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2019年10月22日 17:58:02来源:网上解答

President Barack Obama took a break from sorting out the shutdown of the federal government on Monday to make sandwiches for low-income and homeless families.美国总统奥巴马在应付联邦政府关门之际忙里偷闲,本周一亲临一家慈善机构,为低收入群体和无房家庭制作三明治。President Obama visited Martha’s Table in Washington D.C. Monday. The food bank helps low-income families. Dozens of photos were taken showing Obama smearing peanut butter and #39;sticky#39; jelly on what appears to be processed, white b. Menu option number two appeared to be stacks of processed meat, also on white b.奥巴马总统在周一光顾了华盛顿特区的一家非盈利机构“玛莎的餐桌”,这是一家旨在帮助低收入家庭的食品。奥巴马将花生奶油酱和“黏黏的”果酱涂在加工过的白面包上。另一种三明治是将加工熟肉放在白面包上。人们纷纷拍照记录下这一景象。“Can I just say just in the few moments I’ve been here I’m feeling a little sticky. I think I got some PBJ on my fingers,” Obama said.“我想说,我才刚做了一会儿,已经感觉手指有些黏黏的了。我想我的手指粘了些果酱。”This doesn#39;t exactly jibe with Michelle Obama#39;s primary initiative as first lady: healthy eating.这与米歇尔·奥巴马成为第一夫人后的第一项倡议:“健康饮食”似乎有些不符。Mrs. Obama started the #39;Let#39;s Move#39; movement, a program billed as #39;America#39;s move to raise a healthier generation of kids.奥巴马夫人发起了名为“行动起来”的倡议,这各项目旨在“培养更健康的下一代”。#39;In total, we are now eating 31 percent more calories than we were forty years ago–including 56 percent more fats and oils and 14 percent more sugars and sweeteners. The average American now eats fifteen more pounds of sugar a year than in 1970,#39; Mrs. Obama#39;s organization explains on its website.据奥巴马夫人这一项目的官方网站上称“总体上说,我们饮食中的热量比40年前多了30%——其中脂肪热量增长了56%,糖类和糖类添加剂热量增长了14%。现在美国人均每年比上世纪70年代多摄入15磅的糖分。”Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches have roughly 350 calories per sandwich, depending on the amount of peanut butter and jelly added to the sandwich, according to an online calorie counter.根据一个在线热量测评网站,每份花生酱奶油三明治的热量大约为350卡路里,依据三明治中花生酱和果酱分量多少而上下变动。To promote her initiative, Mrs. Obama even has written a book about the White House garden entitled #39;American Grown.#39;为了推广她的倡议,奥巴马夫人甚至写了一本关于白宫蔬菜种植园的书,题为“美国种植”。The situation might get even stickier when the president gets home and has to tell his wife that he#39;s been wrist-deep in peanut butter and jelly all day.试想总统回到家里,告诉夫人他一整天都在涂花生奶油和果酱,他可能会遇到比果酱更难对付的状况吧。 /201310/260835。

  • A patient with abdominal pain dies from a ruptured appendix after a doctor fails to do a complete physical exam. A biopsy comes back positive for prostate cancer, but no one follows up when the lab result gets misplaced. A child#39;s fever and rash are diagnosed as a viral illness, but they turn out to be a much more serious case of bacterial meningitis. 如果医生没能做好全面身体检查,腹痛病人可能会死于阑尾破裂。前列腺癌活体组织检查结果呈阳性,但却没人跟进,因为实验室结果被弄混了。小孩发烧和出疹被诊断为病毒性疾病,但最后却发现是严重得多的细菌性脑膜炎。 Such devastating errors lead to permanent damage or death for as many as 160,000 patients each year, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins University. Not only are diagnostic problems more common than other medical mistakes -- and more likely to harm patients -- but they#39;re also the leading cause of malpractice claims, accounting for 35% of nearly billion in payouts in the U.S. from 1986 to 2010, measured in 2011 dollars, according to Johns Hopkins. 约翰霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)研究人员表示,每年有多达16万名病人因此类致命失误而出现永久损伤或死亡。研究人员称,诊断问题比其他医疗失误更为普遍,而且更容易伤害到病人,同时它们也是医疗过失诉讼的主因,按照2011年美元价值计算,它们在1986年至2010年间共计近390亿美元的赔偿额中占35%。 The good news is that diagnostic errors are more likely to be preventable than other medical mistakes. And now health-care providers are turning to a number of innovative strategies to fix the complex web of errors, biases and oversights that stymie the quest for the right diagnosis. 好消息是,误诊比其他医疗失误更容易预防。现在医疗机构开始采用一系列创新措施来纠正失误、偏误和疏忽等妨碍医生做出正确诊断的问题。 Part of the solution is automation -- using computers to sift through medical records to look for potential bad calls, or to prompt doctors to follow up on red-flag test results. Another component is devices and tests that help doctors identify diseases and conditions more accurately, and online services that give doctors suggestions when they aren#39;t sure what they#39;re dealing with. 其中一个解决办法是自动化──用电脑筛查医疗记录从而找出可能的误诊,或提醒医生跟进标有红色警示的检查结果。另一方面是帮助医生更准确诊断疾病和病情的设备和测试,还有在医生对病人病情不确定时给他们建议的网上务。 