楼主:69诊疗 时间:2019年06月21日 03:29:07 点击:0 回复:0
Hi, everybody. This week, after five years of effort with eleven other nations, we reached agreement on a new trade deal that promotes American values and protects American workers. Theres a reason this Trans-Pacific Partnership took five years to negotiate. I wanted to get the best possible deal for American workers. And that is what weve done. Heres why it matters. Ninety-five percent of the worlds consumers live outside our borders – 95 percent. They want to buy American products. They want our cars, our music, our food. And if American businesses can sell more of their products in those markets, they can expand and support good jobs here at home. So its no wonder that exports played a huge role in helping America recover from the Great Recession. In fact, last year, we set a new record for American exports for the fifth year in a row, selling more than trillion in goods and services. Our exports support roughly 12 million American jobs – and theyre jobs that typically pay better than other jobs. But heres the thing: Outdated trade rules put our workers at a disadvantage. And TPP will change that. Right now, other countries can cut their costs by setting lower standards to pay lower wages. This trade agreement, TPP, will change that, holding partner countries to higher standards and raising wages across a region that makes up nearly 40 percent of the global economy. Right now, other countries charge foreign taxes on goods that are made in America. Japan, for example, puts a 38 percent tax on American beef before it even reaches the market. Malaysia puts a 30 percent tax on American auto parts. Vietnam puts taxes as high as 70 percent on every car American automakers sell there. Those taxes and other trade barriers put our workers at a disadvantage. It makes more expensive to make goods here and sell them over there. Well, TPP is going to change that. It eliminates more than 18,000 of these taxes on American goods and services. And that way, were boosting Americas farmers, ranchers, manufacturers, and small business owners – make it easier for them to sell their products abroad. Thats what it means to level the playing field for American workers and businesses. And when the playing field is level, and the rules are fair, Americans can out-compete anybody in the world. Now, Im the first person who will say that past trade agreements havent always lived up to their promise. Sometimes theyve been tilted too much in the direction of other countries and we havent gotten a fair deal. And that makes folks suspicious of any new trade initiatives. But lets be clear. Our future depends not on what past trade deals did wrong, but on doing new trade deals right. And thats what the TPP does. It includes the strongest labor standards in history, from requiring fair hours to prohibiting child labor and forced labor. It includes the strongest environmental standards in history. All these things level the playing field for us, because if they have to follow these rules, then they cant undercut us and sell their products cheaper because theyre violating these rules. And unlike past trade agreements, these standards are actually enforceable. Without this agreement, competitors that dont share our values, like China, will write the rules of the global economy. Theyll keep selling into our markets and try to lure companies over there; meanwhile theyre going to keep their markets closed to us. Thats whats been going on for the last 20 years. Thats whats contributed so much to outsourcing. Thats what has made it easier for them to compete against us. And it needs to change. With this Trans-Pacific Partnership, we are writing the rules for the global economy. America is leading in the 21st century. Our workers will be the ones who get ahead. Our businesses will get a fair deal. And those who oppose passing this new trade deal are really just accepting a status quo that everyone knows puts us at a disadvantage. Look, you dont have to take my word for it. In the coming weeks and months, youll be able to every word of this agreement online well before I sign it. Youll be able to see for yourself how this agreement is better than past trade deals – and how its better for Americas working families. You can learn more at WhiteHouse.gov. And I look forward to working with both parties in Congress to approve this deal – and grow our economy for decades to come. Thanks, everybody. And have a great weekend.201510/403371The AIDS epidemic offers an example. The broad goal, of course, is to end the disease. The highest-leverage approach is prevention. The ideal technology would be a vaccine that gives lifetime immunity with a single dose. So governments, drug companies, and foundations are funding vaccine research. But their work is likely to take more than a decade, so in the meantime, we have to work with what we have in hand-and the best prevention approach we have now is getting people to avoid risky behavior.艾滋病就是一个例子。毫无疑问,总的目标是消灭这种疾病。最高效的方法是预防。最理想的技术是一种疫苗,只要注射一次,就可以终生免疫。所以,政府、制药公司、基金会在资助疫苗研究。但是,这种研究工作很可能花费十几年时间。因此,与此同时,我们必须使用现有技术——目前最有效的预防方法就是设法让人们避免那些危险的行为。Pursuing that goal starts the four-step cycle again. This is the pattern. The crucial thing is to never stop thinking and working-and never do what we did with malaria and tuberculosis in the 20th century-which is to surrender to complexity and quit.要实现这个目标,又可以采用四步循环。这是一种模式。关键是永远不要停止思考和行动——我们千万不能再犯上个世纪在疟疾和肺结核上犯过的错误——那时我们因为它们太复杂而放弃了采取行动。The final step-after seeing the problem and finding an approach is to measure the impact of the work and share tha successes and failures so that others can learn from the efforts.在发现问题和找到解决方法之后,就该进行最后一步——评估工作结果,将你的成功经验或者失败经验同其他人分享,这样他们就可以从你的努力中有所收获。You have to have the statistics, of course. You have to be able to show, for example, that a program is vaccinating millions more children. You have to be able to show, for example, a decline in the number of children dying from these diseases. This is essential not just to improve the program, but also to help draw more investment from business and government.当然,你必须有一些统计数字。你必须让他人知道,例如,你的项目为几百万儿童接种了疫苗。你也必须让他人知道,儿童死亡人数下降了多少。这些都是很关键的,不仅有利于改进项目,也有利于从商界和政府得到更多的帮助。201405/299731

