原标题: 吉安美容祛黄褐斑哪家医院好家庭医生新闻
Apple is to set up two more research and development centers in Shanghai and Suzhou, following Beijing and Shenzhen, Apple CEO Tim Cook said at the China Development Forum in Beijing.苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克近日在北京举行的中国发展高层论坛上称,继北京和深圳后,苹果将在上海和苏州再建两个研发中心。The California-headquartered company has committed to investing 3.5 billion yuan in these centers, which will seek graduates of China#39;s leading universities including Peking University, Tsinghua University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.这家总部位于加利福尼亚的公司承诺向这些中心投资35亿元人民币,将招揽包括北京大学、清华大学和上海交通大学在内的中国顶尖高校的毕业生。Apple#39;s efforts to expand its operations in China show that the country is no longer just a big consumer market, but also an indispensable part of Apple#39;s global Ramp;D community.苹果在中国拓展业务的努力显示,中国不再仅是一个庞大的消费市场,还是苹果全球研发社区不可或缺的一部分。By expanding research and development in China, the company looks forward to working collaboratively with more local partners and academic institutions, said Dan Riccio, Apple#39;s senior vice president of Hardware Engineering.据苹果公司硬件工程高级副总裁丹·里乔表示,通过扩大在中国的研发活动,该公司希望能够和更多中国本土合作伙伴及学术机构合作。Shanghai decided to transform itself into a global research and development center in 2014 while Suzhou in Jiangsu Province is also a popular destination for foreign enterprises to build the centers.2014年,上海决定将该市转变成一个全球研发中心,而外国企业也偏爱在江苏省苏州市建立研发中心。 /201703/500425The first quantum communications satellite developed by China is expected to launch in July of this year. The Beijing–Shanghai quantum private communications line will also be opened in the second half of this year, according to Pan Jianwei, academic at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, during an interview with China Youth Daily.由中国研发的全球第一颗量子通讯卫星将于今年七月发射。据中科院院士潘建伟在接受《中国青年报》的一次采访中透露,从北京到上海的量子保密通讯线路也将于今年下半年开通。According to Pan, this milestone means that a quantum communications network will be formed, and that 30 years of research on quantum information will be finally put to use. Pan said that quantum communication between the satellite and the ground will be achieved for the first time anywhere in the world.据潘建伟院士透露,这一里程碑式的成功意味着中国将建立一个量子通讯网络,对于量子信息长达三十年的研究终将投入使用。潘院士表示,中国将在全球首次实现卫星和地面基站的量子通讯。In recent years, quantum communications is considered to be supportive research for next-generation communication technology because of its transmission efficiency and absolute security. Pan said that, as quantum technology is indivisible and cannot be cloned, it may be implemented as an information carrier for the distribution of sensitive information, thereby guaranteeing the secure transmission of important content. Quantum communications research has become a focus and frontier of global research in physics.近年来,由于在传输效率和信息安全上具有显著的优势,量子通讯手段被认为是次世代通讯技术的基础。据潘院士透露,由于量子既不能被分割,也不能被复制,因此可以用来作为敏感信息的传播载体,从而保障从要信息的传输安全。量子通讯研究已经成为物理学界一个关注焦点和前沿性课题。China started developing its quantum satellite in 2011, and launched the quantum optical fiber communication network project, the Beijing–Shanghai line, in 2013. The Beijing–Shanghai quantum private communications line will cover a total length of over 2,000 kilometers, connecting a network of numerous cities including Beijing, Jinan, Hefei and Shanghai. It will be the world#39;s first wide-area optic fiber quantum private network.中国在2011年开始研发量子卫星,并于2013年开始了量子光纤通讯网络(北京-上海段)项目。从北京到上海的这条量子保密通讯线路总长达到了2000公里,连接了包括北京、济南、合肥和上海在内的许多城市的网络。这将是全球第一个广域光纤量子保密网络。According to Pan, the assembly of the quantum satellite has aly been completed. The satellite has passed electrical measurement and thermal balance testing, and is currently undergoing mechanical and magnetic testing in Shanghai#39;s Small Satellite Engineering Center.据潘院士透露,量子通讯卫星的装配工作已经完成了。这颗卫星已经通过了电测试和热平衡测试,目前正在上海的小卫星工程中心进行机械和磁力检测。;With further development, quantum communications should benefit millions of households in the near future,; Pan said, adding: ;I hope that within another 10 years of hard work, online transfers and payments can be guaranteed through quantum communication for every consumer.;潘院士表示:“随着进一步的发展,量子通讯将在不远的将来使数以百万计的家庭受益。我希望在十年之内,通过我们的艰苦奋斗,量子通讯可以保障每一个消费者的在线信息传输和在线付的安全。” /201606/447257

Big pharma thinks it has spotted its next big opportunity — an untreatable silent killer that affects millions of people.大型制药企业认为,它们发现了下一个重大机会——一个影响数以百万计的人、无法被治愈的沉默杀手。In recent months, large drugmakers including Allergan, Gilead and Novartis have collectively spent billions of dollars acquiring or licensing medicines designed to treat a liver disease that few people have heard of — non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or Nash.近几个月,艾尔健(Allergan)、吉利德(Gilead)和诺华(Novartis)加起来斥资数十亿美元收购一类药物或者获得其许可。这类药物针对的是一种很少有人听说过的肝脏疾病——非酒精性脂肪性肝炎(Nash)。This advanced form of fatty liver disease causes scarring and inflammation of the liver and is thought to affect more than 16m people in the US, according to Bernstein, the investment bank.根据投行伯恩斯坦(Bernstein)的数据,这种晚期脂肪肝病会导致肝脏瘢痕和炎症,据信在美国有逾1600万人罹患这种疾病。In the most serious cases, the illness causes fatal cirrhosis, while also increasing a person’s chances of developing liver cancer or heart disease. The US Centers for Disease Control believes there are roughly 20,000 fatalities each year from chronic liver disease or cirrhosis that are not related to alcoholism.在最严重的病例中,这种疾病会导致致命的肝硬化,还会提高患者患上肝癌或者心脏疾病的几率。美国疾病控制预防中心(CDC)认为,每年约有2万人死于与酒精中毒无关的慢性肝病或者肝硬化。