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来源:美常识    发布时间:2020年02月25日 02:28:17    编辑:admin         

It is dawn and the sun is rising黎明,朝阳升起as it has every day for the last 5 billion years.五十亿年如一日For millennia it has been a constant golden disk千万年来,太阳一直有如一个金色圆盘般地shining its unchanging light onto the Earth.照耀着地球But look through the glare and the true face of the sun is revealed.但在眩目的外表下,藏着太阳的真面目Not constant,but constantly changing.不是恒常,而是瞬息万变Turbulent, and violent.动荡而狂暴Its worst tantrums canwreak havoc on the Earth.太阳的暴烈变化,会让地球陷入混乱To understand the sun is to understand想了解太阳the forces that drive the universe.就得了解推动宇宙运行的力量If we can control those forces we can unlock the power of the stars.若能控制这些力量,就能解开恒星的力量The power of our sun.解开我们太阳的力量The story of the sun starts 13 billion years ago with the Big Bang.太阳的故事始于130亿年前的大爆炸In an instant the universe was born宇宙在瞬间诞生and since then its been expanding at the speed of light.后此便以光速不断扩张Within the universe there are a hundred billion galaxies.宇宙里有一千亿个星系Our galaxy is but one of them.我们的系只是其中一个In it there are 100 billion stars.系中有一千亿颗恒星And towards the edge of one of the spiral arms在其漩涡结构的边缘is an almost insignificant dot.有一个微乎其微的小点A medium-sized, not very bright,undistinguished star.那是一个大小、亮度中等的平凡恒星Up close it is a different story.但近看就不是那么回事了On the planets closest to the sun,最靠近太阳的行星Mercury and Venus,the heat is intense,金星和水星,表面因高热their surfaces scorched.而成为一片焦土Further out through the solar system the suns rays weaken.太阳光在太阳系中,随着距离拉长而减弱Until they are powerless against the chill of space.直到无法抵挡太空的凛冽The outer planets are frozen.外行星上是一片冰封景象But in the middle lies the Goldilocks planet.所谓的“金发行星”位置适中Not too hot, and not too cold.不太热,也不太冷In fact its just right,事实上是恰到好处and life has flourished in the warm glow.生物在这里的和煦阳光下,生生不息All life on Earth owes its existence to the sun.地球上所有生物,皆因太阳而存在It powers every natural system.太阳是自然界所有系统的能量来源And sustains every plant and animal.是所有动植物的命脉Without the sun the planet would be a barren,少了太阳,地球将会一是片荒芜lifeless ball of rock.死寂Recognising that power humans have always worshipped the sun.深谙太阳力量的人类,自古就崇敬太阳But we have also always striven to understand it.但我们也一直努力想要了解它These monuments are more than just temples.这些纪念碑不只是神庙They are calendars and observatories.也是日历与瞭望台Tools for studying the sun.是用来研究太阳的工具And some of them are still operational.其中有些至今仍可运作201503/366476。

No toxic or upper limit of Vitamin B12 have been set,维生素B12的摄入量并没有上限and no adverse effects have been associated with the至今为止,也没有发现任何与过量摄入consumption of too much of this vitamin.维生素B12相关的副作用Folate is found in dark, leafy greens such as broccoli,叶酸存在于深色叶片类蔬菜中spinach, okra, and asparagus. Liver is also a great比如花椰菜,菠菜和芦笋,动物肝脏也source of this nutrient. Like many of the other富含这种营养物质,与其他种类的water-soluble vitamins, fortified breakfast cereal is水溶性维生素一样,加强早餐麦片also a good source. This may be one of the most也是叶酸的一个重要来源,或许也是摄取effective ways to get this nutrient.这种营养物质的最有效的方式Because absorption tends to be greater in foods因为加强型食物中的营养物质能够that are fortified, other foods that also provide更好地被人体吸收,其他富含叶酸的食物folate include citrus fruits,还包括柑橘类水果lentils, and whole grains.兵豆以及所有谷物Folate plays many important roles in the body.叶酸在人体中具有多重功效It is important in the synthesis of red blood cells它对血红细胞的合成十分重要which prevent anemia from occurring in the body.而血红细胞能够防止贫血的发生Folate is also critical in the production of new cells叶酸对新细胞生长也很关键which makes this nutrient vital for proper growth也就是说,这种营养物质是人体正常and development. Folate consumption is extremely生长和发育的关键important in women of child-bearing age.