Finally, there#39;s a push to change the very culture of medicine. Doctors are being trained not to latch onto one diagnosis and stick with it no matter what. Instead, they#39;re being taught to keep an open mind when confronted with conflicting evidence and opinion. 最后还有推动医疗文化的改革。医生受到的教导是不能抓住一种诊断不放,而是应该在面对相互冲突的据和观点时保持开放的思想。 #39;Diagnostic error is probably the biggest patient-safety issue we face in health care, and it is finally getting on the radar of the patient quality and safety movement,#39; says Mark Graber, a longtime Veterans Administration physician and a fellow at the nonprofit research group RTI International. 美国退伍军人事务部(Veterans Administration)资深医师、非营利研究机构RTI International研究员马克#12539;格雷伯(Mark Graber)说:“误诊可能是我们在医疗行业面临的最大的病人安全问题,现在终于纳入到了病人诊治质量和管理运动中。” The effort will get a big boost under the new health-care law, which requires multiple providers to coordinate care -- and help prevent key information like test results from slipping through the cracks and make sure that patients follow through with referrals to specialists. 这些举措在最新的医疗法律下将会得到大大的推进。法规要求多家医疗机构协调护理治疗,并帮助预防检查结果等关键信息被遗漏,确保病人按照医生的推荐去找专家。 There are other large-scale efforts in the works. The Institute of Medicine, a federal advisory body, has agreed to undertake a million study of the impact of diagnostic errors on health care in the U.S. 另外还有一些大规模的举措正在进行中。为美国联邦政府提供咨询的医学研究所(Institute of Medicine)已经同意承担一项100万美元的有关误诊对美国医疗影响的研究。 In addition, the Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine, which Dr. Graber founded two years ago, is working with health-care accreditation groups and safety organizations to develop methods to identify and measure diagnostic errors, which often aren#39;t revealed unless there is a lawsuit. In addition, it#39;s developing a medical-school curriculum to help trainees improve diagnostic skills and assess their competency. 此外,格雷伯士两年前创立的改善医疗诊断协会(Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine)正在与医疗认机构及安全组织合作,研究确定和衡量诊断失误的方法,通常情况下除非有人起诉,否则误诊是不会公之于众的。另外,协会还在设计一个医学院课程表,帮助学员提高诊断技能并对他们的能力进行评估。 Robert Wachter, associate chairman of the department of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, says defining and measuring diagnostic errors is an important step. #39;Right now, none of the incentives for improvement in health care are based on whether the doctor made the correct diagnosis,#39; Dr. Wachter says. But equally important, he adds, #39;we need to nurture bottom-up innovation.#39; 加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)医药部副主任罗伯特#12539;瓦赫特(Robert Wachter)说,对诊断失误进行确定和衡量是重要的一个步骤。他说:“目前医疗改善的激励措施没有一项是基于医生是否做出了正确诊断的。”不过他又说,同样重要的是,“我们需要鼓励从下至上的创新”。 That#39;s aly happening. Large health-care systems are mining their electronic records for missed signals. At the Southern California Permanente Medical Group, part of managed-care giant Kaiser Permanente, a #39;Safety Net#39; program periodically surveys its database of 3.6 million members to catch lab results and other data that might fall through the cracks. 创新已经开始。大型医疗系统正在筛查他们的电子记录以查找误诊的迹象。在管理式医疗行业巨头凯泽永久医疗集团(Kaiser Permanente)旗下的南加州永久医疗机构(Southern California Permanente Medical Group),其“安全网”(Safety Net)项目会定期对其数据库中360万名会员进行问卷调查,从而捕捉到有可能被遗漏的实验室结果及其他数据。 In one of the first uses of the system, a case manager reviewed 8,076 patients with abnormal PSA test results for prostate cancer, and more than 2,200 patients had follow-up biopsies. From 2006 to 2009, 745 cancers were diagnosed among those patients -- and Kaiser had no malpractice claims related to missed PSA tests. 在首次使用该系统的过程中,一位病例管理员查到8,076名病人的前列腺癌PSA检查结果不正常,2,200多名病人随后有做活体组织检查。2006至2009年,这些病人中有745人被诊断患有癌症,而凯泽并未接到有关遗漏的PSA检查的过失起诉。 The program is also being used to find patients with undiagnosed kidney disease, which is often found via an abnormal test result for creatinine, which should be repeated within 90 days. From 2007 to 2012, the system found 7,218 lab orders placed for patients with an abnormal test that had not been repeated. Of those, 3,465 were repeated within 90 days of a notice to patients that they needed a repeat test, and 1,768 showed abnormal results. The majority, 1,624, turned out to be new cases of the disease. 该项目还被用于查找患有未被诊断的肾脏疾病的病人。肾脏疾病通常是通过异常肌酸酐检查结果发现的,并且应在90天内进行复查。2007年至2012年,系统发现有7,218张做异常检查的实验室检查单未进行复查。其中3,465单在通知病人90天内需要复查后进行了复查,1,768人呈现异常结果。最后大多数人,也就是1,624人被诊断为患有肾脏疾病。 Michael Kanter, regional medical director of quality and clinical analysis, says the system enables clinicians to go back #39;as far as is feasible to find all of the errors that we can and fix them.