Drugmakers are betting that the number of people with Nash — which is more common in overweight people — will rise dramatically in the coming years because of the worldwide obesity epidemic. Some analysts are predicting the global market for Nash medicines will be worth as much as bn a year at its peak.制药商正在押注,由于世界范围内肥胖症的流行,未来数年罹患非酒精性脂肪性肝炎的人将出现戏剧性上升(此病更多见于超重人群)。一些分析师预测,治疗该病的药品的全球市场将达到每年350亿美元的峰值。There are no approved drugs to treat the condition but pharmaceutical groups are studying more than 25 experimental compounds in humans, with four medicines either being studied in phase III clinical trials, or about to enter this final stage of testing.目前还没有获批的对症药物,但药企正在对25种实验化合物进行人体试验,有4种药物或是正在进行Ⅲ期临床试验,或是即将进入这一最终试验阶段。Of the large drugmakers, Allergan is furthest ahead, having spent .7bn to acquire Tobira, a San Francisco biotech group, in November last year. Tobira’s main medicine, Cenicriviroc, will enter phase three trials later this year with results expected as early as 2019.艾尔健是大型制药企业中的先行者。该公司去年11月斥资17亿美元收购旧金山生物科技公司Tobira。Tobira的主要药物Cenicriviroc将在今年晚些时候进入三期试验,预计最早将在2019年出结果。Allergan recently acquired another smaller Nash-focused drugmaker, Arkana, for m.艾尔健最近斥资5000万美元收购了另一家聚焦于非酒精性脂肪性肝炎药物的规模更小的制药公司Arkana。“Nash is now the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer, having taken over from hepatitis C,” says Dr David Nicholson, Allergan’s chief research and development officer. “And at the moment, there’s nothing out there to treat it.”“非酒精性脂肪性肝炎现在已经取代了丙型肝炎,成为肝硬化和肝癌的主因,”艾尔健首席研发官戴维?尼科尔森(David Nicholson)士表示,“而眼下还没有对症的药物。”Gilead has entered the field too, recently acquiring Nimbus for up to .2bn, while also investing heavily in its internal research efforts. The West Coast-based biotech company has aly had huge success with its treatments for hepatitis C, another potentially fatal liver disease.吉利德也进入了这一领域,该公司最近出至多12亿美元收购Nimbus,同时大举投资于内部研发工作。总部位于美国西海岸的这家生物科技公司已经在丙肝(另一种潜在致命的肝脏疾病)药物上取得了重大成功。Several other well-known pharmaceutical groups, including Novo Nordisk and Shire are working on Nash drugs at an earlier stage of development.诺和诺德(Novo Nordisk)和Shire等其他几家知名药企对非酒精性脂肪性肝炎药物的研发还处于较早阶段。However, the two companies that are most advanced do not come from the ranks of big pharma: Intercept Therapeutics, a New York-based biotech group, and GenFit, its French rival.然而,目前在该领域取得最大进展的两家公司并非大型药企:纽约生物科技集团Intercept Therapeutics,及其法国竞争对手GenFit。Shares in Intercept jumped 13 per cent last week after the company said it had redesigned a late-stage clinical trial of its drug, obeticholic acid, in a way that would make it easier for the study to succeed.上周Intercept的股价飙涨13%,此前该公司宣布重新设计了其药物奥贝胆酸(obeticholic acid)的临床试验最终阶段,使其研发更容易成功。Following discussions with the US Food and Drug Administration, Intercept said the trial must now show that the drug can either resolve Nash or improve “fibrosis” — the medical term for liver scarring. Previously, the company would have had to prove the medicine could do both.在与美国食品药品监督(FDA)讨论后,Intercept表示,试验必须显示该药能够治疗非酒精性脂肪性肝炎,或者改善“肝纤维化”(肝脏瘢痕的医学名词)症状。此前,该公司需要明该药同时具备这两种疗效。Intercept also said it would be able to analyse the data once it had enrolled 750 patients, rather than 1,400, after the process of recruiting patients to the trial took longer than the company had originally expected.Intercept还表示,一旦招募到750名患者,而非1400名,就可以开始分析数据。此前招募参加试验的患者耗时超出了该公司的预期。The changes reflect the flexibility of regulators at the FDA, who want to encourage drugmakers to invest in researching medicines for the untreatable condition before the number of sufferers increases rapidly.这些变更反映出美国食品药品监督监管者的灵活性,他们希望在患者数量快速上升之前,鼓励制药商研发出针对这种目前无法治愈的病症的药物。However, the sluggish recruitment to Intercept’s trial is indicative of one of the biggest hurdles facing Nash drugmakers: the disease is very difficult to diagnose.然而,Intercept在招募参加试验的患者方面进展缓慢,表明研发非酒精性脂肪性肝炎药物的制药商面临的最大障碍之一:该疾病很难诊断。The vast majority of people do not realise they have the “silent” disease, which only causes symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue and weight loss in the very late stages.绝大多数人并未意识到他们患上了这种“沉默”的疾病,即使在这种疾病进展到晚期,患者的症状也只有黄疸、疲劳和体重减轻。Doctors sometimes suspect a patient has Nash when they have elevated liver enzymes in their blood or when they spot abnormalities during ultrasound scans.如果患者血液中的肝酶水平升高,或者在超声波扫描中发现异常,医生们有时会怀疑患者罹患这种疾病。But the only surefire way of diagnosing the disease is to carry out a liver biopsy — a complex, invasive procedure that requires an anaesthetic. In rare cases, the biopsy can cause bleeding that requires a transfusion or surgery.但唯一的确诊方法是进行肝活检——一种需要麻醉的侵入性复杂操作。在极少数病例中,活检可能导致需要进行输血或外科手术的出血。Many patients are reluctant to undergo the procedure, which poses a difficulty not just for recruiting them to clinical trials, but also convincing people in the real world to get tested for the condition.很多病人不愿接受活检,这不仅给招募参加临床试验的患者带来了困难,也意味着在现实世界中难以说人们接受检测,以确诊他们是否患有该病。Drugmakers are hoping that less invasive tests will be developed that use biological clues or “biomarkers” to diagnose the disease without the need for a biopsy.制药商希望开发出利用生物线索(即“生物标记物”)的非侵入性检测方法来诊断这种疾病,从而不再需要活检。“We really believe that there will be big breakthroughs that will make it much easier for physicians to diagnose the disease and subsequently to utilise the drugs in development,” says Dr Nicholson.“我们确信将会实现重大突破,让医生更容易诊断这种疾病,然后充分利用这些正在研发中的药物,”艾尔健的尼科尔森士说。One option is a simple breath test, according to Dr Ilan Yaron, chief medical officer of Tiz Pharma, a London-based biotech group that is about to start testing its Nash drug in humans. “The FDA does not recognise these tests yet, but it will in time,” he says.选项之一是进行简单的呼吸检测,即将开始对该病药物进行人体试验的伦敦生物科技公司Tiz Pharma的首席医疗官伊兰?