China, there are the records of droughts suffered hundreds of years ago. When the rains failed to arrive, the local people would enter the caves to offer prayers the end of the drought. The walls of the cave bear over 70 records of prayers offered, marked in black paint. One patch of graffiti s ;On June 8, 6th year of the emperor Kangxi period, Qing Dynasty (July 7, AD), the governor of Ningqiang district came to the cave to pray rain.; Another text tells of how a tune teller joined in the ceremony. The precise dating of the graffiti has offered scientists a window into the climatic past of the region. By studying the minerals and chemicals in mations like stalactites in the cave they were able to calculate atmospheric conditions on the surface above the cave. They found that when locals were recording a drought, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels were relatively high.并不是所有的涂鸦都是个人创作的结果在秦岭的大禹洞里面就遗存着描述百年前干旱情形的“涂鸦”当雨季迟迟未至时,当地村民都会到大禹洞中祈求干旱赶紧结束如今,墙上已经有70多道求雨者留下的黑色涂鸦了其中有一道刻痕边还标注着“清朝康熙四十六年六月初八(公元年7月7日),宁强(今陕西宁强)官员前来求雨”,并且还有文字记载有算命先生参加了祈雨仪式这些石刻文上记录的精确日期实际上也为科学家们提供了研究过去时代当地气候的途径——通过对洞内沉积物(比如钟乳石)矿物成分和化学成分的研究计算洞顶表面的大气状况,科学家们发现,当石刻文上有干旱记录对应的时间空气中的碳氧含量也会更高. Hieroglyphic Graffiti. 象形文字“涂鸦”There are many mysteries surrounding the building of the pyramids in Egypt. There is still no consensus as to the exact method used to haul the blocks. We have learned that the men employed in the hauling were not slaves but hired workers. Graffiti is giving an extra insight into these men lives. Exploration of the Great Pyramid of Giza has turned up hieroglyphic graffiti in places that no one was ever meant to see. The men building the pyramid wanted to be a permanent part of one of the Ancient Wonders of the World. In doing so, they left told us how they were organized. Then people doing the heavy lifting on the pyramid were broken into small gangs of individuals. They received, or gave themselves, names like ;Perfection gang,; ;Great One,; ;Green One,; and ;Endurance.; One in the King burial chamber s ;The Friends of Khufu Gang,; Khufu being the pharaoh that the pyramid was raised to house all eternity. From the placing of the gang signs on opposing sides of blocks, it seems that gangs were competing with each other prominence. Naming the gangs of workers could have been a way of the overseers to create competition and improve efficiency.埃及金字塔的搭建过程一直笼罩着重重迷雾当时的人们到底用了什么办法来运送巨石?这一问题至今尚无定论但我们知道的是,被征集来建造金字塔的是雇佣工人而非奴隶这些雇佣工人的生活都被体现在了一种“涂鸦”之中这些不起眼处的象形涂鸦在人们对吉萨金字塔的探索过程中得以重见天日原来,在建造过程中,雇佣工人们为了成为这项古代世界奇迹中永恒的一部分,纷纷在巨石上留下了这些印记而恰恰也是这些印记侧面反映了他们组织形式——运输巨石的工人们在建设金字塔的过程中被分为了若干个队伍,每个小队都有代称(这些代称有些是别人取的,有的是自己取的),比如“十拿九稳队”“伟人帮”“新手队”或者“劳力士”等法老墓室里的一块巨石上还写着“胡夫之友”——胡夫就是被安放在金字塔中的法老,这位法老认为这样可以让他获得永生除此之外,各队的标识刻在石头上的位置往往完全相对,似乎不同队伍之间还存在争优争先的激烈竞争看起来,监管者们似乎把给每个队伍取名当成了创造竞争氛围以提高建造效率的手段3. Witch Marks3. 驱巫标志There is a special type of graffiti meant to ward off danger. This type of protective magic symbol is called Apotropaic Magic. When you fear something is coming after you, you make a special sign in your home and it keeps them away. the medieval mind there were few things as fearsome as the witch. Witches were scary in several ways. They were unruly women, and they had the powers of the devil at their disposal. Such symbols were commonly found in churches. Here, witch marks often took the m of daisy wheels—simple geometric designs drawn with a pair of compasses that look like flowers. Witch marks were also found in private houses. In the th century, King James I was convinced that witches were out to get him. At Knole House, where the king might have been expected to visit, signs were carved into the woodwork to ward off evil. V and M signs were made to invoke the Virgin Mary, and crisscross patterns were made as demon mazes—shapes meant to make evil beings get lost bee they could harm visitors.有些特别的涂鸦还有抵御危险的效用这种神奇的辟邪符号被叫做“辟邪魔(Apotropaic Magic)”,往往是一些非常吓人的图案当人们担心什么邪祟跟着自己的时候,就可以在家里放上一个这样的符号,它们可以让人远离邪祟在中世纪人的观念中,女巫是极为可怕的存在——她们不受制约,并且能够操纵邪祟所以驱巫图案就经常出现在教堂里面,看起来就有点像菊花轮的样子,通常是由极简的几何图案和一对像花卉的规则图案组成当然,有些私人住宅里面也会有驱巫图案世纪,詹姆士一世(英国国王,非常热衷于反对巫术,他甚至写书劝人们将巫术视作对教会权威的反抗,号召人们谴责巫术)总觉得有女巫要谋害自己,所以在他访问诺尔庄园前,庄园领主就在木器上刻上一些标志来驱邪比如圣母玛利亚的缩写——V和M就被用来祈求圣母保佑,十字架图案也被用来迷惑邪祟,以保护访问者不受伤害. Mayan Graffiti. 