#39; 负责质量和临床分析的区域医学主任迈克尔#12539;坎特(Michael Kanter)说,该系统使得临床医师能够“尽最大可能回去查找并弥补所有的失误”。 Because the disease is slow moving, Dr. Kanter says, people with a five-year-old undiagnosed case may not have been harmed. Likewise, with many early prostate cancers, #39;in many of these cases it doesn#39;t mean harm would have reached the patient,#39; he says. #39;But we don#39;t want patients not to have the information they should have had through some kind of lapse in the system.#39; 坎特士说,由于这种病是慢性病,所以五年没有被诊断出来的人可能并不会有大碍。同样的,他说,对于早期前列腺癌来说,“在很多案例中并不意味着病患已经危及到了病人,但我们不想因为系统里的某种过失导致病人对本应知道的信息不知情”。 Electronic records aren#39;t a panacea, of course, and can even lead to information overload. In a survey of Veterans Administration primary-care practitioners reported last March in JAMA Internal Medicine, more than two-thirds reported receiving more patient-care-related alerts than they could effectively manage -- making it possible for them to miss abnormal test results. 当然,电子纪录并非万应良药,而且还有可能导致信息过载。去年3月,在《美国医学会杂志#12539;内科学》(JAMA Internal Medicine)上发表的对美国退伍军人事务部初诊医师所做的一项调查显示,超过三分之二的医师收到的有关看病的通报数量超过了自己所能有效管理的范围──这就有可能导致他们遗漏异常的检查结果。 Some researchers suggest the best solution isn#39;t to flood doctors with information but to provide a second set of eyes to find things they may have missed. 有研究人员表示,最佳的解决办法并不是把海量的信息塞给医生,而是为他们提供第二双眼睛查找他们有可能遗漏的东西。 The focus now is preventing dangerous delays in follow-ups of abnormal test results. In a pilot program, researchers at the Houston VA developed #39;trigger#39; queries -- a set of rules -- to electronically identify medical records of patients with potential delays in prostate and colorectal cancer evaluation and diagnosis. Records included charts that had no documented follow-up for abnormal findings suspicious for cancer after a certain period, according to the research team#39;s leader, Hardeep Singh, chief of health policy and quality at Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston and an assistant professor of medicine at Baylor College of Medicine. 目前的重点在于防止在异常检查结果的跟进过程中出现危险性延误。在一个试点项目中,退伍军人事务部休斯顿分部的研究人员设计出了“触发”查询,这是一套规则,通过计算机确认在前列腺和结肠直肠癌评估和诊断中可能有延误的病人的病历记录。研究小组负责人哈迪普#12539;辛格(Hardeep Singh)表示,记录包括特定时期后对表明有疑似癌症的异常检查结果无正式跟进记载的图表。辛格是休斯顿Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical医学中心医疗政策及质量主任,以及贝乐医学院(Baylor College of Medicine)医药学助理教授。 The queries were run on nearly 600,000 records of patients seen at one VA facility in 2009 and 2010. Dr. Singh says the use of triggers, which helped find abnormal PSA tests and positive fecal occult blood tests, could detect an estimated 1,048 instances of delayed or missed follow-up of abnormal findings annually and 47 high-grade cancers. 2009年和2010年,在退伍军人事务部下属一家医院就诊过病人的近60万份记录得到了这样的查询。辛格士说,使用“触发”查询帮助找到了异常PSA检查和阳性大便潜血检查,每年可以查到约1,048例异常检查结果的后续跟进被延误或遗漏,以及47例重度癌症。 The VA has funded a randomized trial to test whether an automated surveillance system of triggers can improve timely diagnosis and follow-up for five common cancers. 退伍军人事务部资助了一个随机试验,测试“触发”自动化监测系统是否能改善五种常见癌症的及时诊断和跟进。 #39;This program is like finding needles in a haystack, and we use information technology to make the haystack smaller and smaller so it#39;s easier to find the needles,#39; Dr. Singh says. 辛格士说:“这个项目就像是在干草堆中找针,我们利用信息技术让干草堆变得越来越小,这样就更容易找到针。” More health-care systems are also turning to electronic decision-support programs that help doctors rank possible diagnoses by likelihood based on symptoms and notes in the medical record. In a study of one such system, called Isabel, researchers led by Dr. Graber found that it provided the correct diagnosis 96% of the time when key clinical features from 50 challenging cases reported in the New England Journal of Medicine were entered into the system. The American Board of Internal Medicine is studying how Isabel could be linked to assessments of physician skill and knowledge. 越来越多的医疗系统也开始采用电子决策持程序来帮助医生根据症状和病历笔记为诊断结果的可能性进行排序。在一个名为“伊莎贝尔”(Isabel)的程序的研究中,由格雷伯士带领的研究小组发现,刊登在《新英格兰医学杂志》(New England Journal of Medicine)上的50个疑难案例中的关键临床特征输入系统时,系统96%的情况下都给出了正确的诊断。美国内科学委员会(The American Board of Internal Medicine)正在研究如何将“伊莎贝尔”与医师技能和知识的评估联系起来。 Another system, DXplain, developed at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, was shown in a study last year to significantly improve diagnostic accuracy among first-year medical residents. 