亚龙(Ilan Yaron)说,“美国食品药品监督目前还不认可这些检测方法,但将来会认可的。”However, even if drugmakers find a reliable, non-invasive way of diagnosing the disease, there is no guarantee that Nash sufferers will rush to start taking their medicines.然而,就算制药商找到了一种可靠的非侵入性诊断方法,也无法保该病患者会竞相开始药。The disease progresses slowly and many sufferers will die of something else; given the lack of symptoms, people could be wary of taking a drug for life when they feel perfectly well.这种疾病发展缓慢,很多患者会死于别的原因;考虑到症状较少,对于在自己感觉良好的时候需要终生用一种药物,人们可能抱有戒心。“I’m sceptical as to whether this is actually needed for most people,” says Ronny Gal, analyst at Bernstein. “You’re essentially trying to put into chronic treatment forever a broad population that will probably never develop the most serious form of the disease.”“我怀疑大多数人是否真的需要这个,”伯恩斯坦分析师龙尼?加尔(Ronny Gal)表示,“你实际上是在试图让一大群人永久性地接受慢性治疗,而他们的疾病很可能最终不会发展到最严重的程度。”Cash-strapped healthcare systems could resist paying for the drug in all but the sickest patients, predicts Mr Gal. These number approximately 1.5m in the US.加尔预测,除去那些病情最严重的患者,经费紧张的医疗保健系统可能会拒绝付这种药物的药费。在美国,这些患者的数量大约为150万。For that reason, he believes the market for Nash drugs will be much smaller than many others on Wall Street are expecting, and is pencilling in peak sales of bn for what he describes as a “midsize condition”.出于这种原因,他认为,该病的市场将比华尔街其他许多分析师预测的小得多。对于他所称的这种“中度疾病”,他预计销售额峰值将达到80亿美元。“If you take all the people with advanced Nash and ask how many people will end up becoming seriously ill in their lifetimes, the number could actually be very small,” he says.“如果你统计一下所有晚期非酒精性脂肪性肝炎患者人数,然后问一问有多少人在有生之年会病重,这个数字实际上可能非常小,”他说。 /201703/496355

SAN FRANCISCO — If Apple had its way, this week would play out like Christmas for 5-year-olds. 旧金山——如果按苹果(Apple)的意愿,本周应该像五岁孩子的圣诞节一样。First, unbelievable anticipation. Then, great surprise. At the end, immense satisfaction.先是急切地期盼,然后是巨大的惊喜,最后是强烈的满足感。When the latest iPhone is unveiled here Wednesday in a 7,000-seat auditorium, it probably will instead be more like Christmas for a sneaky 10-year-old who long ago peeked at his present. 周三,最新款iPhone将在这里一个能容纳7000人的礼堂里发布。然而届时可能会更像一个偷偷摸摸早就看过自己礼物的十岁孩子的圣诞节。Thanks. 谢谢。That’s it?就只有这个?Anyone who cares enough about the iPhone to know that a new model is being released this month aly knows what it is supposed to be like: a little thinner, a little faster and equipped with superior cameras on the Plus model.任何人,只要是对iPhone的关注,到了知道本月会发布新品的程度,就已经知道它会是什么样子了:机身更薄、速度更快、Plus款配置了更好的摄像头。By far the most controversial feature, however, is the one that will be missing: a headphone jack. 然而,目前为止最具争议的特性是,有一个东西将消失:耳机插孔。A standard element of technology that can be traced to 1878 and the invention of the manual telephone exchange, the jack is apparently going the way of the floppy disk and the folding map. 这一标准技术元素可追溯至1878年,来自人工电话交换系统。它似乎正在步入软盘和折叠地图的后尘。The future will be wireless.未来将是一个无线世界。We know about this potential absence thanks to a global information chain, one that shadows the supply and manufacturing chain that produces Apple’s products. 可能没有耳机插孔这件事,我们是凭借一个全球信息链得知的,它和苹果产品的供应和制造链形影不离。The shadow chain is intended to ferret out Apple rumors: promoting them, discussing them and then discussing them some more, long before they become facts.而这个信息链的目的,则是搜寻和苹果有关的传言:早在传言成为事实之前就开始传播传言,讨论传言,再讨论更多传言。This rumor mill is both a gift to Apple and a burden, a sign that it has not lost its magic and a warning that everyone is on watch for the moment it does. 对苹果来说,这座传言工厂既是一种机会,也是一种负担,它的存在表明自己魅力犹存,但也是在警告人人都在关注它。No other company is tracked quite so relentlessly.没有哪家公司被像这么持续不断地追踪过。Under its co-founder Steve Jobs, Apple relished its ability to keep news under wraps and went to great lengths — legally and otherwise — to make sure it remained that way. 在联合创始人史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)的领导下,苹果有能力做到保密,且对此不遗余力——无论方式合法与否。There is one more thing, and we’ve managed to keep it secret, Jobs exulted in 1999 as he introduced iMacs in colors like blueberry and tangerine. 还有一个事,我们设法做到了保密,乔布斯1999年介绍蓝莓色和橘红色等颜色的iMac时欢快地说。It’s hard to believe, but we did it.难以置信,但我们做到了。It was an ambition that his successor, Tim Cook, underlined at a conference four years ago. 在四年前的一次会议上,乔布斯的接任者蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)强调了这个目标。We’re going to double down on secrecy on products, he said.我们将加强对产品的保密,他说。Things have not quite worked out that way.但事情并未朝这个方向发展。When Steve Jobs was around, there was still that hope they could surprise you, said Gene Munster, an Apple analyst. 史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯在世的时候,还能指望他们带来惊喜,关注苹果动态的分析师基尼#8226;蒙斯特(Gene Munster)说。Today, that hope is largely gone.现在,这个希望基本不复存在。The long road to unraveling this week’s surprises began in November, less than three months after the iPhone 6s had debuted to gangbuster first-weekend sales. 对于苹果将在本周发布的惊喜之作,揭秘工作在去年十一月就开始了,当时离iPhone 6s发布、并在第一个周末热卖过去不到三个月。The Japanese website Mac Otakara, considered a generally reliable source of information that has ties to the factories manufacturing the phone, wrote about Apple removing the jack in the next iPhone under the heading rumor.日本网站Mac Otakara以传闻为标题,撰文称苹果将在下一代iPhone中取消耳机插孔。该网站被认为是一个总体上可靠的iPhone生产厂商信息来源。For anyone not y to go wireless, the story said, wired earphones would plug into the iPhone via Apple’s Lightning connector, which is typically used for charging power. 文章称,对尚未准备好进入无线生活的人来说,可通过苹果常用于充电的接口,将有线耳机插入iPhone。Traditional headphones would presumably work through a converter.传统耳机大概要借助转换器。This was big. 此事影响重大。