玛雅“涂鸦”The Mayan Society of Mesoamerica lasted millennia until the Spanish conquistadors brought about its collapse. Its cities and temples are amazing works of architecture. It was one of the great world civilizations. Its writings are an incredible source of inmation about this lost world. But the archaeological are also great sources of graffiti that give windows into the lives of people in this lost world. At Tikal, drawings carved into the stone show portraits, dancing figures, animals, thrones, gods, and priests. One graffito seems to show an execution: a figure stands with his arms stretched between two poles while another has just shot him with an arrow, or run him through with a spear. There are also valuable images of a procession. Men carry trumpets with ribbons streaming from them, while others follow behind. All of these details would be lost if people had not decided to deface their local monuments.在西班牙侵略者入侵之前,玛雅文明已经持续了千年对于艺术家们来说,这一文明建造的城市和宫殿是让人惊叹的存在可以说它是世界上最了不起的文明之一对于这个失落的文明有大量的文字记载不过除此之外,对遗存“涂鸦”的考古也为了解这个失落文明中人们的生活提供了另一种途径人们在蒂卡尔的石头上发现了许多人物肖像,舞蹈人物,动物,王室,神祇和祭司的图案但是有个涂鸦比较奇特:它展示的是一个人双臂展开并被困在两个点上,剩下的人要么拿箭射他要么拿着长矛追着他跑除此之外,还有对玛雅队列的珍贵刻画,比如男人们拿着系着飘带的喇叭,其余的人跟在他们后面如果不是人们在打算毁坏玛雅遗迹的时候恰好看见了这些涂鸦,所有这些玛雅文明中的细节可能永远都不会被人所知1. Piraeus Lion1. 比雷埃夫斯的狮子Piraeus was the port of Ancient Athens. From the first or second century, it was guarded by a statue of a lion. The Piraeus Lion became so famous that the port was known as Porto Leone—the Lion Port. This statue, originally sculpted in the fourth century , remained in place until the th century when the Venetians plundered it and took it home to Venice. All that history would seem to be sufficient, but one puzzle persisted—what was the strange writing on the sides of the Lion? In the 18th century, a Swedish diplomat recognized the marks what they were: Viking runes. The Varangian Guard had struck again. These Scandinavians had written a lengthy inscription in the shape of a dragon into the Lion side. The runes are hard to , but one translation of them s as follows: ;They cut him down in the midst of his ces. But in the harbor the men cut runes by the sea in memory of Horsi, a good warrior. The Swedes set this on the lion. He went his way with good counsel, gold he won in his travels. The warriors cut runes, hewed them in an ornamental scroll. Askell (and others) and Thorlaeifr had them well cut, they who lived in Roslagen. (Unable) son of (Unable) cut these runes. Ulfr and (Unable) colored them in memory of Horsi. He won gold in his travels.;比雷埃夫斯是古希腊的一个港口(堪称雅典海上帝国的咽喉,不但雅典人引以为豪的庞大海军战舰队停靠在这里,地中海各地舶来的货物也在此交换,其中最重要的可能就是从黑海运来的粮食——雅典人全赖此活命)在公元一世纪或者二世纪的时候,那里就立有一座用来保卫港口的狮子雕塑由于这座狮子雕塑实在闻名遐迩,比雷埃弗思港还被称作狮子港(Porto Leone)实际上,这个狮子雕像被创作于公元前世纪,然后就一直被放在那个位置,直到公元世纪的时候人把它抢走带回了这段历史记录看起来十分详实,但是有个问题一直困扰着人们——狮子肩膀和两只前腿刻着奇怪的文字到底是什么东西在18世纪的时候,瑞典东方学家Johan David Akerblad出使,认出它们是古北欧文字如尼文——拜占庭军队(公元860年,第一北欧海盗进攻拜占庭,后投身拜占庭皇帝麾下,成为拜占庭的雇佣军,所以拜占庭精英卫士多使用北欧古文字)在占领雅典之后,在狮子像的一侧写下了这串龙形长文(因为守护的圣徒为四大福音书之一的《马可福音的作者,而圣马可的标志就是一头肋生双翅的狮子,所以人对狮子情有独钟)虽然铭文的内容已经模糊,仅部分段落依稀可辨,有个翻译版本是这样的:“……他们在战争中杀了Horsi,但是现在人们在海边的狮子像上刻下这些符文来祭奠他他是个好士兵他以过人的智谋和战利品黄金行于此世士兵们在装饰的卷轴上刻下符文——住在Roslagen的Askell(其他人无法辨认)和Thorlaeifr刻之,(人名,原文无法辨认)描之,Ulfr和(人名,原文无法辨认)之以此纪念Horis他给我们带来了黄金……” 588厦门市线雕隆鼻面部线雕埋线双眼皮价格

厦门botox哪家医院好A: Excuse me, could you help me pick out a lotion?B: Sure, what is the problem?A: I got poison oak while hiking, and I need something to help me with the itching.B: I can suggest a product called Technu that comes in a lotion or cream.A: Which do you prefer?B: Hikers tell me that the cream is best because it stays on longer.A: Is there anything else I can do to help with the itching?B: You can take an antihistamine.A: Thank you so much all of the inmation.B: You are welcome. Please feel free to ask me a question any time you need help. 96 厦门全国整形医院排名在厦门第一医院祛痣多少钱



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