另外一个名叫DXplain的系统是由波士顿麻省总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)开发的。去年的一项研究显示,该系统能显著增强第一年住院医师诊断的准确性。 Edward Hoffer, associate clinical professor at Harvard and senior computer scientist at Mass General who leads the DXplain program, says the aim now is to have DXplain #39;push#39; diagnostic suggestions to physicians through an electronic-medical-records system rather than requiring doctors to initiate a query, which some are still reluctant to do. #39;We have to focus our attention on dealing with situations where doctors think they know what the diagnosis is, but they don#39;t,#39; Dr. Hoffer says. 负责DXplain项目的是哈佛大学(Harvard)临床副教授、麻省总医院高级计算机科学家爱德华#12539;霍弗(Edward Hoffer),他说,当前的目标是让DXplain通过电子病例记录系统向医生“推送”诊断建议,而不是要求医生发起查询,有些医生仍然不愿意主动查询。霍弗士说:“我们要把重点放在处理医生自以为知道诊断结果、但事实上不知道的情况。” New devices also hold promise for confirming a diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary tests. A number of companies are rushing to provide aids such as portable diagnostic equipment and lab tests that can analyze tiny samples of blood and other bodily fluids quickly to detect disease. 新设备也有望对确认诊断和避免不必要的检查提供帮助。多家公司正加速提供便携式诊断设备和实验室结果等援助,可以帮助分析微小的血样及其他体液,从而迅速发现疾病。 Consider MelaFind, which came to market in the U.S. in 2011. The device allows dermatologists to noninvasively examine moles as deep as 2.5 millimeters beneath the surface to gauge the level of #39;disorganization,#39; an indicator of irregular growth patterns that are a sign of melanoma, among the deadliest cancers. 以2011年进入美国市场的MelaFind为例。皮肤科医生可使用该设备无创检查在皮下深达2.5毫米处的痣,从而检测“组织破坏”的水平。“组织破坏”的水平可反应不规则生长模式,不规则生长模式是黑色素瘤等最致命癌症的迹象。 New York dermatologist Macrene Alexiades-Armenakas says she uses MelaFind to confirm that a mole is to be removed and prioritize the level of disorganization in multiple abnormal moles. In some cases, when another doctor or the patient has been concerned about a mole, MelaFind supported #39;clinical diagnosis of a benign mole, thereby sparing them a biopsy,#39; she says. 纽约皮肤专家麦克兰纳#12539;亚历克西亚德斯-阿门内卡斯(Macrene Alexiades-Armenakas)说,她用MelaFind实某颗痣是否需要去除,以及对多颗异常痣的“组织破坏”水平进行排序。她说,有时候,当其他医生或病人对某颗痣表示担心时,MelaFind会持“良性痣的临床诊断,从而让他们省去了活体组织检验的程序”。 But such devices will never replace a thorough physical exam with a trained eye and careful follow-up, says Dr. Alexiades-Armenakas: #39;These diagnostic tools are aids to increase our accuracy and adjuncts to good physical diagnosis, not a substitute.#39; 亚历克西亚德斯-阿门内卡斯士说,不过这样的设备永远替代不了全面的体检以及训练有素的眼睛和仔细的后续跟进。她说:“这些诊断工具是提高准确性和好的检体诊断的辅助手段,而不是替代手段。” Some efforts to cut down on errors take a different route altogether -- and try to improve diagnoses by improving communication. 有些尝试减少失误的措施则走的是完全不同的路线──尝试通过改善沟通来改善诊断质量。 For instance, there#39;s a push to get patients more engaged in the diagnostic process, by encouraging them to speak up about their symptoms and ask the doctor, #39;What else could this be?#39; At Kaiser Permanente, a pilot program provides patients with a pamphlet that encourages them to think about and write down their symptoms and what concerns or fears they have, encouraging them to ask specific questions to be sure they understand their diagnosis and the next steps they must take. 例如,有的机构在促使病人在诊断过程中更积极主动,鼓励病人说出自己的症状并且询问医生:“这还会是什么病?”凯泽永久的一个试点项目为病人提供小册子,鼓励他们思考并写下自己的症状以及他们的担忧或恐惧,鼓励他们提出具体的问题,从而确保他们理解自己的诊断结果以及下一步需要采取的步骤。 Medical schools, meanwhile, are teaching doctors to be more receptive to patient input and avoid #39;anchoring,#39; the habit of focusing on one diagnosis and excluding other possible scenarios, and #39;premature closure,#39; not even considering the correct diagnosis as a possibility. 与此同时,医学院也在教导医生们更加虚心听取病人的意见并避免“锚定”,即习惯集中在一种诊断上,不考虑其他可能的情形,还要避免“过早下结论”,即根本不把正确诊断作为一种可能性进行考虑。 The Critical Thinking program at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, established last year, aims to help trainees step back and examine how biases may affect their thinking. Developed by Pat Croskerry, a physician known for his research on the role of cognitive error in diagnosis, it uses a list of 50 different types of bias that may lead to diagnostic error. 加拿大新斯科舍省哈利法克斯(Halifax)的达尔豪斯大学(Dalhousie University)去年创立了批判性思考项目。该项目旨在帮助学员退一步思考,审视偏误会对自己的思维有何影响。该项目由帕特#12539;克罗斯克里(Pat Croskerry)开发,他是一名以研究诊断过程中认知错误的影响而闻名的医师。项目列出了50种不同种类可能导致诊断失误的偏误。 The program is being integrated throughout four years of the medical school. Students study cases such as a psychiatric patient with shortness of breath who was assumed to be merely having an anxiety attack; doctors overlooked that she was a smoker on birth-control pills, a risk for the blood clot that later traveled to her lung and killed her. 该项目被整合到了达尔豪斯大学医学院的四年制教学中。学生们会学习很多案例,比如呼吸短促的精神病人被认为只是焦虑发作,医生没注意到她是用避药的吸烟者,这导致她体内产生血块,随后血块到了肺里,最终令她丧命。 #39;If we can teach physicians how to think more critically,#39; Dr. Croskerry says, #39;they would be more effective in delivering good care and arriving at the right diagnosis.#39; 克罗斯克里士说:“如果我们教会医生们如何以更批判性的思维思考,他们就会更有效地给病人看病并做出正确诊断。” /201312/268156。