Headphones are one of the most basic functions, so this is something that’s going to affect users of all kinds, said Eric Slivka, editor-in-chief of MacRumors.com. 耳机是最基本的功能之一,因而这是一件会影响到各类用户的事情,MacRumors.com总编埃里克#8226;斯利夫卡(Eric Slivka)说。I immediately knew it would be an extremely controversial topic all the way until launch.我马上意识到,在新品发布之前,这一直会是一个极具争议的话题。By early January, emotions were at a fever pitch. 到了今年1月初,消费者的情绪达到高潮。An online petition from SumofUs.org, which more than 300,000 people have signed, denounced Apple for creating more electronic waste — presumably, headphones that will no longer work with the iPhone and be thrown out.SumofUs.org上的一封网上请愿书谴责苹果制造了更多电子垃圾——大概是指因为无法再在iPhone上使用被丢弃的耳机。请愿书征集到了逾30万个签名。Some commentators explained that even if people used adapters with their old headphones, they were gaining things, too. 一些人士解释称,即便人们可借助适配器使用旧耳机,他们也要购买新的东西。Other commentators noted that people complained that Apple never innovated anymore, and yet here it was innovating, and people were complaining anyway.其他人士则指出,人们抱怨苹果不再创新,现在有了创新,人们还是在抱怨。Then came the rumor that the headphone jack was not going away after all. 然后又出现了耳机插口根本不会消失的传言。The Chinese website Mydrivers.com published a photo of what it said were the innards of the new iPhone with the jack right there. 中文网站快科技发布了一张自称是新款iPhone内部结构的照片,上面耳机插孔赫然在目。Has the rumor mill been lying to us? wondered Cult of Mac. 谣言工厂一直在骗我们吗?Cult of Mac问道。Surely not!当然不是!Two weeks ago, with the volume of commentary picking up as the big reveal approached, even Apple’s other co-founder, Steve Wozniak, weighed in. 两周前,随着盛大发布活动的临近,数量增加,就连苹果的另一位联合创始人史蒂夫#8226;沃茲尼亚克(Steve Wozniak)也加入了讨论。If it’s missing the 3.5-millimeter earphone jack, that’s going to tick off a lot of people, he told the Australian Financial Review. 如果去掉3.5毫米耳机插孔,会惹怒很多人,他对《澳大利亚金融报》(Australian Financial Review)表示。But he added a conciliatory note: We’ll see. 但他接着又妥协地说了一句:我们拭目以待。Apple is good at moving toward the future, and I like to follow that.苹果善于引领未来,我愿意跟随它的脚步。Perhaps it is better to be forewarned about what the future holds rather than be forced to confront it abruptly. 或许和突然被迫面对相比,预先警告未来可能会出现的情况要更好一些。We soften the blow, said Neil Hughes, managing editor of AppleInsider. 我们提供了缓冲,AppleInsider的总编尼尔#8226;修斯(Neil Hughes)说。Can you imagine that if no one saw it coming and Apple just dropped this on Wednesday? People would lose their minds.你能想象如果没人料到这一点,而苹果直到周三才公布这个消息的情形吗?人们会疯的。Apple, which declined to comment for this article, most likely has a different view. 拒绝就本文置评的苹果,很有可能并不这么认为。In late 2004, it went after several websites, including AppleInsider, saying that when they posted details about unreleased products, they were publishing stolen property. 2004年底,苹果起诉多家网站,称它们公布的未发布产品的细节,实际上是偷来的财产。At first Apple found success in court but the ruling was sharply reversed on appeal. 起初苹果胜诉,但上诉法院的裁决发生了逆转。It was ordered to pay 0,000 to cover the sites’ legal fees and generally looked like a bully.法院责令苹果付70万美元,用于付相关网站的诉讼费用。苹果总的来看像是一个恶霸。For several years, Apple sold a T-shirt in its Cupertino, California, campus store that , I visited the Apple campus. 多年来,在苹果位于加利福尼亚州库比提诺的园区商店里,有一种T恤,上面写着,我参观了苹果园区。But that’s all I am allowed to say. 但我只能说这么多。A recent Apple presentation poked fun at its extensive security measures. 苹果在最近一次发布会上调侃了自己的严密安保措施。But even if the company can now have a laugh or two at its own expense, its philosophy has not changed.但即便这家公司可以拿自己开涮了,它的理念并没变。Do you remember when you were a kid, and Christmas Eve, it was so exciting, you weren’t sure what was going to be downstairs? Cook said when asked about the rumored Apple car at the annual shareholders’ meeting last February. 你们还记得自己还是个小孩子的时候,会在平安夜特别兴奋,因为不知道楼下会有什么吗?在2月的年度股东会议上,库克在被问及传闻中的苹果汽车时说。Well, it’s going to be Christmas Eve for a while.就是这样,这个平安夜会很漫长的。 /201609/464920

养猫能预防心脏病?Owning a cat can reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes by more than a third, researchers have found.Scientists said that having a cat helped to relieve stress and anxiety, which is known to help protect against heart disease by lowering blood pressure and reducing the heart rate.The 10-year study looked at 4,435 adults aged between 30 and 75, about half of whom owned a cat.The findings, presented at a stroke conference in America, showed that 3.4 per cent of the cat owners died from a heart attack over 10 years. Among the group who had never owned a cat the rate was 5.8 per cent.Cat owners still had a much reduced chance of developing strokes or heart attacks when researchers took account of other factors known to trigger heart disease, including high cholesterol levels, smoking and diabetes.Prof Adnan Qureshi, from the Minnesota University, who carried out the study, said he was surprised by the strength of the effect that owning a cat appeared to have."The logical explanation may be that cat ownership relieves stress and anxiety and subsequently reduces the risk of heart disease."He believes one reason could be that stroking the pet could cut the level of stress-related hormones in the blood. Reducing stress is known to help protect against heart disease by lowering blood pressure and reducing the heart rate.But Prof Qureshi added that the type of person who owned a cat was usually aly fairly stress-free and at low risk of heart disease.Love begins with a smile,grows with a kiss,ends with a tear. When you were born,you were crying and everyone around you was smiling. Live your life so that when you die,you're the one smiling and everyone around you is crying. 研究人员发现,养猫能使患心脏病和中风的风险降低三分之一以上。科研人员称,养猫有助于缓解压力、减轻焦虑,而减轻压力可以降低血压和心律,因此有助于预防心脏病。