叶酸对育龄妇女尤其重要Neural Tube defects such as Spina Bifida are a result例如脊柱裂这类神经管缺陷of a deficiency of Folate which can occur in the就是由叶酸不足造成的,在母亲意识到embryo before a woman even realizes shes pregnant.自己怀之前,胚胎可能就已经患上了Therefore, it is critical for women to increase the脊柱裂,因此,对于妇女来说intake of Folate before she becomes pregnant and在怀之前和怀早期in the first few weeks after becoming pregnant.补充叶酸是十分重要的400 micrograms is the recommended daily allowance医生建议每日的叶酸摄入量为of Folate; however, women who are planning on400毫克,而准备怀妇女及becoming pregnant or women who are pregnant期女性,每日的叶酸摄入量should consume 600 micrograms of Folate each day.应达到600毫克The upper limit is 1,000 micrograms each day.而上限是1000毫克The intake of too much Folate has been shown to维生素B12与贫血有关mask the anemia associated with a deficiency caused而叶酸摄入过多也不会使这一问题by Vitamin B12. This could be a problem because而到根本解决,因为尽管though the anemia is being corrected, the nerve叶酸可以缓解贫血症状,但却并不能problems associated with Vitamin B12解决由维生素B12造成的are not corrected by Folate.神经系统的问题Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods.维生素B6存在于多种食物中As with the other B Vitamins that we have discussed,与其他B族维生素一样fortified breakfast cereal is a great food source of加强早餐麦片是B6的一个重要来源this vitamin. Other sources include beans, oatmeal,其他来源还包括豆类,燕麦meats, such as pork and roast beef, and spinach.肉类,比如猪肉和烤牛排,还有菠菜Vitamin B6 is essential in the body for maintaining维生素B6对保持身体健康good health. It is required for the nervous system and十分重要,神经系统和免疫系统的正常immune systems to operate properly. Also, this vitamin运行都需要维生素B6,另外is needed in over 100 enzymes for protein metabolism.用于蛋白质代谢的100多种酶也都需要它Vitamin B6 also plays an important role in red blood维生素B6在血红细胞的代谢上cell metabolism because it is used in the body to make也有重要作用,因为血红蛋白的形成hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is used by red blood cells to需要维生素B6,红细胞需要血红蛋白carry oxygen to tissues. Another function of this才能将氧气运送到身体各组织,这种vitamin is the control of normal blood glucose levels维生素的,另一个作用是在热量摄入by converting stored carbohydrates极低的情况下,通过将人体中的碳水化合物into glucose when caloric intake is low.转化成葡萄糖,以保正常的血糖水平The recommended daily allowance of Vitamin B6 is维生素B6每天的建议摄入量为between 1.3 and 1.7 milligrams per day. Deficiency of1.3-1.7毫克之间,缺乏维生素B6this vitamin causes a form of anemia called microcytic会导致小红细胞高色性贫血hyperchromic anemia, which acts very similarly to the其病症与缺铁性贫血相似iron-deficiency anemia. The upper limit for this维生素B6的最大摄入量为vitamin is set at 100 milligrams each day.每天100毫克High intakes of Vitamin B6 have been associated维生素B6的过量摄入会造成with nerve damage in the arms and the legs.上下肢的神经损伤But symptoms revert upon但是如果摄入量过少reducing the intake of this vitamin.同样会产生相同的问题201509/401063。

On this ice cliff you can actually see在这个冰崖,你能清晰看到the transformation of snow into ice as it happens.雪变成冰的过程Each years snowfall creates distinct layers many feet deep.每年的降雪都造成明显的雪层,许多数米厚Now, above me is the fresh snow from this winter,现在,在我上方是今年新下的雪and down here, this brown line is the melt from the summer before.接下来,看这些褐色线,是夏天前融化的So as you go down through these layers, the snow gets older and older.所以你越深入观察这些雪层,雪堆积的时间越久远Its kind of like the rings of a tree就像树的年轮with each layer being a new layer of snowfall,老雪层被新雪层套着and its the weight of all those snowfalls building up所有这些雪崩的重量that starts to compress the individual snowflakes together.是由独立的雪花压缩而成的The further down the layers you go,越往下接触的雪层就the harder the snow becomes until you reach here.越硬,到了这里This is a really distinctive set of snow.这是很特别的雪Its called neve and it formed several years ago.叫做粒雪,数年前形成Its really hard, I mean, I have to dig at it with my ice axe.这真的很硬,我用冰镐挖它Its amazing stuff. Its kind of Like a bubbly fibreglass.这是神奇的聚集物就像气泡玻璃纤维Its beautiful.真漂亮201510/401788。