  • NOT LONG AFTER EMILIO PUCCI launched his line of kaleidoscopic patterns and slinky, body-conscious jersey knits in 1947, he chose his home as his base of operations: the Palazzo Pucci, a Renaissance palace in the center of Florence. Owned by the family since they were political advisers to the Medicis in the 1400s, the palace boasts precious paintings by Botticelli and other Old Masters, as well as an atelier, boutique and company headquarters. For decades, Pucci#39;s archives-which include 18,000 print variations, 15,000 scarves, 1,000 bolts of vintage fabric and 200 custom fabric colors-were stored in a cantina beneath the property. But the designer#39;s fashion legacy was not secure in the ancient subterranean space, and Laudomia, Emilio#39;s daughter who took over when he died in 1992, knew it.1947年,埃米利奥#12539;璞琪(Emilio Pucci)发布了以万花筒般图案和紧身修身针织衫为特色的同名品牌。不久后,他选择自己的家作为品牌的运营基地:位于佛罗伦萨中心的复兴时期宫殿Palazzo Pucci。这处宅邸从璞琪家族15世纪担任美第奇家族(Medicis)的政治顾问起就为其所有,拥有波提切利(Botticelli)及其他绘画大师的珍贵画作,也是一座画室、精品店以及公司总部的所在地。璞琪的档案包括18,000种印花图案、15,000条围巾、1,000匹复古面料和200种定制面料颜色,这些都存在这座宫殿地下的酒吧里。但这位设计师的时尚遗产在这个古老的地下空间里并不安全,埃米利奥的女儿劳多米亚(Laudomia)心知肚明。她是在1992年父亲去世时接管这里的。Laudomia, now the brand#39;s image director and deputy chairman, remembers the devastating flood of the Arno River in 1966, which killed more than a hundred people and destroyed countless works of Florentine art, architecture and literature. It also wiped out the cantina. #39;The water was two meters deep. My father lost everything. You wake up and suddenly everyone is in their galoshes trying to save pieces,#39; says Laudomia, who continues to live on the Palazzo#39;s top floor with her husband, three children and her mother, Marchesa Cristina Pucci di Barsento, Emilio#39;s widow. Though the company replenished after that disaster, since then, flash flooding has periodically steeped the Pucci archives in swampy water. When it happened again in 2012, she realized her heritage was at risk.劳多米亚现任该品牌的形象总监及副董事长。她记得1966年阿诺河(Arno River)那场毁灭性的洪灾,100多人不幸遇难,无数佛罗伦萨的艺术、建筑和文学作品被毁。这个酒吧也未幸免。劳多米亚说:“水有两米深。我父亲失去了一切。一早醒来,突然所有人都穿着橡胶套鞋在试图抢救东西。”劳多米亚现在仍和丈夫、三个孩子,还有她的母亲──埃米利奥的遗孀Marchesa Cristina Pucci di Barsento──住在Palazzo的最顶层。虽然公司在那场灾难后补充了档案,但从那以后,洪灾会周期性地令璞琪的藏品浸没在泥泞的洪水里。2012年再度遭到侵袭后,劳多米亚意识到自己的遗产处于危险之中。#39;If I wanted to pass on what the company has created, I had to do something about it,#39; says Laudomia. #39;Why let it die? And why by a flood, when I have this whole place in front of me?#39;劳多米亚说:“如果我想把公司创造的东西传下去,就得采取点措施。为什么要让它死掉?既然我面前有一个完整的地方,为什么要让它被洪水吞没?”This whole place is Granaiolo, the family#39;s sprawling 150-acre country estate in Castelfiorentino, 45 minutes southwest of Florence. Starting in the fall of 2012, Laudomia began to transfer most of the company#39;s vast archives to the countryside, and built a laboratory for fashion students to study fabric technology, design and history.这个地方就是Granaiolo,璞琪家族位于Castelfiorentino的占地150英亩(约60公顷)的乡村庄园,在佛罗伦萨西南方向驱车45分钟距离处。2012年秋季开始,劳多米亚开始将公司庞大档案库的大部分藏品转移到乡下,并修建了一座实验室,供时装专业学生学习面料技术、设计和历史。#39;I have more than enough space here, and I want to share it,#39; she says. #39;People used to have so much time to explore and develop things. My father had this time. But young creatives today don#39;t-the business rules have become so cutthroat. So I really hope this can be a place of reflection, study and creativity.#39;她说:“在这里我有足够的空间,我想跟人分享。人们从前有那么多时间探索和开发新东西。我父亲就有这种时间。但如今年轻的创意人没有──商业规则变得太残酷了。所以我真心希望这里能成为一个反省、学习和获得创意的地方。”At Granaiolo, the Pucci family legacy runs back to the 13th century, when their noble forebears built an imposing fortress atop the honey-colored land. Over time came a convent graced with frescoes, stables and farmhouses for the peasants who worked the fields for wheat-#39;Granaiolo#39; means #39;wheat barn#39;-wine grapes and tobacco.