研究人员对4435名年龄在30岁至75岁之间的成年人进行了为期十年的调查,其中有一半的人养猫。研究结果显示,在这十年中,仅有3.4%的养猫人士死于心脏病,而从未养过猫的人死于心脏病的比例为5.8%。该结果在美国召开的一个中风研讨会上公布。研究人员还综合考虑了高胆固醇、吸烟和糖尿病等可能引发心脏病的其它一些因素,结果发现,养猫人士患中风或心脏病的几率还是要小很多。开展该研究的明尼苏达大学教授阿德南#8226;库勒什说,他很惊讶养猫有这么大的好处。“合理的解释应该是,养猫能够缓解压力和焦虑,从而降低患心脏病的风险。”他认为其中一个原因是,爱抚小猫能够降低血液中的应激激素水平。而减轻压力则能够降低血压和心率,从而有助于预防心脏病。但库勒什教授说,喜欢养猫的人往往自身就没什么压力,患心脏病的几率也较小。 /200803/31589Apple is to set up two more research and development centers in Shanghai and Suzhou, following Beijing and Shenzhen, Apple CEO Tim Cook said at the China Development Forum in Beijing.苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克近日在北京举行的中国发展高层论坛上称,继北京和深圳后,苹果将在上海和苏州再建两个研发中心。The California-headquartered company has committed to investing 3.5 billion yuan in these centers, which will seek graduates of China#39;s leading universities including Peking University, Tsinghua University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University.这家总部位于加利福尼亚的公司承诺向这些中心投资35亿元人民币,将招揽包括北京大学、清华大学和上海交通大学在内的中国顶尖高校的毕业生。Apple#39;s efforts to expand its operations in China show that the country is no longer just a big consumer market, but also an indispensable part of Apple#39;s global Ramp;D community.苹果在中国拓展业务的努力显示,中国不再仅是一个庞大的消费市场,还是苹果全球研发社区不可或缺的一部分。By expanding research and development in China, the company looks forward to working collaboratively with more local partners and academic institutions, said Dan Riccio, Apple#39;s senior vice president of Hardware Engineering.据苹果公司硬件工程高级副总裁丹·里乔表示,通过扩大在中国的研发活动,该公司希望能够和更多中国本土合作伙伴及学术机构合作。Shanghai decided to transform itself into a global research and development center in 2014 while Suzhou in Jiangsu Province is also a popular destination for foreign enterprises to build the centers.2014年,上海决定将该市转变成一个全球研发中心,而外国企业也偏爱在江苏省苏州市建立研发中心。 /201703/500425

We all know time is a construct, and right now, it#39;s kept by the very precise tick of an international network of around 500 atomic clocks.我们都知道时间是个复杂的概念。目前,世界上有一个由大约500台原子钟组成的网络,而我们就通过这些原子钟精确的滴答进行计时。But now researchers have shown that time could be kept even more accurately with a new-generation of clocks called optical clocks, and they want to use the new system to redefine a second - which would mean we could squeeze even more into our days. The optical clock they#39;ve just measured is so precise that it would have lost less than two minutes if it had been running since the birth of the Universe, which is pretty incredible once you wrap your head around it.但是现在研究人员表示,新一代钟表——光学钟——可以更准确地计时,而且他们想用新系统来重新定义一秒钟的长度,这也就意味着我们的日子里甚至可以挤进去更多光阴。刚刚测量的光学钟非常精确,如果它从宇宙诞生之日起开始运行的话,到现在误差还不到两分钟,仔细想想简直不可思议。Global time-keeping is important, because #39;the second#39; - as defined by the International System of s (SI) - is what our GPS devices, electrical power grids, and financial networks all rely on.全球计时是非常重要的,因为我们的GPS设备、电网和金融网络全都依赖着由国际计量系统(SI)定义的“秒”。That#39;s why we use atomic - or microwave - clocks, which measure the vibration of a caesium atom to keep time, just like the tiny swinging of a pendulum. And since 1967, a SI second has been defined as 9,192,631,770 cycles of those vibrations. But, as specific as that sounds, even the best atomic clocks can still accumulate an error of about 1 nanosecond over a month.这也是我们应用原子钟或微波钟的原因,它们通过测量铯原子的摆动来计时,就像一个钟摆在轻微摆动。自1967年以来,国际计量系统定义的一秒就是91亿9263万1770次这种微小摆动。但是,尽管听起来很精准,即使是最好的原子钟在一个月的时间内也仍然会积累出十亿分之一秒的误差。Optical clocks, on the other hand, are even more precise. They work similarly to atomic clocks, but they measure the oscillations of atoms or ions that vibrate at frequencies about 100,000 times higher than microwave frequencies - which is a whole lot faster, and therefore more accurate.另一方面,光学钟却更为精确。它们的工作原理与原子钟相似,测量原子或离子的振动,但这些原子或离子的摆动频率大约是微波频率的10万倍左右——这要快得多,因此也更为准确。;Our study is a milestone in terms of practical implementation of optical clocks,; said one of the researchers, Christian Grebing, from the National Metrology Institute of Germany, ;The message is that we could today implement these optical clocks into the time-keeping infrastructure that we have now, and we would gain.;德国国家计量研究所的一位研究人员克里斯蒂安·格雷宾说:“就光学钟的实际应用而言,我们的研究是一块里程碑。也就是说,今天我们可以把这些光学钟纳入目前拥有的计时基础设施之中,而且,我们会有所收获。”That gain is the ability to squeeze more into every second. Us slow humans wouldn#39;t really notice, but things like financial time stamps would be more specific ,and banks would be able to complete even more transactions per second.收获就是可以在每一秒之中挤入更多的时光。我们这些慢腾腾的人类不会真正注意到这点变化,但是金融时间戳之类的东西会更为精准,而甚至会在每秒钟完成更多的交易。 /201606/449951Volkswagen yesterday signed an agreement with China’s Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co to explore joint development of electric cars, in the latest sign of how the German company is accelerating work in this area after the diesel emissions scandal.大众(Volkswagen)与中国安徽江淮汽车股份有限公司(Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co)昨日签订协议,探索联合研发电动汽车。这是在柴油车尾气造假丑闻后这家德国公司加速进军新能源领域的最新标志。VW is seeking to consolidate its long-term position as one of the leading overseas carmakers in China by — among other things — evaluating a joint venture with state-owned JAC.通过评估与国有的江淮汽车合资等方式,大众正寻求巩固其长期以来作为中国领先的海外汽车制造商的地位。China is VW’s largest market, and the country is tightening regulation of cars powered by petrol and diesel engines, in moves intended to tackle widesp air pollution in towns and cities, and curb vehicles’ contribution to global warming.中国是大众最大的市场,同时中国正在收紧对汽油和柴油动力汽车的监管规则,旨在解决城镇普遍的空气污染,并遏制汽车对全球变暖的影响。Collaboration between VW and JAC could involve development and manufacturing of fully electric vehicles and hybrid models, where power is provided by a combination of batteries and combustion engines. 