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2019年07月22日 09:27:16 | 作者:58在线 | 来源:新华社
Young people from less-privileged homes are more likely to graduate from college and earn more if raised by two married parents.不富裕家庭的年轻人,若是由父母双亲抚养长大,更有机会大学毕业并获得高薪。Young adults are 44 percent more likely to have graduated from college if they were raised by their married parents.在由已婚父母养育下长大的年轻人大学毕业的机会要多出44%。In fact, the opportunity story begins with our families—in particularly, with our parents. As the Nobel-prize-winning economist James Heckman recently noted, “the family into which a child is born plays a powerful role in determining lifetime opportunities.”事实上,机会始于家庭——特别是父母。诺贝尔经济学奖得主詹姆斯·海克曼最近指出,“家庭在孩子的出生中扮演了强有力的角色,决定了其一生的机会。”Research indicates that adolescents raised in intact, married homes are significantly more likely to succeed educationally and financially. The benefits are greatest for less privileged homes—that is, where their mother did not have a college degree.研究表明健全的婚姻家庭中长大的青年人在教育上和经济上都更有可能成功。在母亲没有大学学历的不富裕家庭,家庭完整就是最大的优势。As the next graph indicates, young men and women who hail from intact, married homes are much more likely to graduate from college. More precisely, young adults are at least 44 percent more likely to have graduated from college if they were raised by their married parents. This is important because a college degree is associated with better work opportunities, lower odds of unemployment, and a substantial wage premium.来自完整家庭的年轻男女更有可能从大学顺利毕业。确切的说,已婚家庭长大的青年人大学毕业的机会要多出44%。而大学毕业至关重要,因为它意味着更好的工作机会,更低的失业率和工资的大幅溢价。The marriage bump is strongest among families where the parents didn#39;t go to college (the left half of the graph above). Among less-educated families, the children of married parents earn about , 000 more than their peers from non-intact families, as the next chart shows. The association between intact families and income is not significant for children of college-educated parents.父母没念过大学的家庭婚姻是最坎坷的 。下图表明,受教育程度低的家庭中,已婚父母的孩子同离异家庭的同龄孩子相比能多赚4000美元,而对受教育程度高的家庭的孩子来说,家庭完整与收入之间的关系并不大。Adolescent family structure also has important implications for family formation among young adults. The next graph indicates that men and women who hail from intact families are about 40 percent less likely to father or bear a child outside of wedlock. This is important because nonmarital childbearing reduces your odds of successfully getting and staying married down the road, maximizing your income, and of providing a stable home to your children.青少年的家庭结构对年轻一代成年人家庭的形成有着重要的意义。下图表明,完整家庭中成长起来的男女婚外生育的几率要小40%,这一结论非常重要,因为非婚生育将使你今后成婚和维系婚姻都步履维艰,大幅加薪机会渺茫,甚至为子女提供一个安稳的家都遥不可及。Marriage might even have economic benefits at the citywide level. A recentstudy from Harvard and UC-Berkeley found that the most important predictor of economic mobility was the low share of single moms in a community. Mobility for poor kids was highest in the Salt Lake City metro area, which also happens to have one of the lowest rates of single motherhood of any major metro area in the country.婚姻甚至在全市层面带来经济效益。哈佛和加州大学伯克利分校最近一项研究表明一个社区经济流动性的最重要迹象是该社区的单身母亲为数不多。盐湖城大都会区是贫困孩子的流动率是最高的地方,也是全美大都会区母亲单身率最低的地方。 /201311/264420