在Granaiolo,璞琪家族的产业可追溯至13世纪,当时他们的贵族祖先在这片蜜色的土地上建造了一座壮观的城堡。后来又有了一座壁画装饰的修道院,还有为在地里种小麦──Granaiolo意思是“小麦谷仓”──葡萄和烟草的农民修建的马厩和农舍。The income from Granaiolo powered the family#39;s concerns until the early 20th century, when Emilio#39;s grandfather built the town#39;s train station. The young Pucci, a marchese by birth, enrolled as a fighter pilot in World War II before launching his lucrative fashion career. Granaiolo remained a working gentleman#39;s farm up until the 1980s, when it finally ceased agricultural operations. By then, Pucci had become a global brand, and the family didn#39;t need Granaiolo for support.到20世纪初,Granaiolo的收入一直维系着璞琪家族的实力,当时埃米利奥的祖父修建了镇里的火车站。出生时就是侯爵的年轻的璞琪在二战期间入伍做了飞行员,后来才开始他利润丰厚的时装事业。Granaiolo一直是一座农场,直到上世纪80年代才最终停止了农业经营。那时璞琪已经成为一个全球性品牌,璞琪家族还不需要Granaiolo的持。WHEN EMILIO FELL ILL in 1989, Laudomia stepped into the CEO job at age 29. After Emilio#39;s death, she took over both the business and creative sides. But Laudomia-who had worked only for her father, and in production for Hubert de Givenchy for three years-found it a challenge.1989年,埃米利奥患病,劳多米亚在29岁的年纪担任了首席执行长的职务。埃米利奥去世后,商业和创意两方面都由她接管。但劳多米亚发现这是个挑战。她只为自己的父亲、以及纪梵希(Hubert de Givenchy)的生产部门工作过。#39;This was our weekend hobby,#39; says Laudomia of the renovation project. They tasked regional artisans with laying floors in handmade terra-cotta and pitching roofs of reclaimed wood. The workers restored the fortress#39;s blue-gray facade of local pietra serena stone, original iron grates on the windows and massive wooden stable doors. The main house, its upper guesthouse and pool will remain the family#39;s private retreat, but the property#39;s once crumbling agricultural buildings have been reimagined as a lightly modernized version of themselves. As the restoration progressed, treasures came to light, like a graceful arcade of columns in the old winery, and some 16th-century paintings Laudomia found hidden in the granary.劳多米亚谈到庄园的翻修工程时说:“这是我们周末的爱好。”他们让当地的工匠用手工陶土铺地板,用再生木材盖屋顶。工人们修复了当地城堡塞茵那石(pietra serena stone)垒砌的蓝灰色外 、窗户原有的铁门和巨大的马厩木门。主屋、楼上的客房和泳池仍然会是家族的私人度假地,但那些曾经摇摇欲坠的农用建筑变得更现代了。随着翻修工程的进行,许多宝藏开始呈现出来,比如旧酒庄里优雅的圆柱拱廊,还有劳多米亚发现的藏在谷仓里的16世纪画作。#39;We have a richness and a heritage,#39; she says of Pucci#39;s history. #39;It#39;s my opportunity to make it into something special. More and more with globalism, celebrity and mass fashion, you need this weight and substance, or you turn into any other brand.#39;她谈到璞琪的历史时说:“我们有丰厚的底蕴和悠久的传统。这是我让我们的历史变得特别的机会。随着全球主义、明星效应和大众时尚的普及,我们需要这种厚度,否则就和别的品牌没差别了。”#39;Archives are the soul of our brands, but it#39;s a privilege when you have someone who knows the heritage better than anyone,#39; says LVMH fashion group CEO Pierre-Yves Roussel.路易威登(LVMH) 时装集团首席执行长皮尔-伊芙#12539;罗塞尔(Pierre-Yves Roussel)说:“时装档案是我们品牌的灵魂,但是拥有一个比任何人都了解品牌传统的人是一个优势。”#39;It#39;s a hell of a job,#39; adds Roussel. #39;It becomes a logistical challenge to store and maintain these fragile things. The Givenchy archives are in the basement of Avenue George V, and most other [LVMH brands] are outside Paris in temperature-controlled warehouses. This is very unique.#39;罗塞尔说:“这是个大工程。存放和维护这些脆弱的东西在后勤上是个挑战。纪梵希的档案是在乔治五世大道(Avenue George V)上的地下室,其他大多数品牌〔路易威登品牌〕都在巴黎郊外的温控仓库里。这是很独特的。”Luckily, Granaiolo#39;s immense barn turned out to be a perfectly arid place to store and display all the vintage jersey that was #39;so fine, you could#39;ve folded the dresses down and put them in a cigarette box,#39; says Rome-based fashion historian and curator Enrico Quinto. #39;Emilio Pucci was an absolute trailblazer-he industrialized Italian fashion by introducing a range of y-made sizes, which was an unheard-of idea in Europe. Dior could have repetitions made, but Emilio had 10 sizes and 10 colors of one design. He became the most influential and powerful designer in Italy.#39;幸运的是,Granaiolo的大谷仓成了存放和陈列复古针织衫的完美的地方。罗马时装历史学家及策展人恩里科#12539;昆托(Enrico Quinto)说,那些复古针织衫“太精致了,都可以叠起来放在烟盒里”。埃米利奥#12539;璞琪是一个绝对的开拓者──他通过引进在欧洲闻所未闻的一系列成衣尺码将意大利的时装工业化。迪奥(Dior)本来可以仿制,但埃米利奥每种设计都有10个尺码和10种颜色。他成为了意大利最有影响力和最有实力的设计师。