大众和江淮汽车的合作,可能包含研发和制造全电动汽车和混合动力车型(由电池和内燃机共同提供动力)。A final agreement on the terms of the partnership is expected to be signed within five months, subject to regulatory approvals, according to a stock exchange filing by JAC.江淮汽车提交给交所的文件显示,有关合作条款的最终协议预计将在5个月内签订(如果监管机构批准)。JAC is China’s ninth-largest carmaker and An Jin, chairman, said: We look forward to a full scope co-operation together with VW group, focus[ed] on new energy vehicles, to provide Chinese consumers with highly cost-effective battery electric vehicle products that promote the development of the Chinese new energy vehicle sector as well as the Chinese auto industry’s transformation and upgrading.江淮汽车是中国第九大汽车制造商,其董事长安进称:我们期待与大众汽车立足新能源汽车领域,开展全方位的合作,为中国消费者提供高性价比的纯电动汽车产品,共同促进中国新能源汽车产业发展,推动中国汽车产业转型升级。Beijing has identified electric vehicles as an area of strategic importance for the Chinese car industry and is offering generous subsidies to both consumers and carmakers to support the nascent market.北京方面认为电动汽车是对中国汽车产业具有战略重要性的领域,并为持这个新生市场向消费者和汽车制造商提供大量补贴。Sales of electric and hybrid cars quadrupled in China last year to 330,000 vehicles, overtaking the US as the largest market in the world, according to Wind Information, a financial data provider. 金融数据提供商万得资讯(Wind Information)的数据显示,去年中国电动汽车和混合动力汽车的销量翻了两番,达33万辆,超越美国成为全球最大市场。But analysts have warned the Chinese electric vehicle market currently offers little or no profits to carmakers, and is being held back due to inadequate battery charging infrastructure.但分析师警告称,中国电动汽车市场目前为汽车制造商提供的利润微乎其微,并且由于充电设施不足而发展缓慢。From January through to July this year, VW group sold 2.2m cars in China, accounting for 36 per cent of global unit sales. 今年1月至7月,大众集团在中国销售了220万辆汽车,占其全球汽车销量的36%。Worldwide, VW group sales were up only 1.3 per cent, but in China they rose 8 per cent, making it not only VW’s biggest market but also the fastest-growing.在全球范围来看,大众集团的销量仅增长了1.3%,但是在中国其销量增长了8%,这使得中国不仅是大众最大的市场、而且是其增长最快的市场。 /201609/465603Music companies, travel agents, newspapers, taxi drivers. Many sectors have been ravaged by the internet, mobile phone apps and people’s ability to find free information that they used to pay for. Revenues have tumbled and old industries have struggled to find new business models.音乐公司、旅行社、报纸、出租车司机。许多行业都因为互联网、手机应用,以及人们能够找到过去他们会为之付费的免费信息而遭受重创。收入大幅下滑,旧的行业难以找到新的商业模式。Surgery can now be done by robots, or performed remotely. Architects use digital tools to design buildings.手术现在可以由机器人完成,或者远程操刀。建筑师利用数字化工具来设计建筑。One sector, however, has carried on as if technology had never been invented: the law. Lawyers’ working practices “have not changed much since the time of Charles Dickens”, say father-and-son team Richard and Daniel Susskind in their book, The Future of the Professions.然而,有一个行业还一切照旧,就像技术从未被发明那样,这个行业就是法律。律师们的工作方式“自查尔斯#8226;狄更斯(Charles Dickens)的时代以来就没有太大的改变”,理查德(Richard)和丹尼尔#8226;萨斯坎德(Daniel Susskind)父子在他们合著的《职业的未来》(The Future of the Professions)一书中表示。Lawyers still provide high-cost customised advice. The highest-earning legal partners preside over pyramid-shaped firms, raking in huge fees while teams of junior lawyers do the drudge work of searching for precedents and drawing up contracts.律师们依然提供价格高昂的定制法律意见。收入最高的合伙人居于律师事务所金字塔型结构的顶端,轻松地赚取巨额务费,而初级律师组成的团队干着搜索判例和拟定合同的苦活。Could that be about to change? Many lawyers sneer at the idea that their work could ever be done by a website or app. But many outside the profession, and some inside, are developing the tools they think will turn traditional legal practice upside down.这种情况是否有可能即将改变?许多律师对于一个网站或者一款应用就可能完成他们的工作的想法嗤之以鼻。但这个行业以外的许多人,以及一些行业内人士,正在开发一些工具,他们认为这些工具将彻底颠覆传统的法律务。They have a powerful argument: few people these days can afford a lawyer.他们有一个强有力的论点:现在没有多少人请得起律师了。The cost is prohibitive, says Rosemary Martin, group general counsel at Vodafone. “If we corporations think it’s expensive, I can’t imagine how small businesses and individuals manage.”沃达丰(Vodafone)集团总法律顾问罗斯玛丽#8226;马丁(Rosemary Martin)表示,请律师的费用高昂得令人难以承受。“如果我们大公司都认为很昂贵,我无法想象小企业和个人如何能够承受。”Many smaller companies are taking risks. “They’re googling for legal advice. It would make lawyers’ hair stand on end,” she says.许多中小型公司正在冒风险。“他们用谷歌(Google)来搜索法律意见。这会让律师毛骨悚然,”她说。Many people are alarmed by the rising cost of legal advice. “Our system of justice has become unaffordable to most,” Lord Thomas, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, said in his 2015 report to the UK parliament.法律咨询成本的上升让许多人震惊。“对大多数人来说,我们的司法系统的费用已经变得难以承受了,”英格兰及威尔士首席大法官托马斯勋爵(Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales)在其2015年提交给英国议会的报告中表示。£1,000 per hour每小时1000英镑The top law firms in the UK and US — the most advanced and competitive legal markets — have sharply increased what they charge. In the mid-1980s, partners at top London firms charged between £150 and £175 an hour, according to a report by the Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank. By 2015, this had reached £775-£850 an hour, with this year’s range expected to exceed £1,000.最高端同时竞争也最激烈的法律市场——英国和美国的顶尖律所大幅提高了收费。根据智库“政策研究中心”(Centre for Policy Studies)的一份报告,上世纪80年代中期,伦敦顶尖律所合伙人的收费在每小时150英镑到175英镑之间。到2015年,这个价格达到了每小时775英镑到850英镑,今年的价格区间上限有望超过每小时1000英镑。In the US in 2014, 74 firms enjoyed profits per partner of more than m, with Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen amp; Katz, the highest earners, turning in profits per partner of .5m, according to the journal American Lawyer.根据期刊《美国律师》(American Lawyer),2014年美国有74所律所每名合伙人的平均利润超过100万美元,其中收入最高的律所Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen amp; Katz,每名合伙人的平均利润达到了550万美元。