So we started asking ourselves: What kind of less obvious metrics could we use to actually evaluate our employees sense of meaning, or our customers sense of emotional connection with us? For example, we actually started asking our employees, do they understand the mission of our company, and do they feel like they believe in it, can they actually influence it, and do they feel that their work actually has an impact on it? We started asking our customers, did they feel an emotional connection with us, in one of seven different kinds of ways. Miraculously, as we asked these questions and started giving attention higher up the pyramid, what we found is we created more loyalty. Our customer loyalty skyrocketed. Our employee turnover dropped to one-third of the industry average, and during that five year dotcom bust, we tripled in size.因此我们开始自问:什么样的不明显的衡量标准能被我们用来评估我们的雇员的归属感,或我们的客户与我们公司的情感维系程度?例如,我们开始询问问我们的员工,是否理解我们公司的目标,他们是否对此表示认同,他们能否确实的影响到它,他们能否感到他们的工作能够实实在在地实现着为这些目标。我们开始问我们的客户,问他们是否感觉到与我们之间的情感联系,七种不同情感联系方式之一。出乎意料的是,当我们问这些问题,并开始关注我们的金字塔顶端的更高层次需求时,我们发现我们我们拥有了更多的忠诚。我们客户的忠诚度暴涨。我们的员工离职率降至酒店行业平均职工流动率的三分之一。在五年的互联网危机中,我们的企业规模翻了三倍。As I went out and started spending time with other leaders out there and asking them how they were getting through that time, what they told me over and over again was that they just manage what they can measure. What we can measure is that tangible stuff at the bottom of the pyramid. They didnt even see the intangible stuff higher up the pyramid. So I started asking myself the question: How can we get leaders to start valuing the intangible? If were taught as leaders to just manage what we can measure, and all we can measure is the tangible in life, were missing a whole lot of things at the top of the pyramid.现在,我走出来,花时间与其他领导者交流问他们是如何度过这个困难时期的时候,他们一次又一次的告诉我他们只是管理那些他们可以衡量的东西,而那些位于金字塔底部可以衡量的有形的东西。他们甚至不看金字塔中更高层的那些无形的东西。所以我开始问自己:如何我们才能让领导者开始重视无形的的东西?如果领导者们只是被教育去管理那些可以衡量的,并且所有我们所能衡量的是生命中有形的东西,我们就失去了位于金字塔顶部的整个部分。So I went out and studied a bunch of things, and I found a survey that showed that 94 percent of business leaders worldwide believe that the intangibles are important in their business, things like intellectual property, their corporate culture, their brand loyalty, and yet, only five percent of those same leaders actually had a means of measuring the intangibles in their business.所以我又去学习一些事情。我发现在一份报告,其中显示世界上百分之九十四的商业领袖相信无形资产对于他们企业至关重要,例如知识产权、企业文化、品牌忠诚度等。然而这些领袖中只有5%的人有办法衡量这些在企业中的无形资产.201402/274727

Ladies and Gentlemen, I am fully aware that you have been locked in here since 9.30 or something and I suspect that you have been talked to furiously all that time. The last thing you want is another lecture when most of you are probably used to giving lectures rather than having to listen to them.But if I may say so, I am so delighted to see so many leading figures from the business school community here today and also to hear you briefly discuss such an important topic. Needless to say, I really am immensely grateful to all of you for taking the time to join this meeting – even if at the end of the day, it is only out of curiosity!In particular, I would like to thank Sir Andrew Likierman, who was involved in my Accounting for Sustainability Project at its inception, and of course, the London Business School for kindly hosting us all, particularly in its anniversary year. And I also wanted to say ‘many happy returns of the day. I understand that 50 years ago, the London Business School was established based on the notion that management needed to be professionalized in the same way as law and accountancy, in order to improve Britains economic performance. And with over 150,000 students passing through its doors since then, it is clear that the London Business School and other business schools have played an important role in shaping global economic success.Anniversaries are a time not just to look back, but also, perhaps to look ahead and consider what the future may bring. It is therefore perhaps fitting that we are here in LBSs 50th anniversary year as we look ahead towards what the next 50 years will bring, and the kind of knowledge, understanding and skills that leaders are likely to need in order to anticipate and respond effectively to the challenges ahead.In 50 years time, our children and grandchildren will be facing a radically different world. The warning signs are aly here for all to see. Whilst we live in a time of great wealth and opportunity for many, it is also a time dogged by increasing turbulence and a rather terrifying combination of risks – persistent poverty and a population of seven billion that is still rising unsustainably fast; the depletion and over-consumption of finite natural resources; and the very real and accumulating risk of catastrophic climate change.The recent 2014 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change makes clear that the ‘severe – as they put it – ‘pervasive and irreversible consequences of climate change, if left unchecked, could be beyond our capacity to rectify. Those consequences include more of what we are aly seeing in the form of extreme weather events that damage our infrastructure and disruptive weather patterns that undermine our ability to feed a growing population. Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, I know only too well that there are siren voices on all sides telling us that this is all total rubbish, dreamt up by half-baked environmentalists bent on destroying capitalism as we know it, but it must surely be the case that, in the future, successful organizations will actually be those which, according to best risk-management practice, have redefined their business models to try and adapt to this very different world. It seems clear to me that those who find ways to use natural resources in a sustainable, and “circular” way, with nothing going to waste, will find themselves uncovering new sources of innovation, reducing their risks and increasing their competitive advantage. Even more, success will be defined by those who have shown real leadership in helping us to change trajectory and avoid the worst outcomes that, at present, seem so likely.And funnily enough, thinking about the circular economy, I was looking at just one or two examples from companies that have started to move in this direction. One of which is Royal Dutch State Mines, and I met the CEO a few of years ago called Feike Sijbesma, a remarkable man, that I think Polly introduced me to. And it is an intriguing example that he was courageous and robust enough to move his company out of a profitable fossil fuel based petrochemical business into biotechnology and life science and animal nutrition products.201507/388169

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