Laudomia selected some of her father#39;s designs to be displayed on vintage mannequins, as well as work by past creative directors Julio Espada, Christian Lacroix and Matthew Williamson, and Pucci#39;s current designer Peter Dundas. Another two rooms, once filled with wine bottles and tractors, are now lined with neoclassical furniture, historic armoires from Pucci#39;s #39;50s Florence boutique and newly built oak closets organized by garment and decade. Some of the armoires contain a rainbow of garments in the company#39;s custom Pantone colors so synonymous with Pucci#39;s vibrant look: Rosso 02 335 or Bordeaux 02 456 and so on. #39;Armani had his beiges. These colors are my father#39;s,#39; says Laudomia. #39;I call it the alphabet of Pucci.#39;劳多米亚选了她父亲的一些设计在复古道具模特上陈列,还有历届创意总监朱利奥#12539;埃斯帕达(Julio Espada)、 克里斯汀#12539;拉克鲁瓦(Christian Lacroix)和马修#12539;威廉姆森(Matthew Williamson) 、以及璞琪现任设计师彼得#12539;邓达斯(Peter Dundas)的作品。另外两个曾经满是酒瓶和拖拉机的房间现在摆放着新古典主义家具,璞琪50年代佛罗伦萨专卖店的大衣橱,还有新做的按装和年代整理的衣橱。有些大衣橱里有按照公司定制的Pantone色制作的五颜六色装,和璞琪活力四射的设计如出一辙:Rosso 02 335、Bordeaux 02 456等等。劳多米亚说:“阿玛尼(Armani)有他的米黄色。这些颜色是我父亲的。我称之为璞琪的字母表。”Outside, the sweeping lawn features a staircase by landscape designer Niccolo Grassi-a nod, in a way, to the dramatic stepped-grass garden that the late Gae Aulenti designed for the fortress in the #39;60s. Laudomia also planted palm trees amongst the existing cypress and olive trees #39;for a touch of kitsch.#39; Stables have metamorphosed into a dining room for 20-the number of bedrooms available in the smattering of converted peasant houses on the hillside.庄园外面,宽阔的草坪上有一个景观设计师尼科洛#12539;格拉斯利(Niccolo Grassi)设计的楼梯──在一定程度上是在向已故的加埃#12539;奥伦蒂(Gae Aulenti)于60年代为城堡所设计的夸张的阶梯式草坪花园致敬。劳多米亚还在现有的柏树和橄榄树中间种了棕榈树,为的是营造“一点世俗感”。马厩变身成为可容纳20人的餐厅──山腰上的几间改造农舍也有20间卧室。Visitors can unwind in a second pool or at the gym, where exercise machines hum within the restored brick walls and wood beams of a former livestock stall. The relics of the old farm are juxtaposed against slick design throughout, including Pucci carpets, modern Christian Liaigre furniture, Cappellini couches covered in Pucci terry cloth and a tapestry based on a Pucci print that Laudomia commissioned from the Italian artist Francesco Vezzoli-part of an ongoing project to have contemporary artists create works inspired by the archive. #39;I want a mix of art, fashion, design,#39; explains Pucci, #39;so I#39;m doing Granaiolo in a very versatile way.#39;游客可在泳池或健身房里放松,健身房以前是禽畜舍,健身器材在修复的砖 和梁木里嗡嗡作响。旧农场的遗迹与整体的流畅设计并存,后者包括璞琪的地毯、现代的Christian Liaigre家具、覆盖有璞琪毛巾布的Cappellini沙发,还有一块按照劳多米亚委托意大利艺术家弗朗西斯科#12539;维佐利(Francesco Vezzoli)设计的璞琪印花图案制作的挂毯──这是一个正在进行的项目的一部分,即邀请当代艺术家创作灵感来自璞琪档案的作品。璞琪解释说:“我想要艺术、时尚和设计融合的东西,所以我把Granaiolo弄得很多样化。”Aly Pucci has hosted several educational events, including two Journ谷es Particuli豕res: LVMH-sponsored open house events. Two groups of students from Polimoda, the Florentine fashion school where Pucci serves on the board, have come to study sewing and print design. Laudomia is hoping to extend the educational activities to international fashion schools for longer visits.璞琪已经举办过多项教育活动,包括两场Journees Particulieres:路易威登赞助的开放参观活动。来自佛罗伦萨时装学校Polimoda的两群学生来到这里学习缝纫和图案设计。劳多米亚希望将教育活动扩展至国际时装学校,并将学习时间延长。璞琪是该校董事会的成员。#39;We should encourage students to relate to archives,#39; says Laudomia, who believes such study will teach young designers to appreciate their fashion forebears. At Granaiolo, she sees a future where the next generation will find a place to rest, recharge and, most importantly, find inspiration for innovative fashion. #39;Heritage means a lot,#39; she says, #39;but only if you pull it out and make it alive. Otherwise it#39;s just another dead museum.#39;劳多米亚说:“我们应该鼓励学生认同和欣赏这些档案。”她认为这样的学习会教会年轻的设计师欣赏他们的时尚前辈。在Granaiolo,她认为在未来,下一代人会找到一个休息、充电的地方,最重要的是找到创造性时装的灵感。她说:“传统的意义很重大,但只有把它拿出来让它重生才可以。否则只会成为又一个死亡物馆。”#39;The level of what I was giving was never enough. People wanted more. Colette wanted my stuff. In 1998, I brought the first collection to Milan to show. I had just lost my brother, and I had just had my son. I was relaunching the company. I managed to hold it together by chance,#39; says Laudomia. #39;And I thought to myself, I don#39;t want to be in that situation. So I started playing by the rules. I hired a brand strategist and some designers, and while I was running around, LVMH banged on the door.#39;劳多米亚说:“我付出的程度远远不够。人们想要更多。柯莱特时尚店(Colette)想要我的东西。1998年,我带着第一个系列时装去米兰走秀。那时我刚失去我的哥哥,而且刚有了儿子。我开始重新启动公司,没想到慢慢坚持了下来。我对自己说,我不想处在那种环境里。所以我开始遵守规则。我聘请了一位品牌策略师和一些设计师。在我东奔西跑的时候,路易威登找到了我。”By 2000, Laudomia had navigated the sale of 67-percent interest in the company to LVMH, which still owns it (sales figures are not public), but she retained ownership of the extensive archive. #39;Archives weren#39;t instrumental to the business in the way they are today,#39; she says. #39;But it was never a question that I would sell it. You don#39;t sell your family#39;s memories.#39; The freedom has allowed Laudomia and her financier husband, Alessandro Castellano, to take on Granaiolo#39;s transformation, which they have personally funded.到2000年,劳多米亚将公司67%的股权转给了路易威登,但她保留了巨大档案库的所有权。目前路易威登依然持有股权(销售数据未公开)。她说:“在过去,档案对时装业的意义没有现在重大。但我绝不会把它们卖掉。家族的记忆是不可能卖掉的。”这种自由让劳多米亚和从事金融业的丈夫亚历山德罗#12539;卡斯特利亚诺(Alessandro Castellano)得以对Granaiolo进行改造。费用由他们个人承担。 /201408/320691。