While many see the mismatch between what top lawyers earn and what most can afford to pay as a problem, others see it as an opportunity. The legal profession, they say, is ripe for disruption. Cab drivers in London are, like lawyers, highly trained; mastering “The Knowledge”, the layout of the city’s streets, takes several years. But the cabbies’ high-quality, high-price service has been upended by Uber, the app-based taxi hailing system that has brought a flood of lower-cost drivers, using satellite navigation, on to the roads.尽管很多人把顶尖律师的收入和大多数人能够承担的价格之间的错位看成一个问题,其他人把这看成一个机会。他们表示,颠覆法律业的时机已经成熟。就像律师一样,伦敦的出租车司机也训练有素;掌握“知识”(The Knowledge)——伦敦街道布局——要花上几年时间。但这些出租车司机高质量、高价格的务被叫车应用优步(Uber)颠覆了,该应用让大量依靠卫星导航的低收费司机上了路。A similar thing, critics say, will happen to lawyers.批评者表示,律师们也会遭遇类似的事情。Dan Jansen is chief executive of NextLaw Labs, a legal technology company backed by Dentons, a global law firm. Mr Jansen, a non-lawyer with a background in management consultancy and technology start-ups, jokes that the Susskinds are being too kind. The practice of law, he says, has not changed “since Magna Carta”. What does he see when he looks at the way lawyers work? “A wonderful opportunity for reinvention is the polite way to describe it.”丹#8226;詹森(Dan Jansen)是法律科技公司NextLaw Labs的首席执行官,该公司是国际律所德同(Dentons)投资的。詹森不是律师,有过管理咨询公司的任职经历、创办过科技公司。他开玩笑说萨斯坎德说得太委婉了。他表示,法律务“自《大宪章》(Magna Carta)以来”就未曾改变过了。他从律师的工作方式中看到了什么?“用礼貌的说法来描述的话,一个改造的绝佳机会。”NextLaw is backing legal technology start-ups. Its first investment was Ross Intelligence, a Palo Alto-based start-up launched just over a year ago by Jimoh Ovbiagele and Andrew Arruda. Ross is using IBM’s Watson artificial intelligence system to do some of the research currently done by junior lawyers. The pair decided to focus first on US bankruptcy law because they thought it was an area of legal practice that was recession proof. “Bankruptcy is always around,” Mr Arruda says.NextLaw正在投资创业型法律科技公司。该公司的第一个投资对象是Ross Intelligence,一家成立才1年多一点、位于加州帕洛阿尔托(Palo Alto)的创业型公司,创始人是希莫#8226;奥比亚赫莱(Jimoh Ovbiagele)和安德鲁#8226;阿鲁达(Andrew Arruda)。Ross Intelligence正在利用IBM的沃森(Watson)人工智能系统做一些目前由初级律师承担的调研工作。两人决定首先专注于美国破产法,因为他们认为,这是一个不受衰退影响的法律业领域。“破产总在发生,”阿鲁达表示。How does their system work? Say you are a small company, Mr Arruda says, and one of your clients has gone bust. You suspect there are one or two legal cases that will help you recover what you are owed. Whereas a lawyer would have to scroll through precedents, possibly using a computerised keyword search, the Ross system will rifle through thousands of documents to find what the company wants.他们的系统是如何运作的呢?阿鲁达说,假如你是一家小公司,你的客户之一破产了。你怀疑有一两个法律案例能够帮助你追回欠款。一名律师必须浏览判例(可能会利用关键词在计算机中搜索),而Ross系统能够通过迅速检索无数份文件,以寻找该公司需要的内容。The Ross system is in its infancy, as are most of the products that their champions hope will transform the legal business.Ross系统还处于起步阶段,正如持者希望能够改变法律业的绝大多数产品一样。“It’s pretty early in the game,” says Mark Harris, San Francisco-based chief executive of Axiom, which claims to be the world’s leading technology-based provider of legal services, with customers that include half of both the FTSE 100 and Fortune 100 companies.“游戏才刚刚开局,”旧金山公司Axiom的首席执行官马克#8226;哈里斯(Mark Harris)表示。该公司号称是世界领先的科技型法律务提供商,富时100指数(FTSE 100)成分股公司和《财富》(Fortune)100强公司半数都是该公司的客户。Like the majority of his 1,500 Axiom colleagues, Mr Harris is a lawyer. He worked for Davis Polk amp; Wardwell, a top-tier US firm, in the 1990s. He realised something was wrong when a partner asked him to prepare a client’s bill. When he added the hours that he had put in, he realised that the client was being asked to pay his entire annual salary for a month’s work. “I started getting obsessed: where is that money going to?” Apart from the partners’ profits, he realised, it was going into art that was hanging on the firm’s walls.就像他在Axiom的1500名同事中的大多数人一样,哈里斯是一名律师。上世纪90年代他曾任职于顶尖美国律所达维(Davis Polk amp; Wardwell)。在一位合伙人要求他为一位客户准备账单时,他意识到有些地方不对劲。当他把自己投入的工时加总起来以后,他意识到律所要求这名客户为一个月的务付相当于他一年薪水的费用。“我开始冥思苦想:这笔钱去了哪里?”他了解到,除了合伙人的利润,这笔钱还花在了律所墙壁上挂的艺术品上。It is not just the clients who were unhappy with the set-up, he says. So were many junior lawyers. “They felt overworked, underpaid and under-appreciated,” he says. In 2000, he and a friend started Axiom to offer cheaper legal services to companies, stripping out cost by having the lawyers work at clients’ premises, from home or from its own warehouselike offices. Over the years, Axiom has increased the use of technology in serving its clients.他说,不仅是客户对这种体制不满,许多初级律师也同样如此。“他们感到自己被压榨得太狠、薪资太低、不受重视,”他说。2000年,他和一个朋友创建了Axiom,为企业提供更为便宜的法律务,通过让律师在客户的场所、家中或者Axiom公司类似仓库一样的办公室里工作来节省办公成本。这些年来,Axiom在务客户过程中增多了对技术的使用。Scaling up规模效应Some use Uber to explain how law is being disrupted, but Mr Harris prefers to talk about how aircraft are made. Orville and Wilbur Wright were artisanal builders of flying machines. Today’s aircraft are not built by artisans but by industrial manufacturers led by Airbus and Boeing.一些人用优步来解释法律业如何正在被颠覆,但哈里斯更愿意谈谈飞机是如何造出来的。奥维尔(Orville)和威尔伯#8226;莱特(Wilbur Wright)兄弟是打造飞行器的手工艺人。今天的飞机不是由手工艺人,而是由以空客(Airbus)和波音(Boeing)为首的工业制造商制造出来的。Law is still at the artisan stage, he says. Lawyers craft individual advice for clients. The way to bring cost down is to industrialise much of the process. Among Axiom’s services are running clients’ contracts. “We take all their legacy documents and add structure to that information. At the core of the technology is a data model that links the information within and between agreements,” Mr Harris says. “We might look at renewal dates and cross-selling opportunities.”