Scientists have sequenced the genome of the world#39;s oldest continuously surviving cancer, a transmissible genital cancer that affects dogs. This cancer, which causes grotesque genital tumors in dogs around the world, first arose in a single dog that lived about 11,000 years ago. The cancer survived after the death of this dog by the transfer of its cancer cells to other dogs during mating. The genome of this 11,000-year-old cancer carries about two million mutations -- many more mutations than are found in most human cancers, the majority of which have between 1,000 and 5,000 mutations. The team used one type of mutation, known to accumulate steadily over time as a ;molecular clock,; to estimate that the cancer first arose 11,000 years ago.一般来说,癌症在宿主体内产生后,会随着宿主的死亡而灰飞烟灭。不过,据《科学》1月23日报道,有一脉“犬传染性性病肿瘤”(CTVT)已经存在了1.1万年,可能是有史以来最古老的癌症。该肿瘤的第一任宿主在品种上接近哈士奇,其基因至今仍保留在肿瘤细胞中。这一脉CTVT自1.1万年前首次出现以后,非但没有消亡,反而通过交配在犬类中广泛传播。这项研究已经在学术杂志《科学》上面发表。科研人员已经完成了CTVT的基因排序工作,发现它已经有了大约200万个变种。在人类中,癌症的变种一般在1000至5000个之间。研究团队分析了其中一个变种,认定CTVT最早出现在1.1万年之前。;The genome of this remarkable long-lived cancer has demonstrated that, given the right conditions, cancers can continue to survive for more than 10,000 years despite the accumulation of millions of mutations,; says Dr Elizabeth Murchison, first author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the University of Cambridge. The genome of the transmissible dog cancer still harbors the genetic variants of the individual dog that first gave rise to the cancer 11,000 years ago. Analysis of these genetic variants revealed that this dog may have resembled an Alaskan Malamute or Husky. It probably had a short, straight coat that was colored either grey/brown or black. Its genetic sequence could not determine if this dog was a male or a female, but did indicate that it was a relatively inbred individual.论文第一作者、来自剑桥大学的伊丽莎白?默奇森士说:“这个癌症如此长寿,实在难得。它的基因说明,在适当的环境下,癌症能够存活1万年以上,并衍生出数百万个变种。”这个癌症基因至今仍保有1.1万年前其首任宿主的基因。分析表明,这位“始作俑者”在品种上和哈士奇非常相似,毛发短而直,可能以灰、褐、黑等颜色为主。默奇森说:“我们不知道为什么这一条会患上传染性癌症。”;We do not know why this particular individual gave rise to a transmissible cancer,; says Dr Murchison, ;But it is fascinating to look back in time and reconstruct the identity of this ancient dog whose genome is still alive today in the cells of the cancer that it spawned.; Transmissible dog cancer is a common disease found in dogs around the world today. The genome sequence has helped scientists to further understand how this disease has sp. ;The patterns of genetic variants in tumors from different continents suggested that the cancer existed in one isolated population of dogs for most of its history,; says Dr Murchison. ;It sp around the world within the last 500 years, possibly carried by dogs accompanying seafarers on their global explorations during the dawn of the age of exploration.;谈及CTVT的传播史时,默奇森说:“不同大陆上肿瘤变种的范式表明,肿瘤长期局限在一个孤立的犬类种群里,在过去500年内才在全世界传播开来。这些犬类也许是在探险时代的早期跟随主人们周游世界的。” 自然环境下的传染性癌症非常罕见。癌症能够在宿主的不同器官中扩散,但很难传染给其他个体。作者之一麦克?斯特拉顿说:“这个传染性犬类癌症的基因会帮助我们研究癌症传染的过程。虽然传染性癌症非常罕见,但我们必须做好准备,以防类似疾病在人类或者其他动物中出现。另外,通过研究这个古老的癌症,我们能够更加广泛地了解影响癌症进化的因素。Transmissible cancers are extremely rare in nature. Cancers, in humans and animals, arise when a single cell in the body acquires mutations that cause it to produce more copies of itself. Cancer cells often sp to different parts of the body in a process known as metastasis. However, it is very rare for cancer cells to leave the bodies of their original hosts and to sp to other individuals. Apart from the dog transmissible cancer, the only other known naturally occurring transmissible cancer is an aggressive transmissible facial cancer in Tasmanian devils that is sp by biting. ;The genome of the transmissible dog cancer will help us to understand the processes that allow cancers to become transmissible,; says Professor Sir Mike Stratton, senior author and Director of the Sanger Institute. ;Although transmissible cancers are very rare, we should be prepared in case such a disease emerged in humans or other animals. Furthermore, studying the evolution of this ancient cancer can help us to understand factors driving cancer evolution more generally.;美国国家卫生研究院的癌症遗传学家伊莱恩?奥斯特兰德说:“这绝对令人兴奋。成千上万年来,犬类一直传播、照顾这一脉的癌症细胞,现在我们有机会研究它了。 /201401/274271