  • Eight out of ten women #39;edit#39; their holiday snaps before uploading them to social media so only their slimmest angles are shared, according to new research.据英国《每日邮报》报道,最新调查显示,八成女性往社交网站上传照片之前,都会修图,好让朋友们看到自己苗条漂亮的一面。Most women will also delete unflattering pictures of themselves even if other people in the frame look good.多数女性还会删除自己拍得不好看的照片,即使这些照片中其他人拍得不错。More than half of women (58 per cent) will remove pictures taken by their husbands or boyfriends to make sure only the most flattering pictures survive.为确保只留下照得最好看的照片,超过半数女性(58%)都会删除丈夫或男朋友为其拍摄的照片。And women take charge of distributing holiday pictures in 74 per cent of couples.74%的情侣中,女方占据发布假日照片的主力。The unflattering picture black-out was revealed in a new survey of 1, 000 women by the diet firm Forza Supplements.近日,饮食公司能量供应商( Forza Supplements)一项新调查曝光这类不好看的照片。The poll highlighted the five pictures women most hate of themselves on holiday.该调查列出五种女性最不喜爱的度假照。Number one were those showing them sitting down with a bare midriff showing rolls of fat around the tummy.排名第一的是女性身穿露脐装坐着的照片,肚子上的赘肉显露无疑。The second worst picture nightmare is being caught with tight jeans and a muffin top bulging out of the sides.被抓拍到身穿紧身牛仔、肚腩肉呼之欲出对女性而言是第二大恶梦。The third picture #39;no no#39; is being shot with a double chin and fourth on the blacklist were obvious drunken shots.第三种不尽人意的照片是拍到双下巴;而女性喝得醉醺醺的照片被列入了黑名单第四位。The final picture nightmare is those taken straight after swimming where the hair is wet and unkempt.最后一种不得女性欢心的照片,是游泳过后头发湿漉漉、乱糟糟的邋遢样。The Forza survey found that 95 per cent of holiday-makers now share their pictures via social media sites like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter or simply by emailing them on PCs and phones.该调查还发现,目前,95%度假者通过脸书、Instagram(增译:一款运行在iPhone平台上的照片分享应用程序)和推特等社交网站分享她们的照片,或利用个人电脑或手机发送邮件。A staggering 76 per cent of women have been #39;embarrassed#39; after a friend or relative have shared a picture of them which they didn#39;t like.难以置信的是,76%女性表示,曾因亲戚朋友分享她们不喜欢的照片而感到尴尬。A further 57 per cent have asked friends or relatives to delete pictures from sites like Facebook because they were unflattering.更甚一步,57%女性曾要求亲戚朋友删除脸书等网站照片,只因她们拍得不好看。The most popular reason for picture deletions was, #39;because I looked fat.#39;删除照片最常见理由是:“因为我看起来很胖。”The overwhelming majority of women (82 per cent) admitted that they edited holiday pictures - removing pictures of themselves which were unflattering even if the other people in the frame looked good.绝大多数女性(82%)承认其度假照经过筛选——删除自己拍得不好看的照片,即使这些照片其他人拍得不错。More than third of women (34) use filters on sites such as Instagram to make themselves look better in pictures before sharing them with friends.超三分之一女性(34%)在向好友分享照片前,都会事先使用如Instagram等网上滤镜美化照片。A quarter of women said they had been inspired to edit their holiday pictures because they were #39;intimidated#39; by beach pictures of celebrities looking great in their bikini such as Elle Macpherson and Gwyneth Paltrow.四分之一女性表示,她们曾对诸如艾拉-麦克弗森(Elle Macpherson)和格温妮丝-帕特罗(Gwyneth Paltrow)等名人惊艳无比的比基尼沙滩照感到自愧不如,如今,修图软件却鼓舞了她们。Forza Supplements#39; sales shoot up by a third between May and August as women go on diets to prepare for the beach.由于多数女性为沙滩美照而节食塑身,能量供应商公司今年5至7月份的营业额增长了三分之一。Lee Smith, managing director of Forza Supplements, said: ‘It is very clear that women rule the roost when it comes to holiday pictures.能量供应商总经理里·史密斯(Lee Smith)表示,“很明显,一提到度假照,女性们都当仁不让。‘Whether they take the pictures or not, they decide which shots get shared with family or friends and they will delete any in which they looking overweight.不管是不是她们拿相机,她们都可以决定分享哪张照片给家人朋友,同时可以删除任何自己看起来显胖的照片。‘They are not slow in gently asking friends to remove pictures which they don#39;t like.’并且,在要求朋友删除这类照片时,她们语气从不温和平缓。” /201408/317557。
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