他说,法律业依然处于手工艺人的阶段。律师们为客户打造个性化的意见。降低成本的方法是将这个过程的大部分工业化。Axiom提供的务包括管理客户的合同。“我们拿到客户所有的既往文件,将这些信息结构化。这项技术的核心是一个能将协议内部和不同协议之间的信息连接起来的数据模型,”哈里斯表示,“我们可能会查看续约日期和交叉销售机会。”Some products are designed to help in-house legal departments manage their work more efficiently. Riverview Law, a company based in north-west England, is launching what it calls “virtual assistants”. Corporate in-house lawyers will be able to use these systems to identify, on a digital “dashboard”, the units where problems have occurred, the risk profile of any case, who is working on it and how long they take.一些产品旨在帮助企业内部法务部门更有效率地管理他们的工作。位于英国西北部的公司Riverview Law推出了名为“虚拟助手”的系统。企业内部的法务顾问能够使用这些系统,在一个数字“仪表盘”上确认出现问题的部分、任何案件的风险状况、谁在处理该案、以及处理者所花的时间。Karl Chapman, Riverview’s chief executive, is a law graduate, but has never practised as a lawyer. With a background in human resources and recruitment services, he says he is struck by how little information lawyers and in-house legal departments have about their work, ranging from how much it is costing to how long it is taking. “The absence of data in this marketplace is a real surprise. Retailers and other businesses have real data on which to make decisions,” he says.Riverview Law首席执行官卡尔#8226;查普曼(Karl Chapman)是一名法学院毕业生,但他并没有律师执业经验。曾有过人力资源和招聘务方面从业经历的他表示,从工作成本到工作时长,律师和企业内部法务部门对与自己工作相关的信息掌握得太少。“这个市场上数据的匮乏实在令人惊讶。零售商和其他企业都拥有真实的数据并根据这些数据进行决策,”他说。Much of the technology seems primitive compared to what has happened in other industries. But those who believe in it think it can go far beyond digitising everyday routine processes into doing the kind of complex work that lawyers think only they can do.和其他行业目前的情况相比,法律科技中的大部分似乎有些原始。但那些相信法律科技的人认为,这些技术能够远远超越将日常例行程序数字化,完成律师们认为只有他们能够做的复杂工作。So is law approaching its Uber moment? Some scoff at the idea. “People have been talking about this ever since I’ve been a lawyer,” says one New York lawyer. “I’ll believe it when I see it.”那么法律业也在接近其“优步时刻”吗?一些人对这个想法嗤之以鼻。“我入律师这一行以来人们就一直在谈论这个,”一名纽约的律师表示,“只有等亲眼看见我才会相信。”Those at the top of the most successful law firms have little incentive to change. The system has served them well. “Most of these people have worked for 20 years to get to the top of the business and now they’re reaping the fees,” says Axiom’s Mr Harris. As partners, they distribute the profits among themselves and have little incentive to invest in new technology. From their point of view, says a marketing head at one US law firm, “there’s no burning platform”.那些最成功的律所的顶层人物没有多少动力去改变。这个体系对他们很有利。“大多数人工作了20年才到达这个行业的顶端,现在他们在大把赚取务费,”Axiom的哈里斯说。作为合伙人,他们把利润分给彼此,几乎没有动力投资新技术。在他们看来,一家美国律所的营销主管表示,“事情没有到需要破釜沉舟的地步”。There are other forces working in the traditional legal profession’s favour. Since the 2007 financial crisis, the level of regulation has increased. And companies are frightened of getting things wrong so they will continue to spend on legal services. This is particularly true when they enter new markets.还有其他有利于传统法律业的因素在起作用。自2007年金融危机以来,监管力度加大。害怕犯错的企业会继续在法律务上花钱。在它们进入新市场时尤其如此。There is a “fear factor,” says Joe Andrew, Dentons’ chairman. “People are always prepared to spend money on the unknown. You go into a new market, there are new risks. [There is a danger of] brand damage. CEOs get fired for that kind of thing.”德同的全球主席乔#8226;安德鲁(Joe Andrew)表示,存在“恐惧因素”。“人们总是愿意在未知事物上花钱。你进入新市场,那里有新的风险。(有)品牌受损(的危险)。首席执行官们会因为这种事情遭到解雇。”The customer knows best客户最懂行But corporate clients are demanding change. Mr Chapman says the increasing costs of law make the existing system untenable. “Customers are starting to rebel,” he says.但企业客户正在要求改变。查普曼表示,不断上升的法律费用让现有体系难以为继。“客户开始造反,”他说。He says many in-house legal departments have aly cut costs. Ms Martin points to Vodafone’s negotiation of fixed fee arrangements with its lawyers, rather than accepting billing by the hour. The telecoms provider has also reduced the number of law firms it uses from 70 to 10. Ms Martin believes technology can help departments like hers cut costs even further. “I’m a real believer in it,” she says.他表示,许多企业内部法务部门已经削减了成本。马丁提及沃达丰和其律师就固定务费(而不是接受按小时计费)进行的谈判。这家电信公司还将合作律所从70所降至10所。马丁相信,技术能帮助企业法务部门进一步削减成本。“我对法律科技非常有信心,”她说。In their book, the Susskinds e Harold Laski, the political theorist and UK Labour party activist in the first half of the 20th century, who said that the expert enjoyed a status “not very different from that of the priest in primitive societies”, exercising “a mystery into which the uninitiated cannot enter”.在他们的书中,萨斯坎德父子引用了20世纪前半叶的政治理论家、英国工党(Labour party)活动人士哈罗德#8226;拉斯基(Harold Laski)的话,拉斯基曾说,专家享有的地位“和原始社会中祭司的地位没有多大区别”,行使“外行无法参与的秘术”。Lawyers have long played that role and many will continue to do so. There will probably always be a need for eminent advisers, particularly to companies. But for those who are unable to afford legal advice, technology offers some hope. It has a long way to go, but Ms Martin argues that if new applications can be made to succeed, they will bring great rewards to the sector.长期以来,律师们一直扮演着这样的角色,其中许多人还会继续扮演。对知名顾问的需求很可能将永远存在,尤其是对企业来说。但对那些无力付法律咨询费用的人来说,科技带来了一些希望。虽然还有很长的路要走,但马丁主张,如果新应用能够取得成功,它们将给这个行业带来巨大的回报。Greater use of technology will not only make law cheaper, it will also take some of the mystery out of it. The aim, she says, should be “for companies and individuals to be able to do more legal work themselves. [Then] it wouldn’t seem special.”加大对科技的运用不仅会降低法律务的成本,还会去除它身上的一些神秘色。她说,目的应该是“让企业和个人能够自行完成更多的法律工作。(这样)法律看起来就不会那么特殊了”。 /201605/442271

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