The latest fashion trend “normcore” isn’t all that fashionable – it celebrates the average and normal.最新时尚潮流 “normcore” (舒适搭配)并非一味讲究时髦,而是宣扬简单和舒适。Any old sneakers or sandals; a denim shirt or a black turtleneck, like Steve Jobs’; a zip-up fleece; or a roomy (not baggy) pair of jeans. If you wear any of these, you are the fashion icon of the day, even though you may not be interested in fashion at all.一双旧球鞋或凉鞋、牛仔衬衫或者斯蒂夫#8226;乔布斯式的黑色高领毛衣、拉链羊毛衫或者宽松牛仔裤(并非松垮肥大的那种)。即使你对时尚一窍不通,只要配上其中任何一件单品,你就会化身为时尚达人。On social networks like Twitter and Instagram, normcore is the Internet meme of the year. Normcore was featured in fashion magazines like GQ and Vogue and was the talk of February and March’s fashion weeks in New York, Paris, Milan and London.在Twitter、Instagram等社交网络上,“normcore”成为年度“网络热词”。《GQ》和《Vogue》等时尚杂志对“舒适搭配”都进行了特别报道,同时今年二、三月份,该潮流也成为了纽约、巴黎、米兰以及伦敦时装周上的焦点话题。The word was first coined by a New York fashion trend-forecasting agency called K-Hole, which recently released the report “Youth Mode: A Report on Freedom”.这一词汇由纽约时尚潮流预测机构K-Hole首创,该机构近日发布了一篇名为“年轻模式:自由报告”的报道。“Normcore finds liberation in being nothing special, and realizes that adaptability leads to belonging,” announced K-Hole. The basic idea, according to a New York Times article, is that young people have devoted so much energy to trying to define themselves as individuals, that they have lost the joy of belonging that comes with being part of the group.“Normcore就是从平淡无奇中寻求自由,通过适应来获得归属感,”这正是K-Hole宣称的理念。《纽约时报》在一篇文章中称,“normcore”的基本理念是:年轻人总是费尽心思让自己与众不同,而却失去了随众而带来的乐趣。”Normcore is about letting go of pretenses and learning to throw yourself into whatever subcultures or activities you stumble into, even if they are mainstream. “You might not understand the rules of football, but you can still get a thrill from the roar of the crowd at the World Cup,” the K-Hole report .“Normcore”就是要摒弃假面伪装,学会融入你无意间接触到的任何亚文化或活动,即使是随波逐流之嫌。“你或许不懂足球规则,但你仍然可以在观看世界杯时随着咆哮的人群而兴奋不已,”K-Hole的报道中写道。Casual perfection随性的完美The agency described normcore as more of a sociological attitude. But shortly after the release of the report, New York magazine ran a piece that established normcore as a fashion trend, calling it “fashion for those who know they’re one in seven billion”.K-Hole公司将“normcore”描述成一种社会态度。而该文章刚刚发表不久,《纽约》杂志就对“normcore”进行了报道,将它确立成一种时尚潮流,称其为“清楚自己是七十亿人类一份子的人的时尚”。The concept of normcore is all about the joy of the ordinary, and it has struck a chord with many people. Alain de Botton, the British writer and philosopher, thinks it makes a lot of sense.“Normcore”宣扬的是来平凡的快乐,这种观念打动了很多人的心弦。英国作家兼哲学家阿兰#8226;德波兰认为这个词意味深长。“Normcore is the search for the ideal,” he said in an interview with Newsweek. “The perfect T-shirt, like the perfect pencil or table, doesn’t need to be constantly updated because it has latched on to the essence of what it’s trying to do. Humans like one-off ideals: one god, one partner. That urge sometimes washes over into clothes: one type of T-shirt. The better the design, the less it needs to change.”“‘Normcore’是对完美的追求,”他在接受美国《新闻周刊》采访时说道。“完美的T恤就如同完美的铅笔或桌子,无需时常更新换代,因为它已经将本质发挥得淋漓尽致了。人类对绝无仅有的完美情有独钟:唯一的神,唯一伴侣。该主张有时也会对饰造成影响:独一无二的经典款T恤。设计越好,就越经典不变。Even those in the fashion industry are ily admitting they see the appeal of normcore.即使那些时尚业内人士也对“normcore”的魅力津津乐道。US Vogue’s contributing editor Plum Sykes was ed by Newsweek as saying: “Wearing ‘fashion’ all the time gets too much – and it demands too much attention.”《新闻周刊》援引《Vogue》美国版特约编辑普拉姆#8226;赛克斯的一句话:“一如既往的时尚穿着负担太重,需要太多的关注。”Richard Nicoll, a London-based designer and creative director at the casual clothes chain Jack Will, also sang its praises: “Normcore says, ‘I have soul and intelligence. I’m unique and I don’t need to shout about it.’”作为休闲饰连锁品牌Jack Will的设计师和创意总监、来自伦敦的理查#8226;尼考尔对这时尚趋势也赞不绝口:“‘Normcore宣扬的是:‘我有灵魂和智慧,我是独一无二的,而我无需大声张扬。” /201406/305933