Irans military has seized two U.S. Navy vessels and is detaining 10 sailors after the crew drifted into Iranian waters. U.S. officials say theyve received assurances from Tehran the sailors will be released soon.美国两艘海军船舰进入伊朗水域,伊朗军方将其缴获并拘留了十名船员。美国官员表示,他们已经收到来自德黑兰的保,船员不久将被释放。Everybody should be aware of the fact that we have been in touch with the Iranians, and they have assured us that our sailors are safe, and they will be allowed to continue their journey.每个人都应该知道的是,我们一直在与伊朗保持接触,他们向我们保,我们的船员是安全的,允许他们继续行程。According to the Pentagon, the incident involved two small vessels known as riverine boats, one of which developed mechanical problems en route from Kuwait to Bahrain. The ships inadvertently drifted into Iranian waters and were picked up by Irans border patrol near Farsi Island.据五角大楼消息,事件涉及两艘被称为河流船只的小船舰,一艘在从科威特到巴林的航线上发生机械故障。船只在不经意间漂进了伊朗水域,被伊朗Farsi岛附近的边境巡逻队拘捕。Secretary of State John Kerry has been in contact with Irans Foreign Minister Javad Zarif to resolve the issue, and U.S. officials have been quick to note Iran has promised to return the U.S. vessels and crew to international waters.美国国务卿克里一直在与伊朗外长贾瓦德·扎里夫保持接触来解决问题,美国官员很快注意到伊朗答应放出美国船只和船员到国际水域。This incident comes just one month after the U.S. Navy accused Iran of conducting a live-fire exercise just 1,500 yards away from a passing U.S. Carrier.刚好在一个月前,美国海军指责伊朗进行了一场实弹演习,距路过的美国航母仅1500码。译文属。201601/421786。

But this inner heat also continually reshapes但是这个内热还不断的重新塑造着the surface of the whole planet.地球的表面It creates a restless,constantly changing landscape.它使地貌持续变动,沧海桑田,永不停歇Iceland is a great place to see exactly how the planets inner heat is able to transform the surtace of the Earth.冰岛使我们有机会能够清楚的看到 地热是怎样持续不断的塑造着地球景观的Magma usually lies many miles beneath the surface熔岩一般是在地下几百公里的地方but here,in Iceland,its much closer.但是在冰岛它们离地表更近点And that has a dramatic effect.充满了壮观的效果Sulphurous fumes and bubbling hot pools with hundred-degree-plus temperature hint at the power that is just beneath the surface.含硫磺的刺鼻的烟和冒泡的池子 暗示着巨大的能量就离地表不远There are naturally heated pools everywhere in the island, 岛上到处都有天然的热水池which makes going for a dip something of a national pastime.去热水池里面洗个澡成了全民休闲方式but the people here might not be quite so relaxed if they knew exactly how the water get heated. 当地人也许不清楚水是怎样变热的Just 12 miles beneath Iceland 在冰岛地下20公里的地方is a vast column of super heated rock,called a plume.有个巨大的柱形熔岩以羽毛状而闻名201508/391642。



Hey,Vsauce,Micheal here.And what if every single person on earth jumped at the exact same time?Could it cause an earthquake?Or would we not even be able to tell? Well,first things first,lets talk about the earths rotation.The earths spins since why we have night and day,and it spins quickly.At the equator,the earth is spinning at more than 1000 miles per hour.嘿 欢迎来到Vsauce 我是Michael。如果地球上的每一个人在同一时刻起跳,会发生什么?会引起一场地震吗?还是连我们自己都不知道?好,先说重要的,我们先来谈谈地球的自转。地球自转产生昼夜,并且速度还很快。在赤道 地球以1000英里/小时的速度转动。Now a spinning ice-skater can speed up by moving mass closer to the center.And the earth is no different.In fact,if you get down on the ground right now,and move your mass closer to earths center,technically,you will speed up earths rotation making this day shorter.Now,the change that you would make to the earths rotation is way smaller than we can even measure.But its calculatable and the impact can be quite impressive when you talk about redistributing more mass than just one person.眼下一个转动的溜冰者能将质量靠近质心以提高转速。而地球却没什么不同。实际上 如果你现在倒在地上,然后将你自己靠近地心,严格意义上来说,你会加速地球自转 从而把一天变短。此时,你对地球自转造成的变化远小于我们能够测量的精度。但这是可计算的,它的影响也是很可观的,当讨论重新分布远大于一个人的质量时。For instance,last year,the earthquake in Japan.redistributed so much of earths mass towards the earths center.that everyday,since than,has been 1.8 micro-seconds shorter.But that was a giant geological event.What can us humans do to the earth all on our own? I mean,there are more than 7 billion of us now.What if we all got together in one place and jumped? What would that even look like?例如,去年发生在日本的地震,将如此多的质量分布到距离地心更近的地方。以至于自从那时 地球自转比原来慢了1.8微妙。但那是一个巨大的地质现象。我们人类全凭自己,能对地球做什么呢?我的意思是,我们有70亿人口。如果我们全部聚集在一起,跳一跳会怎么样?那看起来会是什么样子?Interestingly,if you took the entire human population of earth,and had them all live in one place with the same density that people live in New York City.you could fit everyone all of us,into the state of Texas.But thats living,not standing around in the crowd which is how we would probably wanna do to jump.If every single person alive right now on earth stood shoulder to shoulder,you could fit all of us into the city of Los Angeles.It would be an incredible sight to be hold,A mere 500 square miles containing every single on earth.有趣的是,如果你将地球上的所有人聚集起来,让他们都以纽约城的人口密度住在一起,一个德克萨斯州大小的地方就可以容纳所有人类。但这是居住 不是一群人站在一起,那样我们才可能跳起来。如果每个活着的人现在肩并肩站着,一个洛杉矶大小的地方就能容纳所有人类。那将是一个令人难以置信的景象,一片只有500平方英里的土地,容纳地球上的每一个人。OK,so then we jump,what happens?Unfortunately,not much.I mean,we are all awesome people here on earth.But our collective mass compared to the mass of the entire earth,its like nothing.In fact,DOT PHYSICS calculating that if all of us were to get together in one location and all jump 30cm into the air at the exact same time,we would push the earth away from us a tiny amount.Earth would only move away from us about 1/100 of the width of a single Hydrogen atom.And heres another thing,because we are all jumping and then going back to where we started,earth is just going to move back to where it started.好, 然后我们起跳,会发生什么呢?不幸的是,似乎没啥。我的意思是,我们都是地球上令人敬畏的人类啊。但是我们大家的质量与地球的相比,就像是什么都没有。事实上,DOT PHYSICS 计算出如果我们所有人聚集在一起,同时向上跳30厘米,我们会将地球推力我们一丁点儿。地球只会大约远离我们百分之一氢原子的宽度。另外,因为我们全都起跳 然后回到原点,地球也会移动到原来的位置。So,our big jump wont be able to change earths position in space.But come on,7 billion people all jumping together.thats gotta be able to cause some sort of seismic activity,right? So lets say you have a lot of people altogether at one place,and you have them all jump on one,two,three.Did you feel that?Well,the B did this with 50,000 people and discovered that a kilometer and a half away,it only registered as a point six on the Richter scale,You would meet 7 million times more people than even live on earth right now to jump at once to recreate the earthquake that recently happend in Japan.So,even though we were all awesome,compared to the size of the earth,we are not much.所以我们这一跳不会在空间上改变地球的位置。但怎么会呢,70 亿人一起跳啊,一定会导致某种地震活动,对不对?所以比方说,你同时有很多人,然后你让他们都起跳 一,二,三。你能感受到吗?B找了五万人做这个实验,然后发现1.5公里之外,之测量到里氏0.6级的地震 你要有现在地球人口,七百万倍的人,同时起跳来重现最近发生在日本的地震。所以, 即使我们再厉害,比起地球的大小,我们也没有多少。But dont get too discouraged,our collective jump will contain a lot of energy,THE STARIGHT DOPE calculated that even if only the people who lived in China got together and jumped,their jump would be equivalent of 500 tons of TNT.Of course,500 tons of TNT doesnt do much to an earth,that weights 6 Sextillion 588 Quintillion tons.To make yourself feel more powerful,pick a card.Ive got 10 of them here,lets say,you choose this one.Boom,congratulations,we have just decimated this deck of cards.