The Guardian recently said they have only published a very tiny percentage of the NSA documents provided to them by the now-infamous leaker Edward Snowden, and now a new revelation has taken a strange turn into the game realm.英国《卫报》(The Guardian)最近表示,他们此前只发布了由现在家喻户晓的泄密者爱德华?斯诺登(Edward Snowden)向其提供的美国国家安全局(NSA)文件中极小的一部分,而现在,有一条线索将泄密事件引向了一个奇怪的转折:领域。Documents provided by Snowden from 2008 say that the NSA and the UK’s GCHQ agencies planted agents inside MMOs like World of Warcraft and Second Life. The document, called Exploiting Terrorist Use of Games amp; Virtual Environments, was published this week, and tells tales of the spy agencies trying to track down terrorist communications through each of the games. Eventually, Xbox Live was considered a possible means for terrorist contact as well.斯诺登提供的2008年的文件显示,美国国安局和英国政府通讯总部(GCHQ)旗下机构在诸如《魔兽世界》(World of Warcraft)和《第二人生》(Second Life)之类的大型多人网络游戏中安插了特工。这份名为《发掘游戏和虚拟环境的恐怖主义用途》(Exploiting Terrorist Use of Games amp; Virtual Environments)的文件于本周发布,讲述了间谍机构试图通过游戏来追踪恐怖主义通讯活动的努力。稍后,Xbox Live也被认为是恐怖分子进行联系的一个可能方式。“Terrorists use online games – but perhaps not for their amusement, ” it says. “They are suspected of using them to communicate secretly and to transfer funds.”“恐怖分子会玩在线游戏——但或许不是为了,”这份文件称,“我们怀疑他们利用游戏进行秘密沟通和转移资金。”The idea was that games like World of Warcraft and Second Life could be used as under the radar avenues for communication between terrorist, and even help transfer funds.这背后的思路是,《魔兽世界》和《第二人生》之类的游戏可能被恐怖分子用作秘密沟通的场所,甚至被用于转移资金之用。“Al-Qaida terrorist target selectors and … have been found associated with Xbox Live, Second Life, World of Warcraft, and other GVEs [Games and Virtual Environments], ” the document says. “Other targets include Chinese hackers, an Iranian nuclear scientist, Hizballah, and Hamas members.”“基地组织恐怖分子的目标包括(任务)挑选人……被发现和Xbox Live、《第二人生》、《魔兽世界》,以及其他GVE(游戏和虚拟环境)有联系,”上述文件称,“其他目标包括中国黑客、一位伊朗核科学家、真主党以及哈马斯成员。”But the evidence was hardly conclusive. The data collected could have simply meant that someone in the same internet cafe was gaming, or that whatever PC was being used was at some point used to play games at an indeterminate point in the past.然而据并不具有说力。所收集的数据可能只是说明了,同在一个网吧的某人正在玩游戏,或者是正在被使用的某台电脑曾经在过去某个时间被用于玩游戏。The document also shows that the NSA tried to recruit gamers to help with the project, but ultimately, it’s never said that they found any evidence of terrorists using either game for communication or collaboration, or that any terror plots were stopped through their work in the virtual realms.这份文件还显示,美国国安局试图招募游戏玩家参与这个项目,但最终,文件却只字未提是否找到了有关恐怖分子利用游戏进行沟通或协作的据,亦或是是否有恐怖主义计划因情报部门在虚拟领域采取的行动而被阻止。Since the revelation, Blizzard has spoken out saying that they were “unaware of any surveillance taking place, ” and never gave the NSA permission to infiltrate the game. There’s no telling just how much data the NSA collected on “suspect” players, which could include everything from personal information to text or verbal in-game communication. Yet again, privacy seems to mean little to the NSA, in this world or virtual ones.上述消息发布之后,暴雪公司(Blizzard)出声表示,他们“并不知晓任何正在发生的监控行为”,也从未给予美国国安局渗透其名下游戏的许可。