但是别感到太沮丧,我们大家的跳跃会包含许多能量,THE STRAIGHT DOPE 计算出即使只有全中国的人聚在一起 然后起跳,它的能量相当于500号TNT爆炸时释放的能量。当然 500吨TNT对于地球来说算不上什么,地球重达6.588x10^21吨。为了让你变得更强大 挑一张卡。我这有10张卡 比如说 让你选这一张。砰 恭喜 我们刚刚从十张卡片里面抽走了一张。Why,well,because technically decimate does not mean obliterate completely.Deci,10,it means to take away one tenth of something.So the next time you take a quiz,and dont do so well on it,you only get 10%.Well,sure thats an F.But,by getting 10% of them right,you decimated that quiz.And since weve been talking about crowds,lets talk about Youtube crowds.Youtube audiences that if you count that you see the bottom of every ,And get some perspective on it,well began with Dunbars Number.Its an estimation of the maximum number of people we can have stable social relationships with at an given moment.为什么?因为严格意义上来说“decimate”不是完全抹杀的意思。“deci”10 它的意思是某物的十分之一。那么当你下次做小测验并且考砸了,你只拿到10分 当然 毫无疑问是个F.但是 因为你做对了10%所以你在10题中就对了1道。既然我们一直在讨论人群 来说说Yotube上的看客吧。Yotube看客们 如果你们能看到每个视频底下的信息 稍加观察的话,那么我们先从邓巴数开始说起吧。这是我们在某个时间内能够维系稳定社会关系的最大人数。And its based on the size of our Neocortex.These arent just acquaintances,these are people you have social contact with.A network where you know how everyone relates to everyone else.And the number is usually given to be somewhere between 100 and 230.Which means that when a Youtube receives more than 230 views from different people more people have seen that that you could ever realistically hope to know well at a given moment.If a has more than 100,000 views from different people,more people have seen that than you will ever meet in your life.它与我们大脑的新皮质有关。这些并非仅仅相识的人,而是你能与之进行社会交往的人。一个你对人与人之间关系了如指掌的网络。这个数字大约在100到230人之间。这也就意味着 当一个Youtube视频观看人数超过了230,观看视频的人数就比你希望能在一段时间内熟识的人数多了。如果一个视频被超过10万不同的人观看,那么观看视频的人数就比你一生中能够遇到的人多了。And by meet,I mean shake hands with,learn their name,talk to them for a bit.I mean think of it this way,you and me,we are only statistically expected to live around 28,470 days.So even if you are to meet someone,two three people everyday of your life including when you are a baby.you still wouldnt meet as many people as have seen that Youtube with 100,000 views.遇到,在这里指的是你们二者握手 互留姓名 二人间聊聊天。我的意思是 从这个方面思考 你我之间,统计意义上说我们的寿命只有大约28,470天。那么如果你要见某些人,即使每天遇到两三个人 把婴儿时期的那几年也算上,你遇见的人数还是超不过观看这段视频的那100,000名Youtube观众。Keep this in mind,even though you or even a large group of us can do much to change the earths location or rotation.we can affect it a little bit.Newtons Third Law guarantees this,if you weigh 150 pounds,the earth is pulling you down with a force of 150 pounds.But you are also pulling up on the earth with a force of 150 pounds.If you fall 3 meters,the earth is pulled you down 3 meters,but you have also exerted an equal and opposite force on the earth.Of course its a lot bigger.SO if you fall 3 meters,you pull the earth up about a billionth of the width of a proton.which aint bad.请记住,即使是你 或者是我们一大群人能够为改变地球的自转或位置做出许多事,我们能在极轻微程度上产生影响。牛顿第三定律向我们保 如果你的体重是150磅,那么地球就是对你施加一个向下的,大小为150牛的力。但是你也对地球施加一个向上的,大小为150牛的力。如果你下降3米 就是说地球把你向下拉3米,但你也对地球施加了一个大小相等,方向相反的力。当然这个看上去大多了。如果你下落3米 地球就被你拉上来了质子直径十亿分之一垢距离。似乎还不错。So the next time you move your body,the next time you jump,Felicia,think about this:you just affected the earth as much as it affected you.You got that kind of power,speed of power.You all should go check out GEEK amp; SUNDRY,Felicias new channel,its one of my new favorite names.And,as always,THANKS FOR WATCHING.那么,当你下次移动身体,Felicia 当你下次跳起来的时候,想想这件事:你对地球的作用和地球对你的作用相当。你的确有那种能力 那么大的功率。你也应该去瞧瞧GEEK amp; SUNDRY Felicia 的新频道,这是我现在最近爱上的频道之一。另外 还是和往常一样,谢谢观看。201503/364351。