没有信息显示,美国国安局到底就“可疑玩家”收集了多少数据,这些数据“可能包括从个人信息到游戏中的短信或语音交流等一切讯息”。不过话说回来,隐私对美国国安局来说几乎不构成问题,无论是在现实世界还是虚拟世界中。It’s a strange story, but one that’s sort of familiar at this point. The NSA does something that sounds both simultaneously silly and invasive, and manages to come up with no tangible results in the process. It’s not an entirely ridiculous idea, and I imagine games like these could theoretically be used for the nefarious purposes the NSA describes, but I’m having a hard time not laughing when picturing a bunch of government agents spending their workday grinding for XP and loot so they can reach the level of the elite terrorist guilds they want to infiltrate.这是个奇怪的故事,但又在某种程度上令人觉得熟悉。美国国安局所做的事情,听起来既愚蠢,又具有侵略性,而且在整个过程中并没有出现实质性的结果。不过,其背后倒不是什么完全荒诞无稽的想法,我认为,此类在理论上确实可以被用作美国国安局所描述的不法目的,但一想到一群政府特工每天上班时都在刻苦钻研怎样杀怪打经验和拾取掉落,以便于达到他们想要打入的精英恐怖分子团体所需的级别,我就忍不住地想要大笑一番。 /201312/270394

Woman Marries Herself After Six Years OfBeing Single. Here#39;s Why...经过6年的单身生活,英女子决定嫁给自己It#39;s not your typical wedding scenario,marrying yourself.这不会是你心目中典型的婚礼场景,因为新娘将自己嫁给了自己。However it#39;s not unheard of either, asproven by Grace Gelder who is now happily married to...Grace Gelder.不过这种情况也不是前所未有,GraceGelder就幸福地将自己嫁给了自己。The reason? After a long spell of beingsingle, Grace decided that enough was enough.她为何要这么做呢?在长期单身之后,Grace确定自己已经受够了这样的日子。She#39;d built up a ;brilliant relationship; with herself and was y to commit toan ;adventurous period of self discovery; while also looking forwardto a new phase in her life.她同自己建立了“绝妙的关系”并准备投入“自我发现的冒险阶段”,同时也期望人生开启新篇章。The obvious answer following thisreflection was, of course, marriage.经过认真的思考,不言自明,当然,她需要步入婚姻殿堂。So, Grace paid a visit to Parliament Hillin London lastNovember and proposed to herself on a park bench.于是,Grace于去年11月份去了伦敦的国会山,她在一个公园的长椅上向自己求婚。After announcing her news, Grace wasslightly anxious that people would see it as a bit self-absorbed.在公布了消息之后,Grace有点担心人们会认为她有点自恋。She told The Guardian: ;Obviously, if you#39;ve just announcedyou#39;re marrying yourself, it is plainly a statement of self-love, and I wasunder no illusion how self-indulgent that might appear.;她对《卫报》说:“如果你公布要同自己结婚的话,那显然就是自恋的表现,”;But I was completely comfortable withmy motivations.;“但是我完全没有因自己的动机感到不自在”。The day itself was a humble affair, with 50guests in an ;idyllic farmhouse in rural Devon.;婚礼当天一切都很低调,50名宾客来到了位于“德文郡田园诗般的乡下农家”。The dress was vintage (snapped up a coupleof days before the ceremony) .婚纱是老式的(在举办婚礼的前几天抢购的)。Since the wedding, Grace has been told byher female friends that she#39;s an example to women. Her response?自从举办了婚礼之后,Grace的女性朋友们都说她是女性的榜样。那她对此作何反应呢?;Why not an example to men too? I reallydon#39;t see it as any kind of feminist statement, but creating a wedding of thiskind on my own terms felt incredibly empowering.;“为什么不会也是男性的榜样呢?我的确没把这看作是任何女权主义的宣言,但按照我自己的意愿举办一场这样的婚礼让我感到自己的不可思议”。Although it#39;s an unusual event, Grace isnot the first woman to marry herself.虽然这样的事情非同寻常,但Grace并不是第一个与自己结婚的女性。In 2012, Huffington Post reported that Nadine Schweigert from North Dakota had marriedherself following a painful divorce.据《赫芬顿邮报》报道,2012年,美国北达科他州的Nadine Schweigert在经历痛苦的离婚之后,自己独自举办了婚礼。Nadine told Inforum: ;I was waitingfor someone to come along and make me happy. At some point, a friend said, ;Why do you need someone to marry you to be happy? Marry yourself.;Nadine对Inforum 说:“我等待那个能让我幸福的人出现。某日一个朋友提到,;为何要嫁给别人以获得幸福?何不嫁给自己;。Additionally, 30-year-old Taiwanese woman,Chen Wei-yih married herself back in 2010.此外,30岁的台湾女子Chen Wei-yih于2010年